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THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (LV)
 

THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (LV)

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THE BATTERSEA SHIELD

THE BATTERSEA SHIELD
(River Thames, London, c.190 BC)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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  • The high domed bead in the lower mound indicates the important mining area just east of Lake of Poopó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S. It is the 19th large bead of the shield, which corresponds to its latitude. The 5+9+5= 19 red beads encode the density of gold, 19 g/cm3 (nineteen times heavier than water). So, it will encode the overall export of gold from Bolivia, 190 million carats. The 9 beads in the large roundel refer to the 9 figures of this number. It also encodes the Isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, as well as the nine islands of the Azores. The quantity equals 190x0.2= 38 tons of gold, which was exported across the Ocean to the Old World until the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC). - - - Reinoud de Jonge, Netherlands
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    THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (LV) THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (LV) Document Transcript

    • Email: drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com December 24, 2009 [Long Version, LV] THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (River Thames, London, c.190 BC) Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com PART 1 Introduction In 1857 a beautifully decorated object was found in the water of the River Thames, near Bat- tersea Bridge, only four miles southwest of the city center of London. It was a rare find close to an Iron Age settlement at the south side of the River. It turned out to be a bronze ceremo- nial shield, or shield-facing (fig.1), having a height of 31 inches (78cm). The impressive deco- ration of the thin, polished shield was made in a technique known as “repoussé”, in which the raised design on its surface was created by hammering it out from the underside. The circles and sinus-shaped lines show its Celtic origin. The smallest circles are filled with glinting red enamel, or glass, although some of the inlays have disappeared. It is likely that political insta- bility leaded to its final destination. The shield, which is now on display in the British Muse- um, was dated to about 200 BC (Ref.1). The upper and lower roundels are smaller than the central one, and both have a more simple, similar design. Each of these has four red “beads” within the circle, and a fifth one in its cen- ter. The large roundel in the middle has four “double beads” within the circle, and a single “bead” in its center. However, this turns out to be more complicated. In view of their posi- tions, the two upper and the two lower beads are more or less identical, forming a group of four (the vertical group). The two beads at the right side and those at the left side also have similar surroundings, forming another group of four (the horizontal group). The beads are part of a highly abstract design. However, it isn’t art in the first place. It should be realized, that in a society without a regular script, such patterns often have complicated religious meanings. For that reason it is much closer to writing. It may even be historiography. There are reasons to believe, that the Egyptian religion was still important in the Iron Age. According to this religion people had to believe in the highest SunGod Ra (the large roundel in the middle). Below this supreme God were two other gods: the sungod Horus (the roundel at the top), and the moongod Osiris (the roundel at the bottom). The kings and pharaohs of Egypt were the substitutes of these two lower gods. The many small circles and sinus-shaped lines show the permanent influence of Maat, the goddess of law and order in the universe. Long ago she created the Realm of the Dead, which was situated “at the other side of the waters (the Atlantic Ocean), in the land where the Sun sets (America).” It was the paradise in the west (Ref.2). That is why the shield may deal with the old story of the discovery of this continent.
    • Fig.1 The red “beads” of the abstract design on the Battersea Shield tell the story of the discovery of Australia (top), North America (center), and South America (bottom) during the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Metal export in the Bronze Age and population numbers are also shown. (H= 78cm, River Thames, London, Iron Age, c.190 BC, Ref.1) (Courtesy British Mu- seum)
    • Discovery of Three Continents Australia It appears, that the three roundels refer to the Nile Delta, at 30°N (fig.1). It was the economic center of Egypt, for a long time the greatest civilization on Earth. The four red beads in the circle of the lower roundel and the eight beads in the roundel above it form together a group of 4+8= 12 beads, corresponding to Cape York, in Queensland, Australia, at 12°S, 12 Egyp- tian Moiras, or 120°, east of the Nile Delta, when measured along the equator. The position of this Cape is close to New Guinea. The three roundels also correspond to the Third Dynasty. The two lower roundels, just mentioned, encode the second king. Thus, the second king of the Third Dynasty of Egypt, Djoser (c.2753-2723 BC), discovered the southern island of Austra- lia (Refs.2-5). The two small roundels, and the center of the large roundel, contain together 5+1+5= 11 beads, corresponding to the southern island of Roti, Indonesia, at 11°S. It shows, that he also discovered the western crossing from Roti to the Kimberley District of Australia. The two small roundels each have four beads in the circles, and a fifth bead in the center, twice encoding the sailing direction of 50°SE, the distance of 0.4 Moiras, or 4°, and the second king! The three roundels confirm his thirty years of reign. The small roundel at the top represents this relatively small continent. America The Battersea Shield was found in London, at 51.5°N. It is the latitude of the southern Aleu- tian Islands, at the south side of the Bering Sea. These islands form the gate to America! The upper and lower roundels each have four red beads in the circle, and the large roundel in the middle has four beads in the vertical as well as the horizontal group, four times encoding the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. A closer look shows, that each individual red “bead” consists of four “quarter beads”, confirming it many times (fig.2). Including