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Folleto mar en ingles folleto para imprimir

  1. 1. ENGLISH EVENT FLYER Provincial Museum of San Ciprián A museum for all among everybody “The world makers” San Cibrao is a land of the sea. It´s a peninsula, a portion ofland that goes out to meet the sea without fear. It´s hard,dangerous, brave, slave…but also an open door to newhorizons, sometimes uncertain but always hopeful. San Cibrao was the birthplace of ship makers and brave menwho travelled on board combing the sea to get their fruits. Theywere able to sail to distant worlds. Unknown worlds, worlds ofmemories, simple stories that forms people´s spirit. Stories totell … Our Sea museum is the best narrator. Not in vain, for morethan forty years, this museum, that has never stopped workingas a school, leads us through a spiral of emotions andsensations, heritage of our ancestors: the worldmakers. To weigh anchors…! You are all welcome to this house: your sea museum of San Ciprián. 1
  2. 2. SECTIONS The organization of the museum begins in a hall andcontinues in four rooms, each one with a tematic theme. Theroute will be accesible in each section. There is a plan in reliefand marks on the floor to improve the itinerary and theaccesibility. In the museum you can profit from a wide varietyof original artworks, scales and plates in relief to touch in eachsection. Likewise, you can have print fliers with adapted texts:cartels, room´s sheets, complementary information in braille,big characters or letters, event fliers in different languages,information put in pictogrammes, ipod LSE, language withsigns…and we will introduce new Multimedia InformationPoints, audioguides with narrative information, and otherresource sounds and adapted phone visits. ENTRY AND ROOM NUMBER 1 0 The school: A museum for all among everybody. TheMuseum Heartbeat: ship engines and photographic file. ROOM NUMBER 2 1. The Ribeira´s carpentry: The example of San Cibrao. 2. Tipology of sailing ship built in San Cibrao. 2
  3. 3. 3. The art of “marear”. Looking at the North. The nauticinstruments and astronomic navigation. ROOM NUMBER 3 4. Trades of the sea 5. The fishing history in San Cibrao: fishing tackles anddifferent instruments. 6. The sea life: something more than fishes. ROOM NUMBER 4 7. The whale hunters. THE MUSEUM WE WANT AND LOVE In the last twenty years, the “New Museology” has beendeveloping in museum fields, an idea for the democratization ofvalves and culture products, that means looking for the way tobring culture to society, it doesn´t matter about culture or thesocial status of the people. Because of this, several museumshave moved their attention and action to the visitor, but in thewords of Espinosa lecturer: “not for every visitor”. This kind ofmuseology usually forgets an important part of our society, thatis those people that have got a handicap that stops them fromhaving a “normal” life and can´t enjoy with completeness andequal conditions of this culture experience. Nowadays, there 3
  4. 4. are just a few museums that think about absolute accesibility asa priority at the moment of investing in their new set it ups. The Rede Museística Provincial of Lugo has been workingand fighting for more than ten years to make their museumsaccesible to the public with disabilities. Our aim is withdrawthe “excepcional” as an adjective refering to accesibility, andmake it a commun factor to have in mind in the planification ofany social action and cultural event. The culture is an interactive experience, we make culture,and the museum is an instrument of mediation that has theresponsibility of communicating and establishing a dialoguewith the public. Therefore, the new project designed forProvincial Museum of San Cibrao aspires to follow thisphilosophy and to become a model of an open museum in allsenses, even, with full attention to the diversity, that will beable to approach the message and make everyone part of theactivities. We´ve been developing the practical application of UniversalDesign to the Museologic and Museographic project from theconception of global message to organization in space and intime, integrating different sensory languages (visual, oral, 4
  5. 5. tactile, kinesthetics),interactivity and comprehension acquirethe highest grade of global accesibility. For the new project we count on the advice of people andassociations linked to discapacity, but also with the totalimplication of San Cibrao neighbours, of the Mariña andmuseums staff. We´ve wanted everyone who has taken part inthe new project of the museum, counting on their colaborationand opinion. The importance of San Cibrao museum is its special andsingular character, beyond its function as a cultural institution.Since its birth as a school, a deep social implication with theinstitution has always existed. This was the reason, that madethe institution the first Galician sea museum with publiccharacter. It´s been making possible for years both functions asa school, during winter, and a museum during summerbetween 1969-1988. The museum represents an icon for the region and, mainlyfor San Cibrao town, and it´s an important part of the village.For these reasons, we want: - A didactic museum a museum that must continue being aschool, an instrument for learning and social education, amethod for reciprocal exchange of knowledge, deposit not only 5
