Information Architecture
Ross Philip – Principal UX Consultant
(Breakfast Edition)
Good Morning…
What we will cover…
• What is Information Architecture?
• Core Tools & Techniques
• Applying these approaches
• Related Ap...
Information Architecture
• Definition – “The art and science of
organizing and labelling information spaces
(including web...
IA: Where Does Fit in the Design Process?
Iterative process
Discovery
Definition/Conceptual
Design
IA Design
Visual De...
Concept/Plan
• Contextual Analysis
• User Profiling/Persona
development
• User Needs Analysis
• IA Analysis
Design
• Wiref...
IA & Findability
• The ‘backbone’ of a website
• Critical for a good user experience
• Navigation labels can be seen as st...
How Users Look for Information 1
• Finding known items e.g. What is/who was…
 Supported by: Search/A –Z
• Exploring – “It...
How Users Look for Information 2
• The broad picture
 Support: High level overviews
• In detail
 Broad overview and then...
Benefits
• Reduced search times/increased task success
• Reduced frustration and increased customer satisfaction
• Decreas...
What we will cover…
• What is Information Architecture?
• Core Tools & Techniques
• Applying these approaches
• Related Ap...
Core Tools & Techniques
• Card Sorting
 Bottom Up
 Classification and similarity/proximity
 Open vs. Closed
 Explorato...
#1 Card Sorting - Offline
Syncaps/Excel Spreadsheets
Best use: Best approach if time and budget allow (Formative)
Advantag...
#2 – Card Sorting - Online
Websort/Optimal Sort/UserZoom
Best use: Smaller Studies, Limited time and Budget, Back up Offli...
Categorisation Exercise Proof
1. Select a specific item / destination
2. Offer set of categories where it may be located
3...
#3 Tree/Category Testing - Offline
Best use: Best Approach if time and budget allow (Validation)
Advantages: Detailed Anal...
#4 Tree/Category Testing - Online
NaviewApp/Tree Jack/UserZoom
Best use: Quick testing with many users online (Best as bac...
#5 Heuristic Evaluations
Best use: Limited time and budget
Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, expert method, useful for c...
IA Best Practice Principles – Some Heuristics
• Collocation | Is similar content placed together? Is it easy for users to ...
What we will cover…
• What is Information Architecture?
• Core Tools & Techniques
• Applying these approaches
• Related Ap...
The (Ideal) IA Design Process
User Research
Identify Users
Key User Journeys
User Needs
1 - Card Sorting
Offline Card Sort...
The Problem of Large Sites 1
• How to carry out analysis?
 Potential Challenges
• Lots of content (000’s of lines/items)
...
The Problem of Large Sites 2
• Solutions
 Limit Depth e.g. L1-L3
 Limit Scope: Exclude lower priority areas and/or focus...
What we will cover…
• What is Information Architecture?
• Core Tools & Techniques
• Applying these approaches
• Related Ap...
Some Related Concepts/Methods
• Content Inventory/Audit
• Controlled Vocabularies
• Faceted Navigation
 Content Inventory...
Preferred
term
Employment
law
Narrower Terms
Disability discrimination
laws, dismissal & notice
periods, employee
rights, ...
Faceted Navigation/Search 1
• Traditionally two search models
 Navigational - based on hierarchical taxonomy
 Direct sea...
Faceted Navigation/Search 2
• Info sought has multiple different dimensions
 Book – Author, Subject, Publisher
 Now Comm...
Faceted IA Examples - Comet
Faceted IA Examples – E-bay
Faceted IA Examples – Top Gear Car Chooser
How to make a Faceted IA – Quick Overview
• Domain Sampling - Collect a representative sample of all
entities e.g. Books.
...
Some Useful Resources
Web Resources:
• IA Institute - http://iainstitute.org/
• Boxes & arrows - http://www.boxesandarrows...
Eye tracking
Questions?
Ross Philip
Principal User Experience Consultant
User Vision
55 North Castle Street
Edinburgh
EH2 3QA
T: 0131 225 0853
E: ...