the beads in the centers, the upper and lower roundels, as well as the mentioned horizontal group in the large roundel, each contain five red beads, encoding the fifth Egyptian king. Thus, the fifth king Menkaure (Mycerinos, c.2580-2562 BC) of the Fourth Dynasty discovered the Americas. A closer look shows, that each individual “bead” has five tiny bronze squares, confirming it many times (fig.2). There are so many important archaeological sites in the USA at 40°N, because of the discovery of America at the complementary latitude of about 90-40= 50°N by the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty! Apart from the bead in the center the shield has a total of 5+8+5= 18 large beads, confirming the eighteen years of reign of the king. The large roundel represents the continent of North America, close to Europe, and the lower roundel represents South America, which is farther away. The three groups of five beads, just mentioned, contain together fifteen beads. So, on the return route, he also discovered the crossing of the Bering Strait, 3x5= 15° to the north, at 51+15= 66°N (Refs.2-9). Atlantic Ocean The fifteen beads, just mentioned, encode the southern Cape Verde Islands, off shore Africa, at 15°N. The three roundels provide the sailing direction from these islands of the Southern Crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, with the wind and the current, 30°SSW (fig.1). The upper and lower roundels each contain a total of five red beads, twice encoding the point of arrival, Cape São Roque (the Holy Rock), Brazil, at 5°S, but also the Fifth Dynasty. These two roundels
    • indicate the sailing distance of 2 Moiras, or 20°, but also the second king. The second king of the Fifth Dynasty, Sahura (c.2510-2498 BC), discovered the Southern Crossing. The West Azores are located at the complementary latitude of London, at 90-51= 39°N. In an- tiquity, the use of complementary latitudes was very common. The large roundel in the mid- dle has eight beads in its circle, encoding Cape Race, Newfoundland, at 39+8= 47°N. It is the East Cape of North America. The two small roundels correspond with the initial sailing direc- tion from Newfoundland of 20°ESE, and the sailing distance of 2 Moiras, or 20°, to the two islands of the West Azores. This important return route, with the wind and the current, was also discovered by the second king. The latitude of London, at 51.5°N, may also be rounded off to 52°N. Its location is about two degrees above Cornwall, the south point of Britain, at 50°N. So, the Battersea Shield is espe- cially in honour of the second king Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty, who discovered two sailing routes across the Atlantic. The shield may represent this Ocean! The two lower roundels, which may symbolize these routes, have a total of 4+8= 12 beads in their circles, confirming his twelve years of reign. With the Battersea Shield people see things better! (Refs.10,11) The three roundels of the shield correspond with the Northern Crossing of the Ocean, from the Shetland Islands, via the south point of Greenland, to Cape Chidley, Canada, all three si- tuated at the “complementary latitude” of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. In antiquity people argued that counting the latitude could also start at the North Pole! This third Crossing was discovered by the third king Nefererkare (c.2498-2478 BC). Note, that the shape of the shield resembles a “cartouche” of the name of this Egyptian king. It shows that Britain was deeply involved in this discovery, which happened from its own territory. The upper roundel symbo- lizes this route. Together with the roundel at the bottom, these two similar circles confirm his twenty years of reign. As shown below, the bead in the center of the shield may count for two. In that case the roundels contain together 19+1= 20 red beads, confirming it. (Refs.12-14) Bermuda The three roundels symbolize the three island groups of the Azores, situated at the comple- mentary latitude of London, where the shield was found, at 90-52= 38°N (fig.1). These are the East, Central, and West Azores, in the middle of the Ocean. The two small roundels refer to the island of Bermuda, two degrees above the Nile Delta, at 30+2= 32°N. Each of these has a total of five red beads, twice encoding its discovery in the Fifth Dynasty. (Refs.2,15,16). However, the shield has a total of 19+8= 27 red beads, corresponding to Abaco Island, NE Bahama’s, at 27°N. The three roundels provide the initial sailing direction to Bermuda, 30° NE, and the one in the middle gives the approximate sailing distance of 1 Moira, or 10°. When counted from the bottom, this roundel is the second one, confirming the latitude of Bermuda. It also represents the Central Azores with its five islands, confirming the Fifth Dy- nasty. Including the bead in its center, it has a total of nine red beads, encoding the nine is- lands of the Azores, and the discovery of the return route via Bermuda to these islands by the ninth king Unas (c.2403-2370 BC). The large roundel in the middle represents this return route. The upper roundel confirms his 32+1= 33 years of reign. Finally, the three roundels correspond with the long sailing distance from Bermuda to the Azores, with the wind and the current, 3 Moiras, or 30°!- Quite recently I wrote two articles about completely different arti- facts telling the same story (Refs.4,5). The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows that:
    • Australia was discovered via the eastern crossing from New Guinea to Cape York, Queensland, by king Djoser of the Third Dynasty (c.2738 BC). He also discovered the western crossing from the island of Roti, Indonesia, to the Kimberley District, Australia (c.2739 BC). America was discovered via the Aleutian Islands by king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty (c.2571 BC). It was a discovery of a part of the West Coast. On the return route he also discovered the crossing of the Bering Strait (c.2572 BC). America was reached via the Southern Crossing of the North Atlantic Ocean from the Cape Verde Islands to Cape São Roque, Brazil, by king Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty (c.2504 BC). It was the discovery of a part of the East Coast. On the return route he discovered the Crossing from Newfoundland to the Azores (c.2505 BC). America was reached via the Northern Crossing from the Shetland Islands (UK) via Green- land to Cape Chidley, Canada, by the next king Nefererkare (c.2488 BC). The last king Unas of the Fifth Dynasty discovered the return route from Abaco Island (NE Bahama’s) via the island of Bermuda to the Azores (c.2387 BC).
