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OLD COPPER CULTURE II, MN

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MEGALITHS OF ARROWHEAD REGION II …

MEGALITHS OF ARROWHEAD REGION II
(Minnesota, c.1900 BC and c.770 BC)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

Summary
The ancient Copper Culture of Isle Royale built a Dolmen and left behind a pair of recumbent Rocks. Mr. Bruns of Duluth identified both sites as man-made. The Little Bear Dolmen tells the story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. America was disco-vered via the Bering Sea in the Fourth Dynasty. All the Atlantic Crossings were discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. – The Two Rocks tell the story of the Dardanus Flood, which was caused by a worldwide Comet Catastrophe at which 6 million people died (32%). It happened during the reign of the 2nd king Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty. It lasted 40+40= 80 days. The pre-cipitation was c.5.5 meters of water. It ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, including the New Kingdom. However, the monument also tells the story of the metal trade until this Di-saster: 384,000 tons of copper from Upper Michigan, 38,400 tons of tin, 18 tons of silver, and 38 tons of gold from Bolivia, and 10 tons of gold from Brazil were shipped to the Old World.

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  • 1. MEGALITHS OF ARROWHEAD REGION II (Minnesota, c.1900 BC and c.770 BC)Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSummaryThe ancient Copper Culture of Isle Royale built a Dolmen and left behind a pair of recumbentRocks. Mr. Bruns of Duluth identified both sites as man-made. The Little Bear Dolmen tellsthe story of the Egyptian discovery of America during the Old Kingdom. America was disco-vered via the Bering Sea in the Fourth Dynasty. All the Atlantic Crossings were discovered inthe Fifth Dynasty. – The Two Rocks tell the story of the Dardanus Flood, which was causedby a worldwide Comet Catastrophe at which 6 million people died (32%). It happened duringthe reign of the 2nd king Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty. It lasted 40+40= 80 days. The pre-cipitation was c.5.5 meters of water. It ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, including theNew Kingdom. However, the monument also tells the story of the metal trade until this Di-saster: 384,000 tons of copper from Upper Michigan, 38,400 tons of tin, 18 tons of silver, 38tons of gold from Bolivia, and 10 tons of gold from Brazil were shipped to the Old World.IntroductionThe Arrowhead Region is located in the extreme northeastern part of Minnesota, just north ofLake Superior. In this remote area are some important lithic remains left behind by the ancientCopper Culture of Upper Michigan. In prehistoric times copper was mined on a large scale atKeweenaw Peninsula and on Isle Royale. The sailing distance from this island to the penin-sula of Grand Portage, MN, close to the Canadian border, is only 13 km.Little Bear Dolmen (Fig.1) is located on the Kelso River near Lujenida Lake in Superior Nati-onal Forest, which is in the west of Cook County. As far as known the stone structure was dis-covered by Mr. Chuck Bailey from Duluth, MN, around 1985. He identified the rock as aman-made structure. Mr. Charles Bruns (see Fig.1), also from Duluth, gave it wide publicity.Mr. Bruns (1949) is a Socio-Anthropologist, graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Su-perior in 1976. (Refs.1,2)The Dolmen is located on the eastern bank of the River, at 48°N (and 91°W), at a distance ofc.40 km from the shore of Lake Superior. It consists of a large boulder, placed on three littlestones (Fig.2). The boulder has an oval shape with a flat top. It has a length of c.2 m, a widthof c.1.5 m, and a height of c.1 m. Two stones at the base have the same size, but the third oneis about twice as big. Their diameters are about 10 and 20 cm, respectively. The last mention-ed stone is placed in the south.