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IA breakfast briefing apr12 upload

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  • Just a list to start this section off – prob not required in the final presentation
  • Have updated images of these to put in from recent work – they look a bit more up to date – Look in Actuaries Category Testing folder
  • IA breakfast briefing apr12 upload

    1. 1. Information Architecture Ross Philip – Principal UX Consultant (Breakfast Edition)
    2. 2. Good Morning…
    3. 3. What we will cover… • What is Information Architecture? • Core Tools & Techniques • Applying these approaches • Related Approaches/Methods
    4. 4. Information Architecture • Definition – “The art and science of organizing and labelling information spaces (including web sites, intranets, mobile apps, and software) to support findability and usability.” • Categorisation – the grouping / clumping of content • Labelling – how you label those categories • Navigation – providing users with a set of paths to help them find way through site, i.e. cross-linking to allow users to easily find information based on their own mental model • Search – allow the entry of user-defined query and present matching results, with special results highlighted
    5. 5. IA: Where Does Fit in the Design Process? Iterative process Discovery Definition/Conceptual Design IA Design Visual Design Handoff-Implementation Integrated with content development, interaction design, graphic design, usability The Elements of User Experience, Jesse James Garrett, http://jjg.net
    6. 6. Concept/Plan • Contextual Analysis • User Profiling/Persona development • User Needs Analysis • IA Analysis Design • Wireframing • Prototyping • Co-Design Workshops • Competitive Design Evaluate • Usability Testing • Expert Evaluation • Eye-tracking • Accessibility Audits Live Support • Customer Surveys • Analytics • A/B Testing • Multi-variate Testing A User-Centred Design (UCD) process
    7. 7. IA & Findability • The ‘backbone’ of a website • Critical for a good user experience • Navigation labels can be seen as stepping stones  Provide ‘Scent of Information’ • Clear ‘scent’ gives users continued confidence • If not, they either search, give up, or assume the information is not there… Without a clearly labelled and meaningful IA, much of the work on the presentation and aesthetics will be unsuccessful
    8. 8. How Users Look for Information 1 • Finding known items e.g. What is/who was…  Supported by: Search/A –Z • Exploring – “It’s kind of like this…”  Supported by: Concise and meaningful trigger words/related links • Refining and narrowing – “I want a recipe with smoked salmon in it…”  Supported by: Filters/Faceted Navigation • Comparing  Need a good understanding of what criteria are important and decision making process – tipping point
    9. 9. How Users Look for Information 2 • The broad picture  Support: High level overviews • In detail  Broad overview and then increasing detail – layers of information • Discovering unknown things… “the unknown unknowns”  Things you didn’t know existed, but are interested in  Related to exploration, research and getting the broader picture  Serendipitous finding…  “You want X but need Y” or “You want X but need X, Y, Z and A, B and C too”  Support: Overviews, Related Links, Effective Trigger words/A-Z
    10. 10. Benefits • Reduced search times/increased task success • Reduced frustration and increased customer satisfaction • Decreased maintenance costs and longer website lifespan • Better alignment between your business goals and website • Fewer calls to customer service • Better search engine performance • Improved brand value, loyalty and repeat business • Enhanced competitive position
    11. 11. What we will cover… • What is Information Architecture? • Core Tools & Techniques • Applying these approaches • Related Approaches/Methods
    12. 12. Core Tools & Techniques • Card Sorting  Bottom Up  Classification and similarity/proximity  Open vs. Closed  Exploratory • Category Testing (Tree Testing)  Top Down  Browsing and recognition  More representative of users looking for information  Validation • Expert Methods  Heuristic Evaluation