    • Fig.2 The lowest roundel of the Battersea Shield. The four beads in the circle and the fifth bead in its center encode the discovery of the Americas by the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty. The design of each “bead” confirms it many times. (London, 51.5°N, c.190 BC, Ref.1) (Courtesy S. James) Metal Trade Copper The Battersea Shield is made of bronze, and it is one of the few Old World artifacts clearly re- ferring to the copper trade in the Bronze Age. The large roundel in the middle symbolizes the
    • discovered continent of North America. It has eight red beads in its circle, corresponding to the copper mines on Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, eight degrees above the West Azores, at 39+8= 47°N. It also has one bead in its center, encoding the mines of Isle Royale in Lake Superior, at 47+1= 48°N. The three roundels and the three central beads of the shield en- code the important site of Poverty Point, NE Louisiana, three degrees above the Mississippi Delta, at 30+3= 33°N. So, it appears, that most of the copper was shipped via the Mississippi River to the south. These roundels have a total of nineteen beads, providing the latitude of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River (Gaspé Peninsula), at 30+19= 49°N. So, the rest of the copper was transpor- ted to the east. Note, that the three roundels (or 30 beads) refer to a ratio of roughly 3/5 (or 60%) of the copper taken to the south, and that the 19 (or 20) beads point to a ratio of almost 2/5 (or 40%) of the copper brought to the east (Refs.6,7). So, the shield appears to give valuable information about these trading routes! Finally, almost all the copper was shipped (as ingots) across the Ocean to the West Azores. The large roundel in the middle has a total of nine beads, confirming its latitude, at 30+9= 39°N. These nine beads also encode the density of copper, 9 g/cm3 (nine times heavier than water). The big question is: What was the overall export of copper to the Old World in the Bronze Age? The Battersea Shield has a size and a shape comparable with a copper ingot. So, the quantity will be expressed in units of ingots. Counted from the bottom, the large roundel is the second one. It also has eight red beads in its circle, so the amount was (at least) twenty million ingots (20,000,000, a number of eight figures). In antiquity, this was the usual way of indica- ting large numbers. The high domed bead in the center symbolizes the hugh mound of cop- per! It is the 19th bead of the shield. So, it appears the metal trade finished at the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC). This is confirmed by archaeological research. At both sides are arrows, pointing to the center. Each arrow has two red beads, joined to another pair of beads. It means the central bead now counts for two (first action)! The roundels now have a total of 19+1= 20 beads, confirming both the end of the metal trade at the start of the 20th Dynasty, and the (minimum) amount of copper, just mentioned. However, the large roundel (with two beads in its center) has a vertical axis of symmetry. At both sides are four additional beads, twice encoding another four million ingots (second action). So, the overall export of copper in the Bronze Age appears to be 20+4= 24 million copper ingots. Both arrows, each with two beads, show this number of 24 is accurate in two figures. Copper ingots with masses varying from 10 to 30 kg have been found by archaeolo- gists. So, the problem is to establish the weight of the “Standard Ingot” according to this parti- cular shield. As will be shown below, its value appears to be 16 kg, which is a very realistic one. It means, that the overall export of copper across the Ocean would be (24x16=) c.-384,000 tons! It has been estimated by others in the field, that a total amount of 250 to 500 thousand tons of copper had disappeared from the mining area. So, our conclusion is that its destination can now be understood. (Refs.16-23) Tin In the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin. In the circle of the large roundel are four pairs of beads, each of these symbolizing copper and tin to make bron- ze. With two beads in the center (see above), this roundel has a total of 10 beads, confirming the 10%. Tin was a very scarce metal. Although generally unknown, a lot of it was imported from South America! The minimum amount of copper, mentioned above, was indicated with 20 beads. It means, that the minimum amount of tin will be indicated with 2 beads (10%).
    • When counted from the bottom, one arrives in the center of the lowest roundel, which will indicate the most important mining area in South America. The high domed bead in this center symbolizes the hugh mound of tin! Apart from the red bead in this center, the roundels contain a total number of eighteen beads, corresponding with the tin mines near the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. However, the high domed bead in the lower roundel itself encodes the far more important mining area just east of Lake of Poopó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S. The tin was transported (as ingots) along the coast to the north, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The large roundel in the middle has a total of nine red beads, encoding the isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, as well as the nine islands of the Azores. In the Bronze Age the overall export of tin from the mentioned sites was 10% of the copper, or 2.4 million tin ingots. The number is ac- curate in two figures. The large roundel has six circles of intermediate size, and a mound in its center, confirming the seven figures of this number. It corresponds with the density of tin, 7 g/ cm3 (seven times heavier than water). The quantity corresponds with c.38,400 tons (85 mil- lion pounds) of tin! (Refs.7,8,19,21) Silver and Gold The upper roundel is identical to the lower roundel. It means, that an other type of metal was exported from South America as well. Outside the roundels are two groups of small beads. Each group consists of a pair of beads, and two single beads. The pair of beads symbolizes the metals copper and tin, again, to make bronze. In antiquity gold compounds were sometimes used to give glass a red colour, as shown in the beads of this shield. The 19 large beads enco- de the density of gold, 19 g/cm3 (nineteen times heavier than water). So, the two single beads, mentioned above, will probably symbolize silver and gold. These are the so-called noble me- tals. When the shield is turned upside down (fig.1), the high domed bead in the lower roundel will symbolize the big mound of noble metals from South America! For a long time past these noble metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with 0.20 gram. The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). The roundels of the shield symbolize the flowers of this tree, and the beads symbolize these seeds. The upper and lower roundels, at both ends of the bronze shield, each have four small empty circles around their centers, where the beads are lacking. The total of eight missing beads leaving the metal, and the five beads in each of these roundels show, that the Standard Ingot will have a mass of 80,000 carats (a number of five figures), or 80x0.20= 16 kg. These roundels each have four beads and four missing beads, with a total of five beads, twice confir- ming it. The large roundel, which was used to calculate the overall export of copper, has eight beads around the copper mound, and a total of five double beads (see above), confirming it, again. (Refs.16-21). Silver was found together with tin. The export of tin was calculated using the roundel in the middle. So, the export of silver will be determined in a similar way. In the circle of this roun- del are four pairs of beads, each of these now symbolizing silver and tin. The roundel has a total of nine beads, and in the circle are eight beads, encoding an overall export of 90 million carats (90,000,000, a number of eight figures), or 90x0.20= 18 tons of silver. The nine beads, and the beads in the upper and lower mounds, encode together the density of silver, 9+2= 11 g/cm3 (eleven times heavier than water). The bead in the lower mound indicates the mining area in South America, around Oruro, but especially near the town of Potosi, in Bolivia (see above). It is the 19th bead of the shield. So, all metal trade finished at the end of the 19th Dy-