  6. 6. of inert objects, but also of inmaterial heritage, of historicmemory, and of regards that forms the identity of a village. - An adapted museum an accesible museum, in theexpositive set it up and in speech. - A social and sympathetic museum, that establish apermanent dialogue with its environment, an inside-outsidemuseum that extends its action outside and establishes a liveconection of museum with its social and communitaire origins. - An interactive and dinamic museum, in constant evolutionand in continuous construction, that generates a positivesynergy serves as a main center for new actions. The newtechnologies of communication contribute to a bigger fluencybetween the museum and the public and it will expand itsunlimited cultural activities. - A museum of the future a museum close to people butalso open to the world. We want an open alive and humanmuseum in words of Georges Henri Riviére: “the success is notmeasured by the number of visitors but by the number of visitorswho were taught something”. 6
  7. 7. ENTRY AND ROOM NUMBER 1 Section 0: The school. A museum for all among everybody. This building was born to be San Cibrao´s school in 1931,thanks to Mr. José Mª Montenegro and his wife Mrs. ManuelaGoñí Maíste, they had been emigrants in Argentina. Theirdonation (60.000 pesetas) allowed the building to be made ofgranite stone, divided in two wings, one of them for masculineschool and the other for femenine school. The building distribution is determined by their uses as amixed school. It had got two doors in the fachade that giveaccess to each classroom. In each classroom a room existed thatdivide boys from girls. In the sixties, the teacher, Mr. Francisco M. Rivera Casas, and34 of their pupils turned “Ancient Schools” into a museum. In1969 thanks to Alfredo Sánchez Carro, the Diputation of Lugoagreed as a political act to create the museum. All togetherthey started an important work of recollecting sea objects, thatnowadays form an essential part of backgrounds which arenow part of the Museum of sea of San Ciprián collection. Thiswork counted, since its origins, on the absolute complicity ofsociety, interested in protecting their traditional relation andlink with the sea. 7
  8. 8. In 1994, the Nautic section of Provincial Museum of Lugo, incollaboration with its direction and neighbours to set it up as a“museum” was inaugurated on the 12 th of August in 1994. TheMuseum was managed by the Friends Association called “Cruzda Venta” from 1994 until 2004. The Diputation of Lugo,through the gerency, took over the direction of the Museum in2004. Working with this responsibility, the “rede de museos”started a reflection process and a study about identity of themuseum as a public institution that, besides its own functionsthat include conservation, adquire, documentation,investigation and diffusion, it will be a new space as a culturalreference for current society. Nowadays, it´s one of the four museums that is part of RedeMuseística Provincial. A museum for all among everyone. THE MUSEUM HEARTBEAT In the next space, the steam engine symbolize the museumheart, the regenerator beat that fill with life the memorycorners and push us ahead. In this space, the audiovisualmethods serve as a communication channel between themuseum and their visitors. It is going to be a logbook where 8
  9. 9. grafics evidences of our historic memory were picked up andit´ll try to hummanize the objects that are part of the collection. ROOM NUMBER 2 1. The Ribeira´s carpentry: the example of San Cibrao. 2. Tipology of sailing ships built in San Cibrao. 3. The art of “marear”: looking at North. The theme of this area is the ribera´s carpentry of San Cibraoand the most common constructive tipologies that went out oftheir shipyards, showed in some model of ships in theexposition, reply to scale large ships that had got a specialrelevance in the San Cibrao history such as “Paca Gómez”, “ O Industrial” ou Sargadelos schooner. In the section 3 the art of “marear”. Looking at North. We willput together the navigation instruments or nautic instruments,essential to understand the navigation evolution and themagnitude of their conquests, that leaded human beings todiscover new lands and to expand new geograhic andintellectual horizons. Likewise, we include “fanais” and position lights of ships assignificative elements for the navigation which function was tomark the ship ubication and advice about manoeuvres duringdeparture. 9