  • 2. Fig.1 Little Bear Dolmen on the Kelso River. (Superior National Forest, West Cook, MN, c.1900 BC) (Courtesy Mr. Charles Bruns, Ref.1). Fig.2 It is a man-made structure. A large boulder was placed on three little stones. (Superior National Forest, West Cook, MN, c.1900 BC) (Courtesy Mr. Charles Bruns, Ref.1).DISCOVERY OF AMERICAA dolmen is a kind of monument of the Megalithic Culture, which flourished in Western Eu-rope from 5500 to 1000 BC. However, megalithic structures are known all over the World,and also of later date, until the birth of Christ. A dolmen may be considered as a small houseof God, a pre-christian church or chapel. It is probable, that the later Egyptian civilization
  • 3. started as a result of this Culture, because in ancient Egypt the king or pharaoh was the substi-tute of the SunGod Ra.Little Bear Dolmen consists of 3+1= 4 stones. So, it appears something important happenedduring the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. The four stones also refer to the 40th latitude line southof the Arrowhead Region. In the Old World latitudes were already used 4800 BC. This lineruns from coast to coast, all across the continent of North America.It appears America was discovered in the Fourth Dynasty. The southern Aleutian islands, atthe south side of the Bering Sea, are located at the complementary latitude of 90-40= 50°N. Inantiquity the use of complementary latitudes was very common.It means, America was discovered by the 5th king Menkaure (Mycerinos, c.2580-2562 BC) ofthe Fourth Dynasty via this Route. The distance from coast to coast across North America, at40°N, equals 5 Egyptian Moiras, or 50°, when measured along the equator. It confirms the 5thking Menkaure discovered America via the southern Aleutian islands, at 50°N.The holy Arctic Circle is located at 67°N. It is the northernmost line the Sun still shines atmidwinter day (Sun religion). This dolmen is a monument by itself. It shows king Menkaurereturned via the Bering Strait, 1° below the Arctic Circle, at 67-1= 66°N. So, he also disco-vered this Northern Crossing, 66-50= 16° higher! (Refs.3-11)Atlantic OceanThe large boulder (the fourth stone) is the symbol of North America, because this continentwas discovered in the Fourth Dynasty. However, it is also the symbol of the North Atlantic O-cean, because its size was already known during this Dynasty.The Southern Crossing starts at the Cape Verde Islands, offshore West Africa, at 16°N (see a-bove). The Nile Delta of Egypt, at 30°N, provides its sailing direction of 30° SSW. The 50thlatitude line, just mentioned, illustrates the point of arrival at Cape São Roque (the HolyRock), Brazil, at 5°S. It shows this Crossing, with the wind and the current, was discovered inthe Fifth Dynasty. Its length of c.2 Moiras, or 20°, encodes the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498BC) as the discoverer of the Southern Crossing.King Sahure had to return with his sailing ships to the Old World. The boulder encodes thestart of the Return Route at the East Cape of North America, which is Cape Race, Newfound-land, 1° below the site, at 48-1= 47°N. The initial sailing direction is 20° ESE. It confirms theRoute was discovered by the 2nd king Sahure. He sailed, with the wind and the current, over2 Moiras, or 20°, to the two islands of the West Azores, in the middle of the Ocean. The A-zores were already discovered c.3600 BC. So, the 2nd king Sahure discovered the two south-ern crossings of the Ocean. – Note, that the two small stones of equal size refer to this 2ndking (Fig.2).GreenlandThe Northern Crossing of the Ocean runs via three land points: the Shetland Islands, CapeFarvel, Greenland, and Cape Chidley, Canada. These are located at the complementary latitu-de of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. The Nile Delta itself is located at 30°N. So, the 3rd kingNefererkare (c.2498-2478 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty discovered the Northern Crossing. It wasthe third discovered Crossing of the Ocean. Greenland was already discovered c.3200 BC. –Note, that the third little stone of double size refers to this 3rd king.
