John piper

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Critical Studies Presentation. John Piper. University of Plymouth.

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  • Scan in first year sketch book or another example. Step by step guide of how to conduct mark making activity
  • John piper

    1. 1. JOHN PIPER “..unique among 20th century British artists. No other 1 artist since Turner has done more to celebrate the British landscape & it's architecture.”
    2. 2. John Piper 1903-1992 JOHN PIPER- 1903 – 1992  At aged 25 Piper decided to become an artist and trained at the Kingston and Richmond Schools of Henry Moore Art, at the Royal College where Henry Moore was a teacher, and at the Slade in 1930.  In the early 1930's he became absorbed in the abstract movement of which Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth were leaders and was strengthened in this direction by a visit to Paris in Ben Nicholson 1933, when he met Braque, Brancusi, Leger and Helion. BIOGRAPHY  In the late 1930's he more and more abandoned the abstract, reverting to representational landscape. His romantic fantasies on great houses and churches in decay earned him a comparison with Piranesi and his paintings of bomb-devastated Babara Hepworth buildings during the war won high praise.  In the summer of 1934 after meeting the art writer Myfanwy Evans set up their own magazine 'Axis'. At this time he also collaborated with his poet friend 2 John Betjeman on the famous Shell Guides. John Piper
    3. 3. During the war he was commissioned to record BIOGRAPHY CONTINUED..  bomb damage, most notably London, Bristol & Coventry & in 1944 he was made an official war artist.  Piper has been called "the most versatile visual man of his generation". He has done book illustration, stage design, designed pottery, tapestry, ceramics, stained glass windows, textiles, and has written on the arts and on the countryside.  His first London one-man exhibition was at the London Gallery in 1938 and his first New York exhibition at the Curt Valentin Gallery in 1948.  A retrospective exhibition was given by the Marlborough Gallery of Fine Art in 1964. He has been exhibited very frequently in Britain, on the Continent and in America and his works are represented in many major public collections. He 3 was made a Companion of Honour in 1972. http://www.marlboroughfine art.com/exhibitions/view.as p?id=41
    4. 4. ABSTRACTION: 1930‟S '...Abstraction is a luxury that has been left to the present day to exploit. It is a luxury just as any single ideal is, and like a single ideal it should be approached all the time, but not pre-supposed all the time. To pre-suppose it always, if you are a painter, is to paint the same picture always: or else to give up painting altogether because there is nothing left to paint...' Extract from 'Abstraction on the Beach' John Piper 1938 This work‟s stage-like interleaving of coloured planes reflects Piper‟s engagement with abstract aesthetics. Though Piper is more commonly thought of as a painter of historical architecture and the landscape, for a short period he was intimately involved in the avant-garde. This was evident in his association with Axis, a groundbreaking journal of abstract art, which was edited by his wife Myfanwy. Piper had strong links with artists abroad and his own collection included works by painters Piet Mondrian and Jean Helion, as well as the American sculptor Alexander Calder. Click here to see Piper‟s Abstraction at the Tate Quotations Abstraction is a luxury that has been left to the present day to exploit. Abstraction is the way to the heart — it is not the heart itself. 4 Abstract I 1935 Oil on canvas over wood support: 917 x 1065 x 50 mm frame: 1185 x 1339 x 80 mm painting