    • nasty (c.1200 BC) (see above). Part of the high domed bead in this center symbolizes the big mound of silver! Most of the silver in the Old World was imported from South America. Gold is a completely different story. In this early time period it was almost exclusively traded at the mouth of the Amazone River, in South America. The second bead in the center of the lower roundel encodes its latitude, at 2°S. Note, that this bead is used for both silver and gold. This roundel has a total of five beads, and in the circle of the large roundel above it are eight beads, encoding an overall export of 50 million carats (50,000,000, a number of eight figures), or 50x0.20= 10 tons of gold. Part of the high domed bead in this center symbolizes this big mound of gold! However, most of the gold in the Old World was imported from Africa. All mentioned results, including the mass of the Standard Ingot, could be compared with other sources, showing their reliability. (Refs.16-21). All these metals were shipped along the coast to the north. Part of the cargo ended up on the safe islands east of Florida. The Battersea Shield has a total of 19+8= 27 red beads, corres- ponding to Abaco Island, NE Bahama’s, at 27°N. From there it was transported, with the wind and the current, via Bermuda to the Azores. The rest of the cargo was transported further north in the direction of Newfoundland. Both small roundels have four beads in the circle, and a fifth bead in the center, corresponding with America’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, and the south point of Nova Scotia, four degrees above the West Azores, at 39+4= 43°N, and with Sable Island, five degrees above the West Azores, at 39+5= 44°N. From these places it was transported, together with the copper from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, with the wind and the current, to the Azores. The large roundel in the middle symbolizes the planet Earth. The four small beads above and below this roundel show the transport of four different metals from America to the Old World. The metal trade lasted from the start of the Fifth Dynasty till the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty, which is from c.2500 BC to c.1200 BC, a time period of about 1,300 years. (Refs.15-22). The river transport of the copper ingots was largely in the hands of local people. They took their cargo to Poverty Point, or beyond, and to the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. It ap- pears, that Central America was building seagoing vessels already at an early stage. Later, they were capable of crossing the Ocean to the Mediterranean (around 1600 BC). In this manner they could compete with the rich merchants of the Old World. For sure they had good relations with the many islands in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The end of the metal trade did not coincide with the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c.1085 BC), but earlier, with the end of the 19th Dynasty. It seems that Central America had joined the Sea People, which started war from these islands with many peaceful peoples on the mainland. Both Egyptian kings Merenptah and Ramses III had to fight ferocious battles with them on their own territory (c.1223-1190 BC). It appears, that the end of the metal trade was a political decision. In this late time period there were more rich sources of both copper and tin. It surely had painful consequences for the New World. According to the Egyptian mythology of Thebes, Upper Egypt, the central mound of the large roundel symbolizes the “worldbuilder” Kematef. He produced the Ogdoade, which is the name for the eight primeval gods, represented by the eight beads in the circle around it. A si- milar myth says, that the god Shu created them in four pairs, each of them consisting of a man and a woman. They were born in the Luxor temple (Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty), on the east bank of the River Nile, where they lived for a long time, performing an important mission.
    • Together with Kematef they were finally buried in a mythical grave in the temple of Medinet Habu (Ramses III, 20th Dynasty), on the west bank of the River. This is the victory temple over the Hanebu, or Sea People, as clearly illustrated on its walls. (Refs.24-28). The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows that: c.384,000 tons (850 million pounds) of copper from Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, and Isle Royale, Lake Superior, were shipped along the Mississippy River to the south (c.60%), and via the St. Lawrence River to the east (c.40%). c.38,400 tons (85 million pounds) of tin and 18 tons (40 thousand pounds) of silver from Oruro and Potosi in Bolivia were shipped via the isthmus of Panama to Central America. 10 tons (22 thousand pounds) of gold from the mouth of the Amazone River were transported to Central America. All these metals were shipped via Bermuda and via Nova Scotia across the Atlantic to the Old World from the start of the 5th Dynasty till the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.2500-1200 BC). The Standard Ingot had a mass of 80,000 carats, or 16 kg (35 pounds) (1 carat= 0.20 gram= 3.1 grains). Fig.3 In 1857 the Shield was found in the water of the River Thames, near Battersea Bridge, four miles southwest of the city center of London. (51.5°N, c.190 BC, Ref.47)
    • PART 2 Civilization of Central America Before the 20th Dynasty The red beads of the Battersea Shield appear to have different sizes. In the circles of the three roundels are a total of sixteen identical beads, referring to the culture around the north coast of Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala, at 16°N. Both small roundels have slightly larger (additio- nal) beads in the center, encoding the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, at 16+2= 18°N. It was the center of civilization around this Gulf, the well-known Land of Punt. It was also considered as the center of the Realm of the Dead, or the Underworld, at a distance of 18 Moiras, or 180°, from the Land of the Living, the Old World. It equals half the circumference of the planet Earth! It also corresponded with the eighteen years of reign of king Menkaure (c.2580-2562 BC), who discovered the Americas. The roundel in the middle has the largest (additional) bead in its center, encoding the latitude of 18+1= 19°N around the Gulf of Cam- peche. It is often indicated, because it was considered to be an important part of the famous Land of Punt. (Refs.2-5,24-28) The Battersea Shield has three roundels, also symbolizing North, Central, and South America (fig.1). The large roundel in the middle, and the nineteen beads of the Shield, refer to the situation of Central America at the end of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt (c.1200 BC). It corres- ponds