    13. 13. #1 Card Sorting - Offline Syncaps/Excel Spreadsheets Best use: Best approach if time and budget allow (Formative) Advantages: Thorough, Detailed, Qualitative Feedback, Moderated Disadvantages: Cost, Time (Collection and Analysis) +++ Financial Inclusion +++ Homelessness +++ Anti-social Behaviour +++ Managing Tenancies +++ Repairs and Maintenance +++ Allocations and lettings +++ Resident Involvement +++ Equality and Diversity +++ Housing Maintenance +++ CIH Publications +++ Free Downloads +++ Online Bookstore +++ Offline Order Form +++ CIH Research +++ Free Policy Publications +++ CIH policy +++ CIH Practice +++ Consult CIH +++ Conferences +++ Seminars +++ Diary Of Events +++ Housing Events +++ How To Apply +++ Training Courses +++ What's New - Training +++ Specialist Workshops +++ Courses +++ Fees & Funding +++ Special Offers +++ School Leavers +++ CIH Certificates +++ Career Changers +++ Working In Housing +++ NVQ/SVQ +++ Graduates +++ Leadership Programme +++ Professional Qualification +++ Vancies At CIH +++ Vacancies in Housing (Added) +++ UK Membership Fees +++ International Membership Fees +++ Tenant Membership +++ Membership For HR Professionals +++ Membership Progression +++ Apply +++ Check Your Eligibilty +++ Special Routes To Membership +++ Code Of Conduct +++ Benefits +++ Benefits Package +++ Members Directory +++ Manage Your Accounts +++ CIH Who's Who +++ Get Involved In Your CIH +++ Advertising and Sponsorship +++ Your Local CIH Network +++ Directory +++ History +++ Subsidiaries +++ Strategic Partners +++ Structure And Governance +++ Business Plan +++ Your Location +++ Contact Us +++ Useful Links +++ News Fin ancia lInclu sion H om ele ssness Anti-socia lBehavio ur M anagin g Tenancie s R epairs and M ain tenance Allocatio ns and le ttin gs R esid entInvolv em ent Equality and D iv ersity H ousin g M ain tenance C IH Publicatio ns Free D ow nlo ads O nline Bookstore O ffline O rderForm C IH R esearch Free Polic y Publicatio ns C IH policy C IH Practic e C onsult C IH C onferences Sem in ars D ia ry O fEvents H ousin g Events H ow To Apply Train in g C ourses W hat's N ew -Train in g Specia listW orkshops C ourses Fees & Fundin g Specia lO ffers SchoolLeavers C IH C ertific ates C areerC hangers W orkin g In H ousin g N VQ /SVQ G raduates Leadership Program m e Professio nalQ ualific atio n Vancie s AtC IH Vacancie s in H ousin g (Added) U K M em bership Fees Internatio nalM em bership Fees TenantM em bership M em bership ForH R Professio nals M em bership Progressio n ApplyC heck YourEligib ilty Specia lR outes To M em bership C ode O fC onduct Benefits Benefits Package M em bers D irectory M anage YourAccounts C IH W ho's W ho G etInvolv ed In YourC IH Advertis in g and Sponsorship YourLocalC IH N etw ork D irectory H is tory Subsid ia rie s Strategic Partners Structure And G overnance Business Pla n YourLocatio n C ontactU s U sefulLin ks N ew s Standardiz ed A Caution - No Instant IA!
    14. 14. #2 – Card Sorting - Online Websort/Optimal Sort/UserZoom Best use: Smaller Studies, Limited time and Budget, Back up Offline Studies. Advantages: Fast, cheap, online access, conducted remotely. Disadvantages: limited screen space, understanding process, no verbal feedback
    15. 15. Categorisation Exercise Proof 1. Select a specific item / destination 2. Offer set of categories where it may be located 3. Record success / failure in placing the item 4. Reasons for failure - Item name, group label/structure? Can be tested in a number of ways: - Online – Naviewapp - Offline – Category Testing or through basic wireframes Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4   
    16. 16. #3 Tree/Category Testing - Offline Best use: Best Approach if time and budget allow (Validation) Advantages: Detailed Analysis for each level, Qualitative Feedback. Disadvantages: Cost, Time (Set-up and Data Collection).
    17. 17. #4 Tree/Category Testing - Online NaviewApp/Tree Jack/UserZoom Best use: Quick testing with many users online (Best as backup to Offline). Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, online access, conducted remotely. Disadvantages: Software restrictions, understanding process, no verbal feedback.
    18. 18. #5 Heuristic Evaluations Best use: Limited time and budget Advantages: Fast, relatively cheap, expert method, useful for competitive studies Disadvantages: No user feedback
    19. 19. IA Best Practice Principles – Some Heuristics • Collocation | Is similar content placed together? Is it easy for users to understand how different areas are related? • Differentiation | Is different content placed apart? Do the navigation labels clearly indicate those differences? • Information scent | Are the labels and headings sufficiently descriptive for users– “What is this/Am I going in the right direction”? • Scope | Can the user understand the breadth and depth of content on a topic? Can users get a sense of how long their search for information may take? • Multiple access paths | Users think about content in different ways – does the IA support these different routes to the same content/related content? • Appropriate structure | Is the organising principle of the site obvious and useful ? Does it match user’s mental models? Does it support differences in information seeking behaviours?