  • 4. BermudaThe holy Tropic of Cancer is located at 23°N. At midsummer day the Sun is there at right an-gles above. The slow northerly movement of the Sun turns into a southerly movement. So, pe-ople believe in the Egyptian SunGod Ra! Far in the east it crosses the River Nile at the samelatitude. It was the center of the Southern Egyptian Empire, but also the center of the Sun reli-gion!The Dolmen indicates there were not three, but four Crossings of the Atlantic. The last disco-vered Crossing starts at Abaco Island, Northern Bahama’s, 4° above the Tropic of Cancer, at23+4= 27°N. The Return Route runs via the island of Bermuda, 5° above it, at 27+5= 32°N. Itshows the Route was discovered in the Fifth Dynasty. The 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498 BC)reigned for 12 years, so the sailing distance to Bermuda, 2° above the Nile Delta, at 30+2=32°N, equals 12 moiras, or 12°.The Return Route runs via Bermuda to the nine islands of the Azores. It indicates the latitudeof Bermuda, 9° above the Tropic of Cancer, at 23+9= 32°N. The island was discovered by the9th and last king Unas (c.2403-2370 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty. The sailing distance from Ber-muda to the three island groups of the Azores (East, Central and West Azores) equals 3 Moi-ras, or 30°.Note, that the three little stones refer to the three island groups of the Azores. The third stoneis twice as big, and points to the south. So, the big boulder might also be considered as the fif-th stone. It also represents the Fifth Dynasty, when all the Atlantic Crossings were discove-red. (Refs.12-21)DateLittle Bear Dolmen consists of four stones, and the fourth stone is a big boulder. These refertwice to the Strait of Gibraltar, the entry of the Mediterranean Sea, 4° below the 40th latitudeline, at 40-4= 36°N. It shows people circumnavigated the planet Earth, having a circumferen-ce of 36° Moiras, or 360°.The Dolmen is located at 48°N. This latitude is 48-36= 12° above Gibraltar, encoding theTwelfth Dynasty of Egypt. The site in the Arrowhead Region is located 12 Moiras, or 120°west of the Nile Delta, when measured along the equator. This confirms the site dates fromthe Twelfth Dynasty. The last crossing to the New World was discovered at the 60th latitudeline from the Shetland Islands to Cape Chidley, Canada. The Dolmen is located 60-48= 12°below this line, confirming this Dynasty, again.Little Bear Dolmen is located 48-30= 18° above the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N. It refers to thesouth point of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico. It is the center of the Land of Punt, the Realmof the Dead in the west, at 18°N. The latitude corresponds to half the circumference of theplanet Earth, 18 Moiras, or 180°. It is the location of the start of the Olmec civilization. BothDelta’s of the Nile and Mississippi Rivers are located 30-18= 12° above the south point of theGulf of Campeche, confirming the date of this Dolmen in the Twelfth Dynasty.
  • 5. Fig.3 Two Rocks tell the account of the Dardanus Flood, which was caused by a Comet Catastrophe in the 20th Dynasty, and the story of the Metal Trade across the Ocean. (near Pogo Lake, Canadian border, MN) (Dynasty 23, c.770 BC) (Courtesy Mr. Charles Bruns, Ref.1)TWO ROCKSA Pair of Rocks (Fig.3) is located in the Arrowhead Region in northeast Minnesota, close tothe Canadian border. At the western end of Gunflint Lake, a bit north, is Magnetic Lake. TheRocks are situated on a cliff, just west of it, near Pogo Lake, c.60 km NW of the town ofGrand Marais on Lake Superior. The site is not far from Magnetic Rock (Laurentian Menhir)(Ref.46). The Rocks were discovered by Mr. Charles Bruns of Duluth, MN. In 2011 he iden-tified the site as definitely man-made.The “Two Rocks” are located at a latitude of 48°N, and a longitude of 91°W. They are pla-ced on the edge of a ridge overlooking a creek, at an altitude of c.500 m above sea level. Theyare both recumbent, one after the other, and placed in an east-west setting. Both Rocks are si-milar, each having a length of c.2 meters and a height/width of c.0.7 meter. The stone is akind of hematite, a local ore with a high iron content. (Refs.1,2)Dardanus FloodThe Magnetic Rock in the neighborhood told the story of the Biblical Flood, which was cau-sed by a Comet Catastrophe at the start of the Sixth Dynasty (c.2344 BC) (Ref.46). It appears,that the Two Rocks at this site tell the story of the Dardanus Flood in the 20th Dynasty(c.-1159 BC). It was the second, big Disaster in the history of Egypt, as indicated by the TwoRe-cumbent Stones. Both have a length/width ratio of three (3), which suggests the site dealswith the third period of good government in Egypt, which is the New Kingdom.The periodicity of the Comet equals 575 years. So, the Comet was expected to return in theyear of 2344-2x575= 1194 BC. It was the first year of government of queen Tausert (1194-1186 BC), who acted as a regent for king Siptah (1194-1188 BC), the last Heads of State ofthe 19th Dynasty. However, the Comet exploded near the Sun. A dangerous part of it reachedthe Earth 35 years later, in 1194-35= 1159 BC (tree ring dating). The meridian, or north-southline, of the site crosses the Mississippi River at 34°N, almost confirming it. The same meri-dian leaves Boothia Peninsula at 70°N. Each of the Two Rocks now confirm these 70/2= 35years.