    5. 5. OFFICIAL WAR ARTIST: 1940‟S A war artist, also known as a combat artist, captures the experience of war in an artistic manner whilst based in the battlefield. Unlike war poets, a war artist is almost always acting in an official capacity. St Mary le Port, Bristol 1940 Piper was commissioned as a war artist during the Second World War, painting the „Home Front‟. In this capacity he made a series of paintings of bombed buildings, visiting the sites to take photographs and make sketches, which formed the basis for a series of paintings. St Mary le Port was hit in the attacks on Bristol Docks in November 1940. During the time that Piper was appointed an official war artist in the Second World War, he collaborated with many others, including the poet John Betjeman as well as with the potter Geoffrey Eastop and the artist Ben Nicholson. The Second World War is when Piper became well known for his depictions of most specifically bombed out Churches. Whilst being the official war artist Piper worked alongside the poet John Betjeman. Click here for more information on Betjeman and his poems. 5 http://www.johnpiper.org.uk/Gallery-Abstracts.htm
    6. 6. PAINTING: 1950‟S & 60‟S Although Piper is best known for his paintings of British landscape and architecture, he did venture further afield from the 1950s and 1960s, in particular to France and Italy. This painting was made after a visit to Rome in the early spring of 1961, and shows his reaction to the city. The details of the architecture are left vague, but a strong impression is created with the arrangement of geometric shapes and varied textures, combined with The Forum 1961 Oil on canvas the warm bright colours of the Roman light. Jacobean and Georgian church monuments are a frequent subject in Piper‟s sketches and paintings, and this work is an excellent example of his use of colour and light to create a „romantic‟ portrait of them, in which the figures almost come alive. The monument is in honour of Sir Inglesham, Wiltshire: A Rustic Medieval Thomas Spencer (died 1684), at Interior 1964 Yarnton Church in Oxfordshire. Lithograph on paper 6 Yarnton Monument 1947-8 Oil on canvas
    7. 7. LITHOGRAPH: 1960‟S Retrospect of Churches, published in 1964, was a portfolio of twenty-four lithographs of churches and church architecture. The prints contain a wide variety of architectural and artistic styles, demonstrating both the breadth of Piper‟s interest in English churches and of his technique. The church shown here, Inglesham, on the boundary of Wiltshire and Berkshire, is a small but largely unaltered thirteenth century church, once a Inglesham, Wiltshire: A Rustic Medieval Interior 1964 favourite of the designer William Morris. Lithograph on paper During the mid-1930s Piper‟s work was dominated by abstraction and work in collage; the latter often inspired by beach scenes. Although Piper did not make „pure‟ abstracts after the 1930s, he continued to use the techniques he had developed during those years in his later works such as this study of a beach in Anglesey; the shapes have been simplified to be almost abstract, and the two bright tear-shapes could have been cut out of paper. Lithograph is a method for printing using a stone or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface. For more information on Lithographs, including a definition click here. Shown here is a lithograph printing press. 7 Anglesey Beach 1962-3 Lithograph on paper
    8. 8. Yarnton Monument 1947-8 Oil on canvas Anglesey Beach 1962-3 Lithograph on paper 8 Inglesham, Wiltshire: A Rustic Medieval Interior 1964 Lithograph on paper The Forum 1961 Oil on canvas
    9. 9. SCREEN PRINTING: 1970‟S John Piper designed the sets for the first staging of the opera Death in Venice in 1973. The opera was based on the novella by Thomas Mann and was the work of British composer Benjamin Britten with Myfanwy Piper, who wrote the libretto. Piper‟s sets used narrow revolving panels painted with details of Venetian architecture. This screen-print is from a portfolio of eight based on the sketches he made for the set designs. Holkham, Norfolk 1976 South Lopham Church Screen-print on paper Holkham Hall in Norfolk is the home of the Earls of Leicester and is a „Palladian‟ mansion, built in the style of Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580), popular in Britain during the mid-seventeenth century to early eighteenth century. Piper had a keen interest in Georgian architecture, and with John Betjeman championed the rights of Georgian and Victorian buildings to be considered on their merits alongside older buildings. He painted a number of great houses of this era, and this print of Holkham‟s gate is a good 9 [title not known] 1972 Screen-print on paper example of the romantic atmosphere with which he imbues such Click here to be taken to exhibition subjects. notes involving this piece.