  10. 10. We´ve reserved an especial place for pieces from subacuacticrescues, as in the case of shipwreck of Magdalena frigate andPalomo brigantine. It happened in Viveiro´s estuary in 1810. SECTION 1: The Ribeira´s carpentry. The example of SanCibrao. San Cibrao has counted on a large lineage of ship markers fora long time. The book titled “Geografía del Reino de Galicia”(1933) confirms that in the 14th century caravels were alreadybuilt in this area. The definitive strength of naval construction in San Cibrao islinked to the birth of Sargadelos factory at the end of the 18thcentury. As a result of the increase of comercial flow, it alsoincreased the construction demand of coastal shipping for thetransport of manufactures and raw materials that were neededin the factory. In this case, in the shipyard of the village theybegan to build big sailing ships to travel around long routes,mainly schooner and brigantine (and mixed variants of both),such as Sargadelos schooner, and boats with less freightcapacity like “quechemarines”, “faluchas” or “pataches”, usedfor displacements of less category and importance. 10
  11. 11. Big boats were built with oars, like these boats “traiñóns” or“chalupas” were employed for whale hunting or sardine fishing.The shore carpenters searched in the woods for the mostappropiate trees for the moulds of the ship´s parts. Oak andwood were mainly used because it was strong, for the shipskeleton (keel and ribs) and pine or eucalyptus wood, due to itsflexibility and very useful for a ship part called “banzo” of hull.Traditionally, cutting down the trees came about in autumm orwinter months, with crescent moon and at sunset, that isbecause it is the day in which trees growth is lower (because ithas got less sap) to make wood treatments easier and to avoidthe rotting of wood. For it cutting down the trees tools such asaxe, “tronzador” (to cut up the wood) and a diferent kind of sawsuch as “serra de aire”, “braceira” or “sierra portuguesa” wereused. To saw up pieces they used special saws called handsawand there are lot of varieties, such as “de costela”,” de punta” or“de cotilla”. To work and to smooth down the wood, they hadspecial tools to cut, both sharp blade or not, such as: plane, jackplane (in Spanish “garlopa”or “guillaume”), a kind of planecalled “cepillo de voltas”, hoes, or other tools called “trencha”and gouge (in Spanish “gubia”). To measure: metres, squares,compass, an ancient measure instrument that already existed in 11
  12. 12. the Roman culture and its name is gauge (in Spanish “gramil”).To hit and extract: hammer, mallet, pliers…and carpenter´sbrace (in Spanish “berbiquí”) and brace and bit (in Spanish“barrenos”) to make a hole. And, finally, to press and hold downa serie of tools with Galician names, such as “barrilete” (inEnglish ”cask”), “gato” (in English “jack”), “parafuso”,”prensas”(“press”), “sargentos” or “sargentas” (in English sergeant(masculine) and sergeant (femenine)). When the hull is finished, they began the work of caulk. Thecaulk consists of introducing between “banzos” of thesubmerged part of the hull, two cords impregnated with pitchto waterproof the boat. Sails, sticks and the rest of the rigging were finished after theship was on the water with the hull floating. Sails were replacedprogressively by the steam machine, in the same way that itwas replaced by the explosive motor or diesel. The apperance of iron to build bigger cargo ships headed forcarpentry decline, whose activity was reduced to smallerfishing boats construction and reparations. They had got a newperiod of splendour in the 60´s decade of the 20th century withthe emergence of tuna fishing. 12
  13. 13. SECTION 2: Tipology of sailing ships built in San Cibrao. BRICBARCA A ship with three or more sticks that distribute their sails inall sticks except in the last, that elevate knife sails (“velas decoitelo”), generally a kind of sails called in Galician “cangrexas”to ilustrate it, like the English crustacean “crab”. BRIGANTINE (Bergantín) This ship usually has two sticks with all the rigging made by“cuadras” sails (an especific kind of sail). It was recognised byits displacement capacity, thanks to a big surface of sails thatwas able to spread. They were faster than others and easier tomanoeuvre. A variant of brigantine is the round brigantine, with twosticks that elevate “cuadras”sails in the foremast and in thebigger stick. It also has a crab sail (“vela cangrexa”) orscandalous (“maricangalla”). 13
  14. 14. BRIGANTINE-SCHOONER Ship with two or more sticks with mixed sails betweenbrigantine and schooner. Its riggingconsists in sails called “cuadras” onlyin the foremast and knife sails (“velascoitelo”), mainly crab and scandalousin the rest. 14