with the start of both the Olmec Civilization and the Middle Pre-Classic Period of the older Maya Civilization. The large roundel has a vertical axis of symmetry. At both sides are three circles of intermediate size, forming together a group of six. Until now, these special cir- cles were hardly used! They appear to encode a population of 300,000 men (a number of six figures). The three circles contain two single beads, and one double bead. It means, that this number is only accurate in one figure (3), but that the first two figures (30) are interesting. The three roundels with the three high domed beads confirm the population. There is hardly any doubt about this result. The data below are taken from other sources, but these appear to be confirmed by the Battersea Shield. The lower roundel and the roundel above it contain together a total of 5+9= 14 beads, refer- ring to the 14th Dynasty. It was ended by the worldwide Deucalion Flood of 1628 BC (tree- ring dating), caused by a so-called Comet Catastrophe. Both lower and upper roundels possess together ten red beads, encoding ten days of terrible rains and floodings (a number of two fi- gures). In total, there were 510 thousand casualties worldwide. The center of the lower roun- del encodes 10 thousand casualties in Central America (a number of five figures). It happened at the start of the famous Fifteenth or Hyksos Dynasty (c.1641-1580 BC), which coincided with the beginning of the Formative Period in Central America.- It is difficult to establish the early population numbers of Central America, but the accuracy remains the same (see above). The large roundel has six circles of intermediate size around its center, encoding its popula- tion after the Deucalion Flood: 100 thousand men (a number of six figures). (Refs.21,32-42) The center of the lower roundel, the large roundel, and the center of the upper roundel contain together 1+9+1= 11 beads, referring to the situation at the end of the 11th Dynasty. It is the start of the famous Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom (c.2007 BC), but also of the Early Pre-Classic Period of the Maya Civilization. The two small roundels each have five red beads, encoding a population of 20 thousand men (a number of five figures). Counted from the bottom, the large roundel is the second one, confirming this population of Central Ameri- ca. These two lower roundels also symbolized the two southern crossings of the Ocean, which were discovered by the second king Sahura (of the Fifth Dynasty). These have a total of 4+8=
    • 12 beads in their circles, pointing to the positive influence of the 12th Dynasty on the deve- lopment of Central America (c.2007-1796 BC). The two small roundels each contain five red beads, referring to the situation at the end of the Fifth Dynasty. Again, these encode a population in Central America of 20 thousand men. It is the start of the weak Sixth Dynasty (c.2373 BC), the last one of the Old Kingdom. Soon after the start of this Dynasty a Comet Catastrophe occurred, which resulted in the worldwide Biblical Flood (2344 BC) (tree-ring dating). The upper and lower roundels each have four beads in their circles, and the large roundel has a group of four beads at one side, indicating that the rain, the snow, and the terrible floodings continued during four months, or 4x30= 120 days. The large roundel has a total of nine red beads, encoding the population in Central Ame- rica that survived: 9 thousand men (a number of four figures, 45%). It was the start of the so- called Late Contact Period in Central America. In total, there were 2.6 million casualties worldwide, and 2.2 million people who survived (46%). Many survivors were seriously injured. So, before this Comet Catastrophe the world population was 2.2+2.6= 4.8 million men. According to the Bible the Flood lasted 150 days, or five months, which is about correct. Plato wrote in the Timaeus that this Catastrophe hap- pened “9,000 time units earlier”. This is also correct, because the Flood occurred about 9,000 months, or 727 years, before the Deucalion Flood of 1628 BC, which is 1628+727= c.2355 BC. All mentioned data are well-known from more than a dozen monuments all around the world, including America. This Comet Catastrophe was the most powerful natural disaster in human history. It ended all ancient civilizations on Earth. (Refs.9,16,21,32-43) The large roundel in the middle has four double beads in its circle, and one bead in its center, referring to the discovery of Central America via the Atlantic Ocean by the second king Sahura of the 4+1= 5th Dynasty. The six circles of intermediate size encode its population of 6,000 men (a number of four figures). At both sides are four beads in the circle, twice confir- ming it (c.2504 BC). It also refers to the discovery of Central America via the Bering Sea by the 4+1= 5th king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty. It is the start of the Early Contact Period. The two groups of three circles of intermediate size encode the initial population in Central America of 3,000 men, twice. The Battersea Shield has three roundels with three high domed beads, twice confirming it (c.2571 BC). So far, the population numbers could be compared with other sources, showing their reliability (Ref.21). After the 20th Dynasty The eighteen and nineteen red beads of the Shield indicate the positive influence of the impor- tant 18th and 19th Dynasties of the New Kingdom on the development of America (c.1580-1200 BC). Outside the roundels are two other groups of four, much smaller beads (figs.1,2). These belong to the large roundel, but are clearly less important. Together, these correspond with Dynasties 20 to 27 (c.1200-404 BC), covering a time period of almost eight centuries. We are forced to conclude that the metal trade shown on this Shield, declined to a very low le-vel, only a small fraction from what it was before. It appears, that the ties between the Old and the New World became very weak. The metal trade was apparently finished because of the terrific war against Egypt and neighboring countries. This war was started by the Hanebu, or Sea People, in the eastern Mediterranean. It is very likely, that part of the Sea People came from Central America. At the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty, the population of Central America was 300 thousand men (c.1200 BC) (see above). It is known that a serious Comet Catastrophe happened in 1159
    • BC (tree-ring dating), which resulted in the worldwide Dardanus Flood. The large roundel has eight beads in its circle, divided into two equal groups, corresponding to 80 days of terrible rains and floodings (a number of two figures). The Brandenburg Stone from Kentucky, USA, shows the number of casualties worldwide: 5.8 million men. It was the worst Catastrophe in human history. The large roundel has six circles of intermediate size around its center, enco- ding the number of casualties in Central America: 100 thousand men (a number of six figu- res). The two small roundels correspond to the 20th Dynasty (a number of two figures). In addi- tion, the large roundel has six circles of intermediate size, encoding 200 thousand survivers in Central America (a number of six figures, 67%). Counted from the bottom, the large roundel is the second one, confirming both the 20th Dynasty (c.1200-1085 BC), and the number of survivors. As shown above, the bead in the center of the Shield may count for two. In that case the roundels contain together 19+1= 20 red beads, confirming the 20th Dynasty, as well as the 200 thousand survivors, again. (Refs.8,16,32-43) The increase in size of the people of