    10. 10. HOW TO USE PIPER’S WORK IN THE PRIMARY CLASSROOM •Cross Curricular Links •Colour •A trip to the beach •Painting resources •The importance of the sketchbook 10 •Drawing Resources •Exploration of colour •Exploration of line and tone •Colour mixing activities •Line activity •John Piper as a resource •Tone activity
    11. 11. CROSS CURRICULAR LINKS There are many opportunities for activities and plentiful opportunities for cross curricular links based upon John Piper‟s works, the most obvious due to his recognition of work in this stage, being The Blitz. However the most accessible perhaps would be the beach. There are many links to other subjects across the Primary Curriculum when simply looking at a selection of themes in John Piper‟s work. From beaches there are clear links to Science and Geography. Children studying Piper would greatly benefit from a trip to the nearest beach to further their learning. Going to see a beach allows them to engage all senses to develop an understanding of their environment. Not only is it free (if within walking distance of the school) but is exploring the children‟s local environment. Many children living in Plymouth have never been to the beach even though they live on the coast. A trip to the beach can support other subjects so is therefore justified with a day or only half a day out of the classroom. Opportunities for Science experiments and Geography (environmental) research are both relevant to the art topic and relate directly to the National Curriculum. 11 St Ives beach scene
    12. 12. CROSS CURRICULAR LINKS CONT.. I have a firm belief that children should be aware of their local history and the history of their country. These paintings illustrate some of the damage caused in the Second World War – Piper was and official war artist. Most Plymouth children will at some point have see the bombed out Church in the centre of Plymouth but may not know why it is like that or how long it has been there. Comparing the damage to the bombed out church to that represented in his paintings can relate to History and PSHE sparking discussion on wars, why we have wars and perhaps family members that would have been affected by the war. 12 The Bells Go Down 1942 Plymouth‟s bombed out church The Arch in the Ravine
    13. 13. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SKETCHBOOK Sketchbooks and experimentation or explorational Gather resources and materials work, with a variety of different materials and sources According to SCAA, by the end of year 4 children should be collecting previously mentioned can form a basis and learning visual information in their sketchbooks and they should be able to use it as curve. A sketchbook is a working progress which can a source material for their work. By the end of year 6 children should be be dipped into at any point for reference. It is also a selecting their own visual information to collect in order to experiment with ideas suggested to them. way of monitoring a child‟s progress, sketchbooks The sketchbook can be used as a place to collect: should be full of annotations and bursting with ideas. Photographs; It is a place for a student to build ideas and farm their Photocopies of art works – even of other children‟s work; interests and knowledge together in artistic Pictures from magazines, comics, cards, calendars, stamps etc; expression. Samples of textures, fabrics, and other materials; Titles of music used to stimulate a response; Poem or stories that were used to stimulate a response; (many artists Children can use what they have experimented with; have interpreted stories and myths in their work) mark making, line, tone, colour and texture etc. to Lists of resources that the children might need to produce a piece of art; almost work out how to express an aspect of a Obviously, we do not want the sketchbook to be turned into a glorified picture, in this case still life. They can see what works scrapbook so it is up to the individual teacher to try and maintain a balance between collected material and the rest of the sketchbook contents. well and from this perform a basis of which technique can be used for which characteristic or expression in Explore and use media a composition. The children can use the sketchbook as a place to keep records of their own, or other children‟s, exploration of media. It is possible to use the sketchbook pages themselves to explore different media on although the children will probably explore the effects of most media outside the sketchbook. The sketchbook is a good place to keep: Colour strips from colour mixing; Tone bars from tone work; Studies of the effects of media on different types of paper; Comments and notes on the use of media e.g. how to mix a certain colour or how to get a certain effect; 13 The mini-binder sketchbook
    14. 14. SKETCHBOOK CONT.. Aims for the sketchbook: •To provide a record of our children's’ learning in art; •To make our children more independent and confident artists; The rest of this document looks individually at the strands of art in the National Curriculum and gives some examples of how we could use the sketchbook to implement them. Click here for more information on sketchbooks. This sketchbook shows examples of different types of mark making using paint. Experimentation goes on to look at movement of the paintbrush to create line, different styles of line (circular, zig- zag, smooth etc.) The sketchbook is a very important vehicle in aiding the progression of children‟s work throughout the primary school. A sketchbook can be a personal space for children to explore, annotate and record ideas, activities such as this can be 14 A sketchbook is a National Curriculum requirement, Click here done in the sketchbook. to see more on the National Curriculum for Art.