  15. 15. SCHOONER Regular pale, it had got two or more sticks ofthe same height and only rigging in the knifesails. Appeared in the 18th century, it was able to reach greatspeed. The knife rigging needs less people to manoeuvre. It isused to move less displacement than brigantines. Schooner variants are: 15
  16. 16. Schooner called “velacho” It was identified like “velacho” these with a sail cuadra in theforemast. This element gives it more power when the windblows on the stern. Schooner called “de gabias” Its rigging was formed with“gabias”, a kind of sail with squareshape in the high part of the biggeststick. 16
  17. 17. QUECHEMARÍN Ship with less charge and importance. It had got stick withsails in the third, a small mesana stick to stern, with animportant element (“botalón”) to prow where there was“foques” and flying “gavias”useful when light winds blow. PAILEBOTE Its name came from “pilot boat” or pilot ship of USA EastCost. Its rigging is usually the schooner, with crab(“cangrexas”), scandalous and “foques”. Its use was spread inthe Mediterranean as a comercial ship. The agility of this type of ship made it one of the favouritesduring the war periods in England. FALUCHOS A boat with Mediterranean origins, was used mainly forcoastal shipping, but was also employed for fishing. It wascharacterized by its lightness. It had got two sticks placed intwo bigger latine sails (triangular). With a large botalón in thestern as a “bauprés”in which was placed a bigger foque. 17
  18. 18. A GLOSSARY FOR BEGINNERS Prow (popa): front part of the ship. Stern (proa): back part of the ship. Port (babor): looking to stern, left part of ship. Starboard (estribor): looking to stern, right part ofship. Side (costados): two parts of hull. Amuras: curved parts of sides that converge to makethe stern. Wings (aletas): curved parts of sides that converge tomake the prow. 18
  19. 19. Obra viva or “carena”: part of hull that it´s under thewater. Flotation line (línea de flotación): it´s the line thatseparates the live part (obra viva) of the dead part (obramuerta), that´s to say it is determined by water level regardingthe hull.A SHIP DIMENSIONS Length (eslora): ship length measured since stern toprow. Manga: maxime width of ship, part until starboard. Puntal: ship height from keel to high part of deck line. Soaked (calado): vertical distance between keel andflotation line. Measurement of the part of the ship under thewater (waterproof). FORMER PARTS OF THE SHIP Rigging (aparejo): in a sail ship the rigging was madeby the group that forms “arboladura”, “xarcia·” and sails. Arboladura: it was formed by sticks and hangers, thatwas used to hold down and manoeuvre sails. 19
  20. 20. Sticks: each of one masts that serve to hold down thehangers and to distribute sails. The main sticks of ship used tobe, from stern to prow, foremast, bigger and “messana”. Foremast: stick near stern. The biggest: it´s the main stick of ship, the highest. Mesana: stick near prow. Bauprés: stick that jut outs off hull like aprolongation of stern and it was placed horizontally regardingthis. Cofa: tableland placed horizontally in the higgest partof stick to make the manoeuvre of high sails and place “vixías”easier. Xarcia: group of cable that is used to hold down andmanoeuvre arboladura and sails. It was standed out betweenfirm “xarcia de labor”formed by cables used to raise, lower ordirect rigging. Sails: pieces of wollen material held down by stickand hangers, they received the wind that allowed the boat to bepropelled. We could divide the types of sail in two big groups: - Sails “cuadras”,round rigging or in cross, placed topart to starboard and “aúrico” rigging and knife sails placed aslongitudinal shape from stern to prow. 20
  21. 21. PARTS OF HULL Hull (casco): ship body without its “arboladura”. Keel (quilla): the main part of hull structure, placedlongitudinally in its part. It forms the spinal column of ship. Rib (cuaderna): they are like the ship´s back. It hasgot “U” or “V” shape, and it is place symmetrically to each sideof keel and finishes in the highest part of side, giving shape andresistence to the ship. The banzos were nailed over them. Baos: reinforcement transverse that join the ribs tothe high part, from part to starboard, and they are used as asupport for the decks. Cover (forro): ship revestiment. Plank driven overribs. Mamparos: they are the partition that divide theinside of the ship. 21