  • 6. Dynasty and kingThe meridian hits the coast of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, at the complementary latitudeof 90-70= 20°N, corresponding to the 2nd king Ramses III (1184-1153 BC) of the 20th Dy-nasty. The Disaster happened at the end of his reign, in 1159 BC. The latitude line of the siteleaves the east coast of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, 2° to the east, confirming it. The TwoRocks confirm the 20th Dynasty. Their length/width ratio equals three (3), confirming the 2ndking Ramses III. The northern Nile Delta is located at 31°N, confirming his 31 years of reign.The confluence of the Red River with the Mississippi is at the same latitude, confirming it,too. (Refs.22-30)DurationThe Two Rocks indicate the Comet Catastrophe was a two stage event, just like the BiblicalFlood. The Delta’s of the Nile and Mississippi Rivers are located at 30°N. These correspondto the 30 days of the month. So, the duration of the Disaster is expressed in days. - The 40thlatitude line is the most famous one of North America, because it encodes the Egyptian dis-covery of the continent in the Fourth Dynasty. However, it also encodes the first time periodof 40 days of the Dardanus Flood.The falling stones were causing horrible forest-fires, and the melting ice resulted in torrentialrains and worldwide floodings. It was completely dark on Earth. The second time period las-ted 40 days, too. The climate was completely disrupted. The terrible rains continued, but it al-so became very cold. So, the rains changed into ferrocious snow and hail storms.The Two Rocks are located 8° above the 40th latitude line, at 48°N. It confirms each of the ti-me periods of 80/2= 40 days. It also confirms the total duration of the Dardanus Flood: 80days. The north cape of Panama is located at 10°N. The complementary latitude at 90-10= 80°N confirms it, too.In antiquity the Head of a Comet was symbolized by the island of Greenland, consisting of iceand stones. The Tail of a Comet was symbolized by the North Atlantic Ocean below it, whichcontains a huge amount of water. The Azores in the middle of the Ocean are located 38-30=8° above the Nile Delta, confirming the total duration of 40+40= 80 days.PrecipitationThe Central Azores consist of 5 islands, encoding the precipitation during the DardanusFlood, 50 micromoiras= 50x0.11= c.5.5 meters of water. The latitude line of the site hits theeast coast of Lake Superior 5° to the east, confirming it. It even crosses the Ocean betweenthe East Cape of Newfoundland (and North America) and the West Cape of Brittany, Franceover 50°, confirming it, too. The Two Rocks refer to the important latitude line above the site,at 48+2= 50°N, confirming it, again.The consequences of this Comet Catastrophe lasted to the end of Dynasty 22, about four cen-turies after the event, as shown by the 40th latitude line. The climate on Earth was much col-der and dryer. The site is located 8° above it, at 48°N. The Two Rocks confirm these 8/2= 4centuries. The Strait of Gibraltar is located 4° below the 40th latitude line, at 40-4= 36°N,confirming it, too. It corresponds to the circumference of the planet Earth, 36 Moiras, or 360°.It shows it was a worldwide Catastrophe. It ended all ancient civilizations on Earth, includingthe New Kingdom!