Central America will be considered after the Dardanus Flood of 1159 BC. The three roundels and the upper group of small beads contain together 19+4= 23 beads, referring to the situation at the end of Dynasty 23, with its Libian kings. The large roundel has eight beads in its circle, and six circles of intermediate size, encoding a population in Central America of 800 thousand men (a number of six figures) (730 BC). Including the lower group of small beads, the Shield contains a total of 23+4= 27 beads, referring to the situation at the end of Dynasty 27. This is also the start of the so-called renewed independence of Egypt, after the First Persian Rule. It almost coincides with the start of the Late Pre-Classic Period of the Maya Civilization. Including the central mound, the large roundel has seven circles of intermediate size. The three roundels have a total of nine- teen red beads, corresponding to a population of 1.9 million men (a number of seven figures) (404 BC). As shown below, the Battersea Shield was made during the dynasty of Ptolemaeus V. The large roundel has two groups of three circles of intermediate size, twice encoding the final population in Central America of 3 million men. The shield has three roundels with three high domed beads, twice confirming it (c.190 BC). (The obtained values were checked by extra- polation, which leads to an increased credibility of the data.) The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows the population numbers of Central America (around 16°N-19°N) from Dynasty 4 to Ptolemaeus V of Egypt. c.3,000 men, c.2571 BC, discovery of the West Coast by king Menkaure of Dynasty 4 c.6,000 men, c.2504 BC, discovery of the East Coast by king Sahura of Dynasty 5 c.20,000 men, c.2373 BC, start of Dynasty 6 c.9,000 men, 2344 BC, survivors of Biblical Flood, start of Late Contact Period c.20,000 men, c.2007 BC, start of Dynasty 12, start of Maya Civilization c.110,000 men, c.1641 BC, start of Dynasty 15 c.100,000 men, 1628 BC, after Deucalion Flood c.300,000 men, c.1200 BC, start of Dynasty 20, end of Metal Trade, start of Olmec Civil. c.200,000 men, 1159 BC, after Dardanus Flood c.800,000 men, 730 BC, start of Dynasty 24 c.1,900,000 men, 404 BC, start of Dynasty 28 c.3,000,000 men, c.190 BC, dynasty of Ptolemaeus V
    • (Data before Dynasty 22 confirmed by other sources) Copper and Andes Cultures The upper roundel symbolizes the Copper Culture in North America, and the lower roundel represents the Andes Culture in South America. Both peoples have strong ties with Central America. The upper and lower roundels each have four red beads and four small empty circles around the centers, together corresponding with the north coast of Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala, at 8+8= 16°N. Together with the two high domed beads, these encode the civilization around the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, at 16+2= 18°N. Both roundels are identical, which suggests that in prehistoric times the sizes of both peoples were about the same. So, these will be treated together here. However, there is some doubt about the increa- sing sizes of their territories. These are not well defined on the Shield. In the circles of the three roundels are a total of sixteen identical beads, referring to the latitu- de of the north coasts of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, sixteen degrees above the Missis- sippi Delta, at 30+16= 46°N. The upper roundel represents the Copper Culture. It has a slight- ly larger (additional) bead in its center, encoding the copper mines of Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, and the area above St. Mary’s River, on the eastern end of Lake Superior, at 46+1= 47°N. Keweenaw Peninsula might be considered as the northern center of the Copper Culture. The roundel in the middle has the largest (additional) bead in its center, correspon- ding to the copper mines of Isle Royale in Lake Superior, at 48°N. This large roundel was used to calculate the overall export of copper. The lower roundel has the last (additional) bead in its center, corresponding to the latitude of the north coast of Lake Superior, at 48+1= 49°N. However, in my view these beads do not describe the whole area involved, especially in later times. The Battersea Shield has three roundels, which corresponded to the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N. It probably means, that the upper roundel refers to a territory having a maximum diameter of 10°, or 10 Moiras. The large roundel in the middle has a total of nine beads, enco- ding the ancient town of Cahokia, or its predecessor, near present-day St. Louis, at 30+9= 39 °N. It is located at the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, just ten degrees south of the north coast of Lake Superior. It might be considered as the southern center of the Copper Culture. This center was important, because before the winter the miners had to return to the south. The upper roundel has four beads in its circle, corresponding to the present towns of Milwaukee and Madison, Wisconsin, four degrees higher, at 39+4= 43°N. It also has one bead in its center, corresponding to Lake Winnebago, at 44°N. All these latitudes may add to a better description of the real territory of the Copper Culture, especially in later times. (Refs.-6-8,15-23,44,45) In the circles of the three roundels are a total of sixteen identical beads, referring to the south side of Lake Titicaca and southern Peru, at 16°S. For a long time the ancient town of Tiahua- naco near the lake was the center of the Andes Culture. The two upper roundels have slightly larger (additional) beads in the center, encoding the area around Oruro, Bolivia, at 16+2= 18 °S. Sometimes, it was also considered as the center of the Realm of the Dead, at a distance of 18 Moiras, or 180°, from the Old World. It equals half the circumference of the planet Earth. The lowest roundel on the shield symbolizes the whole civilization around the Altiplano of the Andes in South America. It has the last (additional) bead in its center, enco-ding the mining area around Lake of Poopó, Bolivia, and northern Chili, at 19°S. In later times, the real territory of this civilization might be larger than here described. (Refs.9,21,-24,46)
    • The Battersea Shield contains valuable information about the expanding Copper Culture as well as the important Andes Culture (fig.1). The nineteen beads in the roundels refer to their situation at the end of the 19th Dynasty. It coincided with the end of the intercontinental metal trade. The upper and lower roundels each have a total of five red beads, encoding a population of 50,000 men for each area (a number of five figures) (c.1200 BC). On the shield are a number of small bronze globules. These can be used in the analysis to support the data. The mentioned roundels each have five globules, confirming the population of each area: fifty thousand men. At the same time the population of Central America was 300 thousand men (see above). This is six times as many! It suggests, that all twelve population numbers in the history of Central America were six times larger then those of the other two areas. The large roundel, represen- ting Central America, has six big globules near the six circles of intermediate size, twice con- firming it. It has also six small globules along its circle, confirming it, again. (The small beads are of half size, but two of these are attached to the upper roundel, which compensates it. See below.) So, all population numbers in the history of the Copper Culture are 1/6, or 17%, of those of Central America (2600-200 BC). This is an important conclusion, and