  22. 22. Borda: superior part of side that juts out of deck. Rudder (timón): giratory pole installed in the prow invertical axle, join to mechanism in deck (since the 18th century,the rudder) allowed the marking of the direction of thes ship. SECTION 3: THE ART OF “MAREAR”. LOOKING ATNORTH. THE NAUTIC INSTRUMENTS AND ASTRONOMICNAVIGATION. The story of navigation: The art of “marear” The sea control supposed an irrevocable break in the worldconception both from the point of view of the reason as thefaith. In the earliest days of Middle Ages, the navigation worldwas an important and real art called “a arte de marear”. Sincethe introduction of nautic needle1 (or in Spanish “aguja demarear”) in the 13th century, the most popular method was thenavigation “a estima” whose only references were speed anddirection to determine an approximate position of the ship inthe sea. The speed was measured with the “corredera” itconsisted in a board linked to a string with knots tied toirregular gaps. When a certain time passed the pilot threw thestring to the water by the stern and let it go during a while1 It always marks magnetic N of Earth. 22
  23. 23. (about 30 seconds) and helped by an hourglass could count theknots, that´s to say, the nautical mile2 and he also calculated thedistance sailed. At the beginning of the 14th century, the combination ofmagnetic needle with the compass card3 (in Spanish the “rosade los vientos”) brought to the nautic compass, an essentialinstrument for navigation until up to now. The group of basic sailing instruments is completed with thebinnacle, whose initial purpose was to protect the compassfrom bad weather conditions and to give stability to make thedirection lectures easier. The 16th century is made up of points of inflection in thenavigation story. The Golden Age of discoveries begins. Themost powerful countries in the world started a fight withoutrespite to obtain new territories. They also needed toconsolidate the control over their territorial possesions andkeep a fluent communication with them. All of this is going tobe the reason why they invested their efforts to investigate newtechniques and more efficiant and exact navigationinstruments than the previous ones. In this way the transition2 Nautic mile: 1.852 m.3 It´s a disk in which appears marked 32 directions, “cuartas” or “vientos” posible in the navigation. 23
  24. 24. to astronomical navigation happened which is based on directobservation of stars position in relation to the earth todeterminate with precision the coordinates (length andlatitude) that also allowe the ship´s situation to be establishedwhen it is out at sea and the coast is not seen as a referencepoint anymore. There was an improvement in the isnstruments already well-known from the Middle Age as the astrolabe, “ballestilla”, or thequadrant and the necessary steps to made new instrumentswere taken, like the “octante” or “sextante” (in the 18thcentury). These new objects were used to take down angularmeasures of sun´s height on the North (or polar) Star when itpasses to meridian regarding a fixed point like the horizon andthat was very important and necessary to latitude (N-S)calculus. At the beginning of the third part of the 18th century JohnHadley´s octante appears. The instrument worked with thephysics idea of light reflexion. It measured height until 90º. The“sextante” came up later like an “octante” evolution, because itgot to expand measure angle until 120º. Likewise it 24
  25. 25. incorporated a mirror system that allowed putting on top injust one plane the planet position over horizon. Also it wasused to calculate length giving the method to moon´s distancesbased on the moon sistematic displacement regarding stars.The results lack of neccesary and exact precision. The determination of the length (E-W) was the weak point ofnavigation lengthways of Modern Age, because to calculatewith exact precision, it´s neccesary to know in each moment theexact hour of the place where the ship is. Therefore, it won´t beuntil futher into the 18th century, with the nautic chronometerwhen the definitive technic solution to the dilema was foundout. THE SHIPWRECKS The marine depths keep an interesting part of humanityhistory in their bowels. Proof of that is as an importanttestimony will be found in the museum from shipwreckshappened in waters of Viveiro river, the dawn of 2nd ofnovember in 1810. Inmersed in a belic conflict with NapoleonicFrance, a English and Spanish squadron in charge of guerrillaAntonio Renovales weigh anchor from Ferrol, with the mision 25