  • 7. CasualtiesThe Azores in the middle of the Ocean are located at 38°N, encoding the 3.8 million casual-ties of the Flood. The meridian of the site hits the coast of the Gulf of Campeche at 20°N, en-coding the 2.0 million casualties because of system collapse (lack of government, wars). Thesame meridian leaves the south coast of Hudson Bay at Cape Tatnam, at 57°N, almost cor-responding to the total number of victims. However, the island of Bermuda is located at 32°N.The north coast of Scotland, at the complementary latitude of 90-32= 58°N, confirms the cor-rect number: 3.8+2.0= 5.8 million men. The meridian of the site leaves Boothia Peninsula at70°N, in agreement with the 7 figures of this number.Cape Farvel, the south cape of Greenland, is located at 60°N, confirming the total number ofcasualties, c.6 million men. The length of its meridian on the Northern Hemisphere equals180°, encoding the original world population before the Catastrophe, 18 million men. The“complementary latitude” of 180-60= 120° corresponds to the number of survivors, 18-6= 12million men. The Azores are located 38-30= 8° above the Nile Delta, confirming the 8 figuresof this number.Cape Cod is located at the complementary latitude of the site, at 90-48= 42°N. The differencein latitude is 48-42= 6°, encoding the 6 million casualties of the Dardanus Flood. The meridi-an hits the south coast of Lake Superior at 47°N, which is 7° above the 40th latitude line. Itcorresponds to the 7 figures of this number. The site is located 48-30= 18° above the Missis-sippi Delta, encoding the world population before the Dardanus Flood: 18 million men. It islocated 8° above the 40th latitude line, corresponding to the 8 figures of this number. Thesouth point of the Gulf of Campeche is 30-18= 12° below the Delta, confirming the number ofsurvivors, 18-6= 12 million men. Most of them were seriously wounded.The south point of the Gulf of Campeche is located at 18°N, confirming the original worldpopulation before the Flood, 18 million men. It is the center of the Realm of the Dead (theland of Punt), where the Olmec Culture started. Cape Gallinas, the north cape of South Ame-rica is located at 12°N, corresponding to the number of survivors, 12 million men. The diffe-rence equals the number of casualties of the Dardanus Flood, 18-12= c.6 million men. – Note,that the length/width ratio of the Two Rocks together equals six (3+3= 6), confirming the 6million victims.The precise number of victims was 5.8 million men. It is (5.8/18)x100= 32% of the world po-pulation, as indicated by the latitude of the island of Bermuda, at 32°N. The name of ‘Darda-nus’ means Third, because it was the Flood, in which about one third of the people died, onethird of these because of system collapse. The length/width ratio of each of the boulders e-quals three (3), confirming it twice. (Refs.31-35)DateThe length/width ratio of each of the boulders equals three (3), twice encoding the date of themonument: 3 dynasties after the 20th Dynasty of the Dardanus Flood. So, the monument ofthe Two Rocks was made in Dynasty 23 (c.818-715 BC). This Dynasty was very active in e-recting sacred sites, because its number encoded the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. Far inthe east it crosses the River Nile. It was the center of the Southern Egyptian Empire, but alsothe center of the Sun religion.