    15. 15. DRAWING RESOURCES A pencil is a writing instrument or drawing instrument consisting of a thin stick of pigment (usually graphite, but can also be coloured pigment or charcoal) and clay, usually encased in a thin wood cylinder though paper and plastic sheaths are also used. Pencils are distinct from pens, which use a liquid marking material. Varying in weight H (hard) to B (soft) Compressed Charcoal. Compressed charcoal, when sold in sticks, is usually shaped into larger sticks than uncompressed charcoal. Compressed charcoal may be sharpened to a point and is less messy than uncompressed charcoal. Compressed charcoal is rated for hardness, and is sold in extra soft, soft, medium, and hard varieties. A crayon is a stick of coloured wax, charcoal, chalk, or other materials used for writing and drawing. A crayon made of oiled chalk is called an oil pastel; when made of pigment with a dry binder, it is simply a pastel. A grease pencil (UK china graph pencil) is made of coloured hardened grease and is useful for marking on hard, glossy surfaces such as porcelain or glass. Pastels use only lightfast pigments. Pastels which have used pigments which change colour or tone when exposed to light have suffered the same problems as can be seen in some oil paintings using the same pigment. Stick and ink can be used for drawing, on the end of a long stick you place a sponge, this sponge is dipped into ink and then drawn 15 with. The length away from the paper creates imperfect lines and promotes deeper concentration to the task. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-charcoal-pencils.htm http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://images.jupiterimages.com/common/detail/56/48/22974856.jpg&imgrefurl
    16. 16. MARK MAKING ACTIVITY The importance of mark EXPLORATION OF LINE & TONE making •Exploring the creation This work is an excellent example of mark making within Piper‟s of mark through different work. Using stick and ink Piper has created movement, texture and materials allows children depth. to get a feel for the material they are Simple activities can be done in the Primary classroom using a working with. variety of different materials , it is often a misconception that mark •Without activities such making need be limited to pencil or chalk and charcoal. as this experimentation A simple activity that is very effective is to use sticks is limited and often discovered while – lengths of bamboo or anything shorter, with sponges creating a final piece. attached, dipped in ink to draw with. •This activity can be repeated in order to familiarise children with almost any material. Affective with; pencil, charcoal and chalk, pastels, stick and ink, watercolour, acrylic 16 and other types of paint. 16 Refer to Newhaven 1937 (Piper in the 30‟s) & Scan http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/art/artsketch.htm
    17. 17. EXPLORATION OF TONE ACTIVITY This simple shading exercise was taken from the website www.about.com On this website there are many step by step tutorials including; shading, drawing, easy draw eyes and more. A simple pencil greyscale is your first step in getting control of your pencil shading. Draw a ladder grid of five one-inch squares. Using the tip of a sharp pencil, shade the first as dark as you can, and the last as light as you can. Shade the remaining squares in even steps between the two, so that the middle square is a good mid-tone. Try this with a range of pencils - from 6B through to 2H - so that you can see the range of tone that can be achieved with each one. A Simple Pencil Greyscale Try doing a seven-step greyscale. A B or 2B pencil should give you the full seven steps, though you may need to manipulate it a little to get the very lightest tones, erasing lightly and reworking. For a really effective greyscale, use harder and softer pencils to get the lighter and darker shades, overlaying differing grades to get the transitional tones. Try printing out a computer greyscale to use as a reference. Seven Step Shading Practice doing gradual, continuous shading from light to dark and vice versa. Try using different pencil techniques, using parallel shading, hatching in various directions or small circles to find which works best for you. Use a single pencil, and also try using a combination of pencils. Don't use your fingers to blend tones, but use layered shading and controlled pressure to create the variation. H South Change your approach. When creating a tonal drawing, you need to somehow get the children to shift out of line-drawing mode, and the best way to do this is to not allow them to draw lines, and focus on areas of value. Start off with a contour drawing using the lightest of lines to get 17 down the basic shapes. From there, build up the shading in the drawing, at first lightly then building up the darks. Practicing tone with examples such as the three greyscales here are a great way to get the children into the habit of changing pencil pressure and using continual shading.