  26. 26. of controlling some of the Cantabric strategic parts, when theywere surprised by strong north-west winds. Some of the mencould look for shelter in the Viveiro river, but it was too late.The storm got worse, and ships were not able to support thestrong colera of the sea. Among these ships were Magdalenafrigate and Palomo brigantine, with a lot of supplies. TheMagdalena frigate in its anxiety, attacked with violence againstEngland frigate Narcisus and finally it ran aground in Castelos,a little island that flanked the Covas beach. In the frigate piledup more than 550 people, rescued by others boats flooded bythe storm. The brigantine Palomo run aground in Sacido beach. The Santa María Magdalena frigate measured 41,70 m. oflength by 10,25 of manga, and it displaced around 500 tonnes.It was armed on deck with a battery composed of 18 canons of18 pounds, and two canons of 18 pounds had to be added, twocanons of 6 pounds in the prow and 12 obuses in the fortress. In the tragedy more than a million people died. There were alot of victims, that authorities undertook to bury the drownedpeople in graves in the dunes of Covas beach. In memoriam of these shipwreack, a monument of Castelosin Covas beach (Viveiro) was inaugurated in 1934. 26
  27. 27. ROOM NUMBER 3 4. TRADES OF THE SEA. 5. FISHING HISTORY IN SAN CIBRAO: RIGGING, TACKLEAND FISHING ART. 6. SEA LIFE: SOMETHING MORE THAN FISHES. In this room we will take the San Cibrao case as reference toshow, in particular to general, the symbiosis between coastalvillage and its sea. Of this relation, trades directly linked towork of catching fish of elaboration, its processing and itsmarketing, and objects associated with these duties appear. Fisherwomen, in Galician called “peixeiras” or“pescantinas”, and working with their traditional instruments:bacías, patelas… Women who work with nets. They are “redeiras”andemploy wood needles and “malleiros”. Cordeleiros: instruments that allow the elaborationand repairing cables of boats.We inclued some of fishing arts employed by sailors of SanCibrao during its history. In this space, there are two importantpieces to pay attention to: 27
  28. 28. A complete wetsuit of three pieces ( casaca, pantalónfaenero to work in the sea and cap), all made in traditionalshape with linen “encascado”. An especific boat called “traiñón” or “txalupa baleeira”with 3 m. of length with two sails. We can´t describe this room without referring directly to theaim of these works: the fruits of the sea. We inclued severalrepresentations of marine fauna, mainly, collecting ofmalacología made with shells (around 70% os totalbackgrounds of the museum), total or parcial skeletons ofmarine animals (whale and shark jaws, spades of spade fish,skeleton of dolphin, etc), dissected animals like turttles, coral,fossil, seaweeds… SECTION 5: FISHING HISTORY IN SAN CIBRAO: THERIGGING AND PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATION. Traditional Galician song “Hei ven o maio que trai o tempo bo, hei ven o maio para pesca do traiñón. 28
  29. 29. Hei ven o maio Viste de señorito, hei ven o maio para pesca do bonito”. Since its origins, San Cibrao has kept a close link to the sea.The socioeconomics rhythms of the region are condicioned tothe rhythm of tides. The early normal fishing as a complementary ocupation ofagriculture became in the vertebrador axle and the localeconomy was organized around it. The fishing activitygenerated a serie of trades (carpenters, “cordeleiros” peoplewho works with barrels, fisherwomen, “redeiras”, etc) whodirectly or indirectly give work and occupation to an importantpercentage of population. In the early 20th century, the sardine was the protagonist. Atthat time, there were three factories of “salgadura” in SanCibrao. But from the 30´s, tuna began to be important. In springpeople fished “bocarte” or anchovy. Tuna fishing was in thesummer months, and from its end until winter other kind offish was fished: spade fish and “marraxo”. In the sixties, San 29
  30. 30. Cibrao was, after Burela, the port with more tuna boats. Inthese years, the comarca lived a crisis in the fishing sector andbecause of that a lot of sailors changed the fishing to themarketing navigation. Now it´s the moment to describe briefly the most fishing artsused on our coastal. We can establish a first division betweennet arts and hook arts. The net arts are divided in: 1. Fixed they are net material that were soaked verticallythrough anchors in its inferior part, and with a bark or floatingline in the superior. It could be fixed at the bottom or betweenwater. 2. Volanta this kind of art isdocumented on our coastal linesince the beginning of 16thcentury. It was formed by anunique material that can reach 8km. of length. It was placed at thebottom to capture bigger fishs,like hake, sea bass or angler fish. 30
  31. 31. 3. Trasmallo it was formed by three materials ofsuperimposed nets, the exteriors with bigger mesh thaninterior. It was soaked at the bottom, to capture rock specieslike “faneca” or conger eel. 4. Beta or volantilla it´s similar to volanta, but smaller, thesize would be the same as the mesh. It was used to fish:pescada, faneca, meigas, sargos… 5. Rascos art of bottom of the sea with a big mesh, is use forsea food capture (lobster, spider crab, etc) as fish (ray,turbot…) 6. De deriva a technique of mesh, by means of floating ordrifting the net materials. 31