the same ap- pears to be true for the Andes Culture. The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows the population numbers of the Copper Culture of North America (around 39°N-46°N-49°N) from Dynasty 4 to Ptolemaeus V of Egypt. c.500 men, c.2571 BC, discovery of the West Coast by king Menkaure of Dynasty 4 c.1,000 men, c.2504 BC, discovery of the East Coast by king Sahura of Dynasty 5 c.3,300 men, c.2373 BC, start of Dynasty 6, America’s Stonehenge, N.H. c.1,500 men, 2344 BC, survivors of Biblical Flood, start of Late Contact Period c.3,300 men, c.2007 BC, start of Dynasty 12 (start of Maya Civil. in Central America) c.18,300 men, c.1641 BC, start of Dynasty 15, Poverty Point, NE Louisiana c.16,700 men, 1628 BC, after Deucalion Flood c.50,000 men, c.1200 BC, start of Dynasty 20, end of Metal Trade c.33,000 men, 1159 BC, after Dardanus Flood c.133,000 men, 730 BC, start of Dynasty 24 c.317,000 men, 404 BC, start of Dynasty 28 c.500,000 men, c.190 BC, dynasty of Ptolemaeus V These are also the population numbers of the Andes Culture (around 16°S-19°S). Rest of America The three roundels are joined to each other. It probably means, that the three peoples formed a kind of league. We shall call this league the American Metal Alliance, or AMA. At the end of the 19th Dynasty the population of the AMA was 50+300+50= 400 thousand men (c.1200 BC). The inner part of the large roundel, representing Central America, contains four globules around the central mound (of four metals), which might confirm this population. Together with the eight globules along the circle these form a group of twelve, representing the twelve population numbers in the history of the AMA (2600-200 BC). These are 4/3, or 133%, of those of Central America (see above). During the metal trade the AMA was strong. This is shown by the large red beads inside the roundels. However, after 1200 BC it was probably weak, as illustrated by the small beads at the outside. Outside the roundels are two identical groups of smaller beads (fig.1). These also symbolize the peoples in America outside the AMA. So, the upper group represents the peoples in North
    • America, outside the Copper Culture. This group touches the large roundel in the middle, sug- gesting a population comparable with that of Central America. However, note that the small beads are of half size! Again, the nineteen beads in the roundels refer to the situation at the end of the 19th Dynasty. The upper group has four half-sized beads, and the large roundel below it has six circles of intermediate size, encoding a population in the rest of North America of (400/2)= 200 thousand men (a number of six figures) (c.1200 BC). The two globules, and the four small beads below these, form together six units, confirming it. The size of the people in the rest of North America turns out to be half of that of the AMA. If it is assumed, that the ratios of the numbers inside and outside the AMA remained the same, then more population numbers can be calculated. It would mean, that the twelve population numbers in the history of North America (outside the Copper Culture) will be roughly 2/3, or 67%, of those of Central America (2600-200 BC). However, it is clear that the accuracies of the values decrease for the earlier and later dates. The Shield indicates that the situation in South America (outside the Andes Culture) was similar. These are important conclusions. For instance, after the metal trade the total population in America was 400+200+200= 800 thousand men (c.1200 BC). Thus, the Battersea Shield provides a good description of the sizes of populations in the prehistory of America! (Refs.9,15,16,24,29-31). The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows the approximate population numbers of the continent of North America (outside the Copper Culture) from Dynasty 4 to Ptole- maeus V of Egypt. c.2,000 men, c.2571 BC, discovery of the West Coast by king Menkaure of Dynasty 4 c.4,000 men, c.2504 BC, discovery of the East Coast by king Sahura of Dynasty 5 c.13,000 men, c.2373 BC, start of Dynasty 6 c.6,000 men, 2344 BC, survivors of Biblical Flood, start of Late Contact Period c.13,000 men, c.2007 BC, start of Dynasty 12 (start of Maya Civil. in Central America) c.73,000 men, c.1641 BC, start of Dynasty 15, the culture of New England c.67,000 men, 1628 BC, after Deucalion Flood c.200,000 men, c.1200 BC, start of Dynasty 20 (start of Olmec Civil. in Central America) c.133,000 men, 1159 BC, after Dardanus Flood c.533,000 men, 730 BC, start of Dynasty 24 c.1,270,000 men, 404 BC, start of Dynasty 28 c.2,000,000 men, c.190 BC, dynasty of Ptolemaeus V These are also the approximate population numbers of the continent of South America (outside the Andes Culture). Final Remarks The two lower roundels encode the second king Djoser (of the Third Dynasty), who discover- ed the southern island of Australia. These have together 4+8= 12 red beads in their circles, which indicate the positive influence of the important 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom on the development of Australia (c.2007-1796 BC). The (three) roundels have together a total of eighteen and nineteen beads, encoding the positive influence of the important 18th and 19th Dynasties (c.1580-1200 BC). The large roundel in the middle of the Shield might symbolize the AMA, and the upper group of small beads the rest of North America, and the lower group of small beads the rest of South America. The upper roundel now symbolizes the discovered continent of Australia, again! It is connected with two half-sized beads out of the upper group of four. Note, that the lower roundel is in a similar position. Again, the nineteen beads in the roundels refer to the situation
    • at the end of the 19th Dynasty. The two pairs of half-sized beads outside the roundels, and the five beads in each of the small roundels, encode together the population of Australia, (40/2)= 20 thousand men (a number of five figures) (c.1200 BC). The two pairs of globules outside the roundels, and the five globules in each of the small roundels, confirm it. So, the size of the people in Australia turns out to be about 10% of the rest of North America. If it is assumed, that the ratios of the numbers in Australia and in the rest of North America remained the same, then more population numbers can be calculated. It would mean, that the twelve population numbers in the history of Australia will be roughly 2/30, or 6.7% of those of Central America (2600-200 BC). However, the accuracies of the values decrease for the earlier and later dates. When Australia was discovered, the continent was almost uninhabited. Both small roundels each have a total of five beads, which are joined to a pair of half-sized beads outside. So, the initial population of Australia might have been only c.50 men (a num- ber of two figures) (c.2738 BC). The Battersea Shield from London (c.190 BC) shows the approximate population numbers of the continent of Australia from Dynasty 3 to Ptolemaeus V of Egypt. c.50 men, c.2738 BC, discovery of Australia by king Djoser of Dynasty 3 c.200 men, c.2571 BC, discovery of West Coast of America by king Menkaure of Dynasty 4 c.400 men, c.2504 BC, discovery of East Coast of America by king Sahura of Dynasty 5 c.1,300 men, c.2373 BC, start of Dynasty 6 c.600 men, 2344 BC, survivors of Biblical Flood, start of Late Contact Period c.1,300 men, c.2007 BC, start of Dynasty 12, rock art of the Kimberley c.7,300 men, c.1641 BC, start of Dynasty 15 c.6,700 men, 1628 BC, after Deucalion Flood c.20,000 men, c.1200 BC, start of Dynasty 20, end of the Metal Trade across the Atlantic c.13,000 men, 1159 BC, after Dardanus