    18. 18. COLOUR Primary Colours Primary colours are three key colours which cannot be made from any other colour – Red, Blue and Yellow. Secondary Colours When mixing an equal amount of primary colour you get secondary colours, which are Purple, Orange and Green. Red + Yellow = Orange Red + Blue = Purple Blue + Yellow = Green Example of colour wheel Cool v. Hot On the left hand side of the colour wheel you find the warm or hot and on the right hand side are cool or cold. It is useful to look at this when creating a cosier or lighter space. Neutrals This is the easiest group of colours, or non-colours to work with. Neutrals don't appear on the colour wheel and include Black, Grey, White and sometime Brown and Beige. Neutral colours all go together and can be layered, mixed and matched as no neutral colour will try to dominate over another. Click here to be taken to an online lesson on shades of colour Click here for a colour wheel activity 18 Click here to be taken to an online Monochromatic lesson. (one colour) www.sailmakerssupply.com/prod_detail_list/57 www.apartment-ideas.com/colour-wheel-ideas.html
    19. 19. Paint may be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by PAINTING RESOURCES dipping an object in paint. Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolour or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with the other media. Suitable for both Key Stages 1 and 2. Powder paint is a cheap and very easy to use substance. Costing around £5 for 2Kg it is made from quality pigments finely ground and evenly dispersed to produce brilliance and strength of colour. The powder mixes readily to the required creamy consistency with water. Best for Key Stage 1 with the appropriate cautions taken for cross contamination of colours and sturdy water pots. Watercolour refers to paints that use water soluble, complex carbohydrates as a binder. Modern commercial watercolour paints are available in two forms: tubes or pans and are formulated to a consistency similar to toothpaste. Easy to use, perhaps better for Key Stage 2 rather than 1. Block paint is typically the most popular paint used in primary schools. It is cheap but the cost compensates for its functionality. Easily cross contaminated and unable to provide experimentation with texture or consistency easily it is the least useful of the paints described here. Brushes are important to the explore as are paints. Canvas has become the most common support medium Different thicknesses can be used for different uses. for oil painting, replacing wooden panels. Canvas can be There are nylon, sable and hair brushes available. reused, painted over time and time again. Although it Most used in schools are nylon as they are less looses quality when painted over each time. Suitable for expensive. use for all ages and abilities in school. 19 Click here to see and article on art in schools: “Painting, putting boys off art.” http://www.crafty-devils.com/craft/421-2kg-fluorescent-powder-paint.asp
    20. 20. EXPLORATION OF COLOUR The colour palette of Piper‟s work is generally quite neutral, these examples here show an entire piece in one shade (The Royal Pavilion, Brighton), one in dark with a hint of colour (All Saints Chapel, Bath) and one much lighter with additions of colour to the edges (The House of Pride). Other examples showing colour in Piper‟s work are that of „House of Pride‟ shown first The House of Pride 1943 here, Piper has used hints of gold within the piece and then framed it with colour. In contrast his painting „All Saint‟s Chapel‟ is centred with colour and surrounded by a darkened frame of colour. The colours in Piper‟s „Royal Pavilion‟ are all very neutral and created from one shade. An exercise on colour mixing that works well with children exploring one colour and one shade is that of a simple colour mixing activity. Below is s sketchbook example of exploring the colour blue: The Royal Pavilion, Brighton. 1939 EXPLORATION OF COLOUR ACTIVITY The colour mixing activity illustrated here allows children to grasp an idea of the capabilities of one colour and the possibilities surrounding use of shades. All Saints Chapel, Bath 1942 An activity that would help children to understand and relate to the use of one colour through varying tone is 20 to get them to create their own image, perhaps copy that of Piper‟s, and use only one colour in varying A neutral colour palette tones.