  32. 32. 7. Xeitoa variety traditionally used for sardine fishing. Inthe 17th century it was made in linen with smaller mesh. It´s asurface art. 8. De cerco dedicated to certain capture, like sardine or“xurelo”. The rigging is placed around the “cardumen”and theart is closed with a string called “xareta”, forms a sack of fish. 9. Traíña in the 17th century, the “ traíña” was formed byfishermen apportation of materials or “quiñones”. The resultwas a rectangular net. It was thrown from the coast and thenhurled by the other extreme from a boat: “traíña”or “trincado”,until it formed a circle over the fish bank. 10. Terrafa or terrafiña a variety used since theappearance of steam ships. 11. De copo or de arrastre net materials from a kind ofclosed sack that it´s pulled along by one or more boats. The 32
  33. 33. dragging can be from the bottom (bentonic) or between twowater currents (pelagic). 12. Xávega it was introduced in Galicia by Catalonianpeople.Its use generated conflicts in the marine communitiesbecause they were predatory in excess. It consisted in a “cope”net that loosened from land, and by another cable out to sea.Fishing done in land, or with human traction or with animalshelp. 13. Rapeta common variety on our coastal sinceModern Age. It´s also known as little back, ·”traíña menor” or“rapeta de traíña”, it was characterized by not having “cope”. 14. Boliche or chinchorrowith animportant difussion in the 2nd half of 17thcentury by its user-friendliness because ofits smaller size than “traíña”. It can be used in spaces morereduced, normally to fish sardines. Nowadays, it has gotdimensions of 40 m. of large by 10 m. of high. It was formed bytwo parts: “cope”and sack. In Modern Age, nets and strings were made in linen or inhemp, and later in cotton thread. For giving them resistence,nets must be “encascadas”. The “encascado” consisted in boilingthem in cauldrons which bank of willow, oak or pine were 33
  34. 34. added. Once it is scalded, nets extend over furniture called“maseiros”or “artesas”, where the cauldron water wasdepositated, dyed by effects of banks. In this shape, givingcolour to materials. OF HOOK Lines It consists of a thread rolled around cork (“sirgo”) or wood(“grádella). In the extreme, the line has got lead, and one ormore hooks. Fishing line with hooks (palangre) It was formed by a main line in whichothers shorter that were drawn that gohold down the hooks. The fishing lineswith hooks can be from the bottom to 34
  35. 35. capture conger eel, or surface to capture pelagic species liketuna, “marraxo”or spade fish. Curricán This art is used in Lugo coast to capture tuna. It consists ofputting large sticks on the ship sides which go coupled tothread, or brazolas, and extrems the hooks. It works “á cacea”,that´s to say, with ship in movement. Up to a short time ago, theaddition was made by whitening corn leaf and combed withcombs of wire to convert it in threads. Poteras They are formed with lead covered with coloured threads,and finished in its inferior part with a crown of small hooks. Itwas used to capture of “luras” and squids. 35
  36. 36. To capture octopus and sea food, fishersmen employ the“nasas”, that are a kind of cage or trap supplied with abertureor mouth in shape of funnel that makes the entry of captureeasier and prevents its exit. They are made of differentmaterials, mainly wood, willow or metal. Their shape isdifferent depending on the capture (octopus, “faneca”, shrimp,lobster, fiddler crab…) Besides fishing, the shellfish is one of the other relevantactivities of the sector. The shellfish can be done on foot orfrom a boat (shellfish afloat). Now we are going to describesome of the rigging employed in this activity: 36
  37. 37. 1. Sacho it´s similar to one used in agriculture. It´s useful toremove sand to search: “chirla”,clam… 2. Angazo a kind of rake thatemployed to collect cockle,“ameixa”,”coquina”, etc. 3. Rasqueta it´s like a spatulathat serves to pull up rockbarnacles and mussels. 4. Rastro it was used from aboat to capture “ameixa”,cockle…It was formed by a rake in whicha piece of net was added, and all the group go joined to a stickwith appropiate measurements depending on the depth. 5. Raño and gancha it´s similar to rake, but substitute“cope” by a metalic bars. Both are lighter than others and areeasier to use. 6. Can or endeño it´s very useful to pull along because of itssize, it´s necessary to throw it to the water and then it´s goingto be pulled along by the boat. It´s allowed depths of more than20 m. It is used to catch species like “ameixa” and scallops(vieiras in Galician). 37