    20. 20. What we will cover… • What is Information Architecture? • Core Tools & Techniques • Applying these approaches • Related Approaches/Methods
    21. 21. The (Ideal) IA Design Process User Research Identify Users Key User Journeys User Needs 1 - Card Sorting Offline Card Sort Online Card Sort 3 - Category Testing Validate IA Key User Journeys Interim IA 2 - IA Workshop Report & Discuss Card Sort Results & Interim IA Alignment with content and domain experts Consolidated Interim IA Validated IA Refined Labels & Grouping Wireframing Wireframes illustrating IA and key journeys
    22. 22. The Problem of Large Sites 1 • How to carry out analysis?  Potential Challenges • Lots of content (000’s of lines/items) • Deep hierarchies • Constraints  Card Sort: 100 Cards in an hour/Less Offline  Category Testing: 20-25 Topics in 30 mins.  Project Time and Budget
    23. 23. The Problem of Large Sites 2 • Solutions  Limit Depth e.g. L1-L3  Limit Scope: Exclude lower priority areas and/or focus on areas supporting user journeys  Priority Content and known problem areas  Multiple Card Sorts – Lower Levels First  Multiple user groups? Focus on content for each group plus some general – overlap • Topics selected should ideally be 50-60% of the content at the levels selected for analysis  Increasing chance of spurious or invalid results if less.
    24. 24. What we will cover… • What is Information Architecture? • Core Tools & Techniques • Applying these approaches • Related Approaches/Methods
    25. 25. Some Related Concepts/Methods • Content Inventory/Audit • Controlled Vocabularies • Faceted Navigation  Content Inventory/Audit  Essential groundwork  Can be significant  Depending on requirements best carried out by client
    26. 26. Preferred term Employment law Narrower Terms Disability discrimination laws, dismissal & notice periods, employee rights, working hours, equal opportunities … Broader term Employing people Variant term Employment legislation Variant term Work regulations Hierarchical Hierarchical EquivalenceEquivalence Related term Wage Board Related term Industrial tribunals Associative Associative Controlled Vocabulary / Thesaurus Communications industries UF: Video recording industry UF: Printing industry UF: Publishing industry UF: Sound recording industry UF: Telecommunications industry BT: Business sectors RT: Music RT: Advertising RT: Media and the press RT: Visual arts RT: e-Commerce RT: Films and film making RT: Electronics industry RT: Information and communication technology RT: Internet RT: Postal services RT: Telephone services RT: Printing and copying services From IPSV UF = Used For BT = Broader Term RT = Related Term NT = Narrower Term
    27. 27. Faceted Navigation/Search 1 • Traditionally two search models  Navigational - based on hierarchical taxonomy  Direct search • Faceted Search/Navigation  Elements classified on multiple dimensions  Access using multiple filters  Filter order flexible – not pre-determined
    28. 28. Faceted Navigation/Search 2 • Info sought has multiple different dimensions  Book – Author, Subject, Publisher  Now Common in Online Shops • Simple Classifications  Ranganathan’s Colon: 5 facets – Personality, Matter, Energy, Space & Time  Bliss Bibliographic: 13 Facets – including Entity, Property, Material, Process, Operation, Product
    29. 29. Faceted IA Examples - Comet
    30. 30. Faceted IA Examples – E-bay
    31. 31. Faceted IA Examples – Top Gear Car Chooser
    32. 32. How to make a Faceted IA – Quick Overview • Domain Sampling - Collect a representative sample of all entities e.g. Books. • Entity Listing – Break down descriptions, sentences and phrases into basic concepts. • Facet Creation – Examine concepts and see what high level categories appear across all entities e.g. Publishing Date, Author, Publisher etc. • Facet Arrangement – What is order (terms within facets)? Test and decide CV. • Primary Facet – Select. • Revise, Test & Maintain – Terminology changes/New terminology/Research.
    33. 33. Some Useful Resources Web Resources: • IA Institute - http://iainstitute.org/ • Boxes & arrows - http://www.boxesandarrows.com/ • Interaction Design Association - IXDA - http://www.ixda.org/
    34. 34. Eye tracking Questions?
    35. 35. Ross Philip Principal User Experience Consultant User Vision 55 North Castle Street Edinburgh EH2 3QA T: 0131 225 0853 E: ross@uservision.co.uk W: www.uservision.co.uk Thank You

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