  • 8. METAL TRADECopperIt appears, the Two Rocks tell not one, but two important stories. The second story deals withthe inter-continental Metal Trade. - The monument is located 2° west of Isle Royale, whichcan be considered as the center of copper mining in North America. The 50th latitude line is2° above it, at 48+2= 50°N. It runs along the northern shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.The ancient capital of Cahokia at the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri (and theIllinois River) is located 48-39= 9° due south of the site, at 39°N. The two islands of the WestAzores in the middle of the Ocean are located at the same latitude. These 9° correspond to thedensity of copper, 9 g/cm3 (nine times heavier than water).The meridian of the site runs to the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N. It shows, that 3/5, or 60%, ofthe copper was shipped along the Mississippi River to the south. The West Azores are located9° higher, at 30+9= 39°N, confirming the density of copper. The mouth of the Saint LawrenceRiver is located 20° higher, at 30+20= 50°N. It shows, that the remaining 2/5, or 40%, of thecopper was transported to the east.The monument is located 48-40= 8° above the important 40th latitude line, which shows thattens of millions of copper ingots were shipped to the Old World (a number of 8 figures). TheTwo Rocks are located at 48°N, encoding an overall export of copper of 48/2= 24 millioncopper ingots. Bermuda is located 32-24= 8° above the Strait of Florida, at 24°N, confirmingit. The island is located 40-32= 8° below the 40th latitude line, confirming the 8 figures of thenumber (24 million). Cape Race, Newfoundland is located 47-39= 8° above the West Azores,confirming it. The Central Azores are located 38-30= 8° above the Nile Delta, confirming it,again.For a long time past the noble metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with 0.20gram. The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree (Ceratonia si-liqua). The site is located 48-40= 8° above the 40th latitude line. The Two Rocks encode thecomplementary latitude line at 48+2= 90-40= 50°N. So, the Standard Ingot will have a mass of80,000 carats (a number of five figures), or 80x0.20= 16 kg.It means, that the overall export of copper across the Ocean would be (24x16=) c.384,000tons. It has been estimated by others in the field, that a total amount of 250 to 500 thousandtons of copper had disappeared from the mining area. So, our conclusion is that its destinationcan now be understood. (Refs.11,36-39)TinIn the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin. (The words ‘tin’ and‘ten’ are even related.) The 40th latitude line is located 10° above the Mississippi Delta, at 30°N, confirming it. The north cape of Panama is located at 10°N, confirming it, too. Tin was avery scarce metal. Although generally unknown, a lot of it was imported from South Ameri-ca. The Two Rocks and Isle Royale are located 18° above the Mississippi Delta, at 30+18 =48°N. It also refers to the tin mines near the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S.The tin was transported (as ingots) along the coast to the north, and from the Pacific to the At-lantic. The site is located 48-39= 9° above Cahokia, encoding the isthmus of Panama, at 9°N,as well as the nine islands of the Azores. In the Bronze Age the overall export of tin from thementioned site was 10% of the copper, or 2.4 million tin ingots (a number of 7 figures). The
  • 9. meridian hits the south coast of Lake Superior at 47°N, which is 7° above the 40th latitude li-ne. It corresponds to the 7 figures of this number.The North Coast of Honduras is located 16-9= 7° above the Isthmus of Panama, confirming it.Bermuda is located 32-25= 7° above the south cape of Florida, confirming it, too. It also cor-responds with the density of tin, 7 g/cm 3 (seven times heavier than water). The quantity cor-responds with c.38,400 tons of tin.SilverSilver was found together with tin. The 40th latitude line is located 10° above the MississippiDelta, at 30°N, encoding the density of silver, 10 g/cm 3 (ten times heavier than water). Thenorth cape of Panama is located at 10°N, confirming it.The site is located 48-39= 9° above Cahokia, encoding the isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, as wellas the nine islands of the Azores. It also encodes an overall export of 90 million carats (anumber of eight figures), or 90x0.20= 18 tons of silver. Most of the silver in the Old Worldwas imported from Bolivia, in South America.The Two Rocks and Isle Royale are located 18° above the Mississippi Delta, at 30+18= 48°N.It also refers to the silver mines near the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. The TwoRocks confirm the site is located 18/2= 9° above Cahokia. It confirms the overall export of 90million carats of silver.GoldGold was traded at the mouth of the River Amazone. The Two Rocks encode the important la-titude of 2°S. They also refer to the latitude line above the site, at 48+2= 50°N. It encodes anoverall export from this area of 50 million carats (a number of eight figures), or 50x0.20= 10tons of gold.However, the Two Rocks indicate gold was obtained from two different places. Tin, silverand gold were also obtained from the far more important mining area just east of Lake of Poo-pó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S. It is indicated by the density of gold, 19g/cm3 (nineteen times heavier than water). It even encodes the overall export of gold from Bo-livia, 190 million carats (a number of 9 figures). The Isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, confirms the9 figures of this number, as well as the 9 islands of the Azores.The Two Rocks are located at 48°N. They confirm the overall export from America to the OldWorld, 50+190= 480/2= 240 million carats, or 240x0.20= 48 tons of gold. It was two and a halftimes the export from Africa (19.2 tons of gold). The Phaistos Disc of Crete (1458 BC) is an im-portant source for this whole story.DurationNorth America was discovered in the Fourth Dynasty, as shown by the 40th latitude line. Atthe end of this Dynasty the inter-continental Metal Trade started with the export of four me-tals: copper, tin, silver, and gold. This Trade across the Ocean begun in the Fifth Dynasty, asshown by the Two Rocks, referring to the complementary latitude line, at 48+2= 90-40= 50°N. The Metal Trade ended at the start of the 20th Dynasty, as shown by the meridian, whichhits the coast at the Gulf of Campeche, at 40/2= 20°N.