  38. 38. Some auxiliary rigging,useful to a fishing and shellfishalso exist: 7. Trueiro it´s composed bya stick with a hoop joined toincorporated a net back. 8. Tina or espello box ofwood with a glass at the bottomthat permits the capture ofspider crabs or sea urchins. 9. Bicheiro stick with an iron hook in one of the extremsthat is both used to fish and to couple cables or move the boatcloser to land. ROOM NUMBER 4 The protagonists of these room are bone rests of whale. Theywere collecting in the surroundings of San Cibrao beach,speacially in the Cubelas where the hunted cetaceans wereprocessed in the 16th- 17th century. In the 20th century, whalehunting returned to be a source of resources distinguished for 38
  39. 39. local economy. The family Massó, one of the maior canning sagaof Galicia, installed one of the whale factories in Morás (Xove). SECTION 7: THE WHALE HUNTERS The whale hunting was documented in Vasquian ports sincethe 12 th century. In the 14th century, a crisis in the capture,made the Vasquian whale hunters, specially from Guipúzcoaand Vizcaía, look for new places, at first it was because oftemporary that the tradition had to move progresivelly aroundCantabrian Coast. In Galicia, the whale industry had their apogee between the16th and 17th century. The most important whale bases wereplaced in Lugo coast (Mariña Lucense for Lugo people), inRinlo, Foz, Nois, Burela, San Cibrao and Bares ports. In theatlantic coastal, only Caión and Malpica ports developpedsuccessfully this fishing. The hunting system was importedfrom Vasquian tradition: “They were killed in this way: they come up in a vantage point, the point of a saw falling down over the sea and here begins tojump a big amount of water making a lot of foam, and when the whale has got half body outside the water, the vantage point warned the sailors, who armed their boats and putting inside a 39
  40. 40. bigger quantity of rope and with parts tied in the cabbles andwith harpoon, go to catch them and throw darts. The whales feel attacked and furiously go out to sea very furious, with theharpoon in their skin and fishermen following the rope until theybleed and abandon their life. In this moment, the fishermen bring them to cost where lots of oil is extracted from those whales by making fire” (Bartolomé Sagrario de Molina, Ldo. Molina, in his bookDescription of Galicia Kingdom and its main important aspects) The group of cetaceans, mainly Vasquian whale (Eubalaenaglacialis or Eubalaena Biscayensis) take care of them in theCantabrian sea in their emigration route from North Atlantic,between October and March months. In this time, the fleet,formed by a main “chalupa” and other auxiliaries, had got therigging ready to go out to sea in the moment when the vantagepoint sees the whale and gives the warning. The Galicianchalupas measured belween 6 and 8,5 m. of length and had gottwo sticks with their correspondent sails. The tripulation wascomposed by eight or nine men. The animal was caught withiron harpoons, with the point in the shape of an arrow. Toexhaust the animal, they pinched it with a sharp blade, 40
  41. 41. destined to bleed the animal. Both rigging were tied to”estacha”(hemp string). When the whale was dead, it was tied between several boatsand lead to the coast for its displacement. For this operationdifferent types of knifes were used: carving knife (trinchante),hard knife, axes, knife with double blade, etc. The whale flat or “saín” was melted generally in the samebeach or in their surrounding area, in big cauldrons, and then itwas canned for marketing. The obtained oil was used ascombustible for lamps or for boats as time passed new useswere found: it was made butter, soap, varnish…and uses inperfumery and in pharmacy, etc. With the whale whiskers, or “fanóns” wire sticks forumbrellas were made, corset or fans, to pour out the wine,horn…From cachalote´s head (Physeter macrocephalus) extractthe “espermaceti”or whale sperm, a liquid that anciently wasused as oil to spark plug and nowadays serve for elaboration ofcosmetics and pharmacy products. In some places such as San Cibrao, Foz or Burela, the whaleindustry took over to a productive comercial change with rest 41
  42. 42. of Cantabrian aerea in the first half of the 17th century forexample arriving to France. Between the end of 17th century and the start of 18th century,the definitive decadence of whale hunting in our coasts tookplace. It wasn´t until 1965 when whale turned to acquireleading role in San Cibrao life, when the canning companyMassó installed one of their factories in Portiño de Morás(Xove). The factory counted with modern instalations thatallowed the complete process of whales for obtaining andcanning oils and flour, and also for preparing meat to eat. Thecaptures were carried out from whale (baleeiros) ships, like the“Carrumeiro” or “Cabo Moras”, with harpoons armed in itsprow. It was closed in 1976, just before the declaration ofinternational moratory of comercial haunting of whale (1986).Nowadays, these areas are occupied by Alcoa factory, one of thebasic pillars of economy of the area. 42