Flood c.53,000 men, 730 BC, start of Dynasty 24 c.127,000 men, 404 BC, start of Dynasty 28 c.200,000 men, c.190 BC, dynasty of Ptolemaeus V The three roundels contain a total number of nineteen red beads. Just below the large roundel is a group of four (additional) beads, corresponding to the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 19+4= 23 °N. [Outside the roundels are a total of eight half-sized (additional) beads, confirming it.] At midsummer day, the Sun is there at right angles above. The slow northerly movement of the Sun turns into a southerly movement. So, people believe in the SunGod! It also corres-ponds to the place where the Tropic of Cancer crosses the River Nile. It is the center of the Sun religion at the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. Above the large roundel is the other group of four (additional) beads, encoding the center of the United Egyptian Empire, at 23+4= 27°N. It is situated halfway the Tropic of Cancer and the Northern Nile Delta (at 31°N). It symbolizes the seat of government of Egypt. (Refs.2,16,26). The Battersea Shield was made in London, England, in the time period of the dynasties of Ptolemaeus in Egypt (323-30 BC) (fig.3). The three roundels appear to symbolize the first three, successful dynasties of this group. A period of serious decline followed. Apart from the bead in the center of the shield, these roundels contain a total of eighteen beads, correspon- ding to the eighteen years of reign of Ptolemaeus IV Philopator (222-204 BC), which was the next dynasty. It is known, that a Comet Catastrophe occurred in 207 BC (tree-ring dating), which is just within this time period. The large roundel in the middle has two groups of four red beads around its center, encoding eight days of floodings, and 8,000 casualties in Central
    • America (a number of four figures). Probably, there were 530 thousand casualties worldwide (Ref.43). The central, high domed bead of the large roundel symbolizes the five islands of the Central Azores (see above), but also the last, fifth dynasty. So, the Shield was made during the reign of Ptolemaeus V Epiphanus (204-180 BC)! It appears, that the last mentioned, weak dynasties of Ptolemaeus IV and V were compared with the important Fourth and Fifth Dynasties of the Old Kingdom. People of that time period remembered, again, that the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt discovered paradise in the west (Refs.2-9), and they decided to make this beautiful Shield for America! References 1. James, S., Exploring the World of the Celts, Thames & Hudson, London, 2005 (ISBN 0-500-27998-5). 2. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com. Ref.3. 3. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge/ 4. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c. 2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.3. 5. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)”, Ref.3, to be published. 6. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)”, Ref.3, to be published. 7. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.3, to be published. 8. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Ancient Stories (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana, c.700 BC)”, Ref.3, to be published. 9. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of America and the Flood (c.2300 BC, Ita Letra, Villar- rica, Paraguay)”, Ref.3, to be published. 10. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-7141-1735-8). 11. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, College Station, Texas, 1998. 12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Ancient American, Vol.13, No.81, pgs.18-25 (2008). 13. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500 BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006). 14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Passage Grave of Karleby, Encoding the Is- lands Discovered in the Ocean, c. 2950 BC", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.18, pgs.64-74 (2004). 15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, Ameri- ca’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003). 16. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98033. Ref.3. 17. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A Collection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005.
    • 18. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN 0-9744679-2-8). 19. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)”, Ref.3, to be published. 20. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)”, Ref.3, to be published. 21. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, Mid- western Epigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be published. 22. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper Tra- ding Route of the Bronze Age (Kennebec River, Embden, Maine, c.1500 BC)”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703). 23. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for Ri- ver Travel in America, c.1500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002). 24. New World and Pacific Civilizations. The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995). 25. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997. 26. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991. 27. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN 0-486-22780-4). 28. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090-631-6) (Dr. Stecchini). 29. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-671-67974-0). 30. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5). 31. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994 (ISBN 0-9612990-4-4). 32. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizati- ons, BAR International Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X). 33. Baillie, M.G.L., “Hints that Cometary Debris played some Role in several Tree-Ring Da- ted Environmental Downturns in the Bronze Age”, Ref.32, pgs.109-117. 34. Peiser, B.J., “Evidence for a Global Disaster in the Late 3rd Millennium BC”, Ref.32, pgs. 117-140. 35. Courty, M.-A., “The Soil Record of an Exceptional Event at 4000 BP in the Middle East”, Ref.32, pgs.93-109. 36. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Serpent, Faber and Faber, London, 1982. 37. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Winter, Blackwell, Oxford, 1990. 38, Baillie, M., Exodus to Arthur, Catastrophic Encounters with Comets, BT Batsford Ltd., London, 1999 (ISBN 0-7134-8681-3). 39. Palmer, T., “Catastrophes, the Deluvial Evidence”, Website: http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce102899.html 40. Grondine, E.P., Man and Impact in the Americas, Kempton, Illinois (2005) (ISBN 0-9776 -152-0-0). 41. Joseph, F., Survivors of Atlantis, Their Impact on World Culture, Bear & Co., Vermont 2004 (ISBN 1-59143-0-040-2). 42. Jonge, R.M. de, “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC”, Webpage: www.barry.warmkessel.com/barry/dejonge.html Webpage: www.barry.warmkessel.com/dejonge.html
    • 43. De Jonge, R.M., “The Brandenburg Stone, Krakatau Catastrophe of 536 AD“ (560 AD, Battletown, Meade County, Kentucky)”, Ref.3, to be published. 44. Mertz, H., The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders, Global Books, Gaithersburg, MD (1986). 45. Etzenhouser, R., Engravings of Prehistoric Specimens from Michigan, USA, John Bornman & Sons, Detroit, MI, 1910, reprinted by ISAC Press, Columbus, GA, 1993. 46. Allen, J.M., Atlantis, The Andes Solution, Windrush Press, Gloucestershire, 1998 (ISBN 1-900624-19-2). 47. Grote Winkler Prins Encyclopedie, 7de druk, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1975). (Dutch)