  • 10. The Metal Trade took place during 20-5= 15 dynasties, as shown by the latitude line of the si-te, which crosses the Milk River 15° to the west. It happened from 2500 to 1200 BC, a timeperiod of about 13 centuries, as shown by the Yellowstone River, 13° to the west. - The meri-dian runs from the Two Rocks to the Mississippi Delta in the south, at 30°N, confirming the30/2= 15 dynasties. The island of Bimini, at 26°N confirms the 26/2= 13 centuries. - The me-ridian hits the Barren Grounds of Canada, 63-48= 15° to the north, confirming the 15 dy-nas-ties. It leaves the north coast of Somerset Island, 26° above the Two Rocks, confirming the26/2= 13 centuries. During this time period Egypt and the America’s formed together an Em-pire, called Atlantis. (Refs.40-47)DiscussionThe name of the State of Minnesota literally means “Site of Mining”, the name of the capitalof Minneapolis means “Town of Mining”. There is a village south of Duluth called Minong,WI. The word of “mine” is called after the legendary King Minos of Crete, who reigned thisisland for 550 years, from 2000 to 1450 BC. The island had a large fleet of ocean going ships,transporting metals from America. The name of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, is called after thisking. The name of “Minos” is derived from the old Egyptian god Min, who was the god oflove.The name of Copper Harbor shows there were copper mines on Keweenaw Peninsula and IsleRoyale. An ancient name of copper was “anta, or “onta”. The village of Ontonagan, MI, hasan ancient name, just like the Canadian province of Ontario, which means “copper river”.Copper ore is often green, as shown by the name of Greenbay, WI, and the city of that name.The name of the nearby city of Appleton, WI, is from Apple Town, or town of the “goldenap-ples” of copper.The name of the Canadian city of Toronto means “copper god”, or “copper gate”. Ottawa isderived from “Ontawa”, or “copper place”. The name of the island of Anticosta in the Gulf ofSaint Lawrence means “copper coast”. Even the name of the Atlantic Ocean means “CopperSea”. The vanished continent of Atlantis means “Copper Empire”. (Refs.48,49)References1. Mr. Charles Bruns, personal communication.2. Susan English, Website of the Ancient Waterways Society.3. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide to MegalithicSites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD.Website: www.howthesungod.com4. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the CopperTrade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98083.Website: www.rocksandrows.com5. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge6. Pellech, Chr., Website: www.migration-diffusion.info7. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.2300 BC)”,Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.5.8. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to be pu-blished.9. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders” (2009), Ref.5, to be publish-ed.10. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to bepublished.11. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)” (2009), Ref.5, to be published.12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Discovery of the Islands in the Ocean (Cairn T, Loughcrew, Co.Meath, Ireland, c.3200 BC)” (2011), Ref.5, to be published.