    21. 21. Display the class with any of Piper‟s After embarking EXAMPLE ACTIVITIES works, preferable a piece with detail on colour mixing covering the entire image, for example activities the the second image here rather than the children in your first. class should be fairly accustomed to blending in order Lead discussion on the to make many painting, techniques and content then shades of one divide the image into equal sections to colour. the number of children in the class. John Piper has Each child is to take their section and several paintings of replicate it. very neutral colouring and the same shade. These sections are then to be pieced back together to recreate the original. A possible activity The results can be very rewarding could be to providing the class an opportunity to replicate one of his work individually initially and together paintings or to use to finish. an image, perhaps a photograph, and paint it in the same This picture shows the above activity style of John Piper. in practice using Van Gough‟s Starry Night. Planned and created over two lessons. Year 5/6 mixed year group. 21
    22. 22. A TRIP TO THE BEACH Living in a location such as Plymouth, or any seaside city or town, an invaluable resource is on the doorstep. Many of Piper‟s paintings are inspired by the beach and the sea. Taking a class to the beach to see these elements first hand gives them an engaging connection to the content of his paintings. Considering the styles and techniques used by Piper many activities can be conducted while at the beach. ACTIVITIES FOR THE BEACH This pencil drawing shows ideas working towards Piper‟s beach scene paintings. The location of this scene is St Ives, Cornwall – a possible destination for a residential trip or for 22 a local school a day.
    23. 23. BENEFITS OF THE TRIP There are many benefits of a in the Primary Curriculum The ability to see, touch and walk around object that the children are studying. A first hand experience of the chosen environment rather than relying on secondary sources for information. This first hand experience allows children to receive and interpret information on their own rather than using someone else‟s opinion – be in the teacher‟s or an authors etc. Social interaction with all of the class (and other classes) building confidence levels in those quieter children and helping them to make friends. 23
    24. 24. LINKS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM  Historical links to World War II. John Piper was the official war artist.  Piper is most well know for his landscapes and architecture – links to historical sites, National Trust properties, structure and Geography.  Literature links to Piper‟s magazine, during WWII he worked closely with poets and war writers.  Local History links to Churches and landmarks, these could also be connected to Geography, PSHE, Citizenship and SEAL.  Many methods of artistry are covered by Piper‟s works, these can be used to introduce the methods in the classroom with a 24 constant influence.
    25. 25. JOHN PIPER AS A RESOURCE John Piper was a very eclectic artist, he worked over many decades touching upon many mediums and styles. From his works alone schemes of work for an entire year could be created, the methods and styles are diverse enough to cover drawing, painting, printing and three dimensional work. As well as creating art works he created his own magazine with his wife, there are even more possibilities for cross curricular links relating to journal writing, instructions and skills while linking to Piper and his works. 25
    26. 26. USEFUL WEBSITES AND LINKS  http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/  http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/  http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/  http://www.tate.org.uk/stives/  http://www.tate.org.uk/liverpool/  http://www.johnpiper.org.uk/  http://www.henry-moore-fdn.co.uk/  http://www.artchive.com/artchive/H/hepworth.html  http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server.php?show=nav.206  http://www.studio18.co.uk/shop/index.php?main_page=index& cPath=171_105 26
    27. 27. BIBLIOGRAPHY  http://www.johnpiper.org.uk/Home-Page.htm  http://www.marlboroughfineart.com/exhibitions/view.asp?id=41  http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=11931  www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=11927...  http://www.crafty-devils.com/craft/421-2kg-fluorescent- powder-paint.asp  www.sailmakerssupply.com/prod_detail_list/57  www.apartment-ideas.com/colour-wheel-ideas.html  www.sailmakerssupply.com/prod_detail_list/57  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-charcoal-pencils.htm  www.about.com  http://www.crafty-devils.com/craft/421-2kg-fluorescent- powder-paint.asp 27

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