  • 11. 13. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Passage Grave of Karleby, Encoding the Islands Discovered in theOcean, c.2950 BC", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.18, pgs.64-74 (2004), Ref.6.14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guide-post for River Travel in Ame-rica", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002), Ref.6.15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stonehenge,New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003), Ref.6.16. De Jonge, R.M., “Stonehenge, Monument for the Discovery of America (Salisbury Plain, South England,c.2000 BC) (2011), Refs.5,6, to be published.17. De Jonge, R.M., “Tripod Rock, Pyramid Mountain (Morris County, New Jersey, c.1900 BC)” (2011),Refs.-5,6, to be published.18. De Jonge, R.M., “Anglo-Saxon Cemetery Artifacts (Sittingbourne, Kent, SE England, c.650 AD)” (2011),Refs.5,6, to be published.19. De Jonge, R.M., “Gold Ring (Grand Canyon, Arizona, c.1450 BC) (2010), Ref.5, to be published.20. De Jonge, R.M., “Sentinel Rock, Vermont (Discovery of America and Biblical Flood, c.1900 BC)” (2011),Refs.5,6, to be published.21. De Jonge, R.M., “Oil City Glyphs (Pennsylvania, c. 2000 BC)”, Ref.5, to be published.22. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizations, BAR Interna-tional Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X).23. Baillie, M.G.L., “Hints that Cometary Debris played some Role in several Tree-Ring Dated EnvironmentalDownturns in the Bronze Age”, Ref.22, pgs.109-117.24. Peiser, B.J., “Evidence for a Global Disaster in the Late 3rd Millennium BC”, Ref.22, pgs.117-140.25. Courty, M.-A., “The Soil Record of an Exceptional Event at 4000 BP in the Middle East”, Ref.22, pgs.93-109.26. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Serpent, Faber and Faber, London, 1982.27. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Winter, Blackwell, Oxford, 1990.28. Joseph, F., Survivors of Atlantis, Their Impact on World Culture, Bear & Co., Vermont, 2004 (ISBN1-59143-0-040-2).29. Baillie, M., Exodus to Arthur, Catastrophic Encounters with Comets, BT Batsford Ltd., London, 1999 (ISBN0-7134-8681-3).30. De Jonge, R.M., “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC”, (fifteen articles),Webpage: http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/dejonge.html31. De Jonge, R.M., “The Brandenburg Stone, Comet Catastrophe of 536/540 AD” (560 AD, Battletown, MeadeCounty, Kentucky) (2010), Ref.5, to be published.32. De Jonge, R.M., “About the Brandenburg Stone (560 AD, Battletown, Meade County, Kentucky)”, Ref.5, tobe published.33. De Jonge, R.M., “Ikom and the Dardanus Flood (c.1159 BC, Cross River State, Nigeria)”, Ref.5, to be pu-blished.34. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Serpent Mound (c.2300 BC, Adams County, Ohio)” (2010), Ref.5, to be published.35. De Jonge, R.M., “Northern Crossing, Biblical and Dardanus Flood, (Reykjavic, Iceland, c.770 BC)”, Ref.5,to be published.36. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN0-9744679-2-8).37. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)”, Ref. 5, to be published.38. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)”, Ref.5, to bepublished.39. De Jonge, R.M., “Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC)”, Ref.5, to be published.40. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, 300 pgs., Netherlands(2008). Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge41. De Jonge, R.M., “The Bronze Doors of Rekhmire (Thebes, Upper Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty, c.1460 BC)”,Ref.5, to be published.42. De Jonge, R.M., “The Myths of Monks Mound (Cahokia, Illinois, 650-1400 AD)”, Ref.5, to be published.43. De Jonge, R.M., “Cahokia, Capital of Ancient America”, Ref.5, to be published.44. De Jonge, R.M., “Peters Creek Mound (c.715 BC, Clairton, Pennsylvania)”, Ref.5, to be published.45. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Ancient Stories (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana, c.700 BC)”, Ref.5, to be published.46. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region I (Minnesota, c.1900 BC)”, Ref.5, to be published.47. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region II (Minnesota, c.1900 and c.770 BC BC)”, Ref.5, to bepublished.48. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5).49. Robin Hammer, Website: Old Copper Complex and Ancient Waterways America

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