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METAL TRADE IN THE BRONZE AGE

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THE BATTERSEA SHIELD …

THE BATTERSEA SHIELD
(River Thames, London, c.190 BC)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com


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  • 1. Email: drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com November 15, 2009 THE BATTERSEA SHIELD (River Thames, London, c.190 BC) Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com Introduction In 1857 a beautifully decorated object was found in the water of the River Thames, near Bat- tersea Bridge, only four miles southwest of the city center of London. It was a rare find close to an Iron Age settlement at the south side of the River. It turned out to be a bronze ceremo- nial shield, or shield-facing (fig.1), having a height of 31 inches (78cm). The impressive deco- ration of the thin, polished shield was made in a technique known as “repoussé”, in which the raised design on its surface was created by hammering it out from the underside. The circles and sinus-shaped lines show its Celtic origin. The smallest circles are filled with glinting red enamel, or glass, although some of the inlays have disappeared. It is likely that political insta- bility leaded to its final destination. The shield, which is now on display in the British Muse- um, was dated to about 200 BC (Ref.1). The upper and lower roundels are smaller than the central one, and both have a more simple, similar design. Each has four red “beads” within the circle, and a fifth one in its center. The large roundel in the middle has four “double beads” within the circle, and a single “bead” in its center. However, this turns out to be more complicated. In view of their positions, the two upper and the two lower beads are more or less identical, forming a group of four (the vertical group). The two beads at the right side and those at the left side also have similar surroun- dings, forming another group of four (the horizontal group). The beads are part of a highly ab- stract design. However, it isn’t art in the first place. It should be realized, that in a society without a regular script, such patterns often have complicated religious meanings. For that reason it is much closer to writing. It may even be historiography. There are reasons to believe, that the Egyptian religion was still important in the Iron Age. According to this religion people had to believe in the highest SunGod Ra (the large roundel in the middle). Below this supreme God were two other gods: the sungod Horus (the roundel at the top), and the moongod Osiris (the roundel at the bottom). The kings and pharaohs of E- gypt were the substitutes of these two lower gods. The many small circles and sinus-shaped lines show the permanent influence of Maat, the goddess of law and order in the universe. Long ago she created the Realm of the Dead, which was situated “at the other side of the wa- ters (the Atlantic Ocean), in the land where the Sun sets (America).” It was the paradise in the west. That is why the shield may deal with the old story of the discovery of this continent. The three roundels refer to the Nile Delta, at 30°N, but they also encode the Third Dynasty (fig.1). The two small roundels correspond to the 2nd king. It is known, that the 2nd king Djo- ser (c.2753-2723 BC) of this dynasty discovered the island of Australia (Refs.2-5). The small roundel at the top appears to represent this relatively small continent, which was discovered first.
  • 2. The shield was found in London, at 51.5°N. It is the latitude of the southern Aleutian Islands, at the south side of the Bering Sea. These islands form the gate to America. The upper and lo- wer roundels each have four red beads in the circle, and a fifth bead in the center. It is known, that the 5th king Menkaure (Mycerinos, c.2580-2562 BC) of the Fourth Dynasty discovered the two continents of America (Refs.2-5,28,29). The large roundel in the center represents North America, close to Europe, and the lower roundel appears to represent South America, which is farther away. So, the shield tells the story of the discovery of three continents, from top to bottom: Australia, North America, and South America. However, the three roundels also represent the three island groups of the Azores, in the mid- dle of the North Atlantic Ocean (Refs.2-4). These were important when sailing the Return Route from North America to the Old World. The Azores consist of a total of nine islands. The small, upper roundel symbolizes the West Azores, nine degrees above the Nile Delta, at 30+9= 39°N.
  • 3. Fig.1 The Battersea Shield refers to the discovery of Australia (top), North America (center), and South America (bottom) during the Old Kingdom of Egypt. The red “beads” tell the story of the metal trade across the Atlantic Ocean in the Bronze Age. Some important population numbers are also shown. (H= 78cm, River Thames, London, Iron Age, c.190 BC, Ref.1). (Courtesy British Museum) Metal Trade Copper The Battersea Shield is made of bronze, and it is one of the few Old World artifacts clearly re- ferring to the copper trade in the Bronze Age. The large roundel in the middle symbolizes the discovered continent of North America. It has eight red beads in its circle, corresponding to the copper mines on Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, eight degrees above the West A- zores, at 39+8= 47°N. It also has one bead in its center, encoding the mines of Isle Royale in Lake Superior, at 47+1= 48°N (Refs.6-8,28). The three roundels and the three central beads of the shield encode the important site of Po- verty Point, NE Louisiana, three degrees above the Mississippi Delta, at 30+3= 33°N. So, it appears, that most of the copper was shipped along the Mississippi River to the south. These roundels have a total of nineteen beads, providing the latitude of the mouth of the St. Law- rence River (Gaspé Peninsula), at 30+19= 49°N. So, the rest of the copper was transported to the east. Note, that the three roundels (or 30 beads) refer to a ratio of roughly 3/5 (or 60%) of the cop- per taken to the south, and that the 19 (or 20) beads point to a ratio of almost 2/5 (or 40%) of the copper brought to the east (Refs.8-11,28). So, the shield appears to give valuable infor- mation about these trading routes. Finally, almost all the copper was shipped (as ingots) a- cross the Ocean to the West Azores. The large roundel in the middle has a total of nine beads, confirming its latitude, at 30+9= 39°N. These nine beads also encode the density of copper, 9 g/cm3 (nine times heavier than water). The big question is: What was the overall export of copper to the Old World in the Bronze Age? The Battersea Shield has a size and a shape comparable with a copper ingot. So, the quantity will be expressed in units of ingots. Counted from the bottom, the large roundel is the second one. It also has eight red beads in its circle, so the amount was (at least) twenty million ingots (20,000,000, a number of eight figures). In antiquity, this was the usual way of indica- ting large numbers. The high domed bead in the center symbolizes the hugh mound of cop- per! It is the 19th bead of the shield. So, it appears the metal trade finished at the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC). This is confirmed by archaeological research (Refs.6,7). At both sides are arrows, pointing to the center. Each arrow has two red beads, joined to an- other pair of beads. It means the central bead now counts for two (first action)! The roundels now have a total of 19+1= 20 beads, confirming both the end of the metal trade at the start of the 20th Dynasty, and the (minimum) amount of copper, just mentioned. However, the large roundel (with two beads in its center) has a vertical axis of symmetry. At both sides are four additional beads, twice encoding another four million ingots (second action). So, the overall export of copper in the Bronze Age appears to be 20+4= 24 million copper ingots. Both ar- rows, each with two beads, show this number of 24 is accurate in two figures. Copper ingots with masses varying from 10 to 30 kg have been found by archaeologists. So, the problem is to establish the weight of the Standard Ingot according to this particular shield.
  • 4. As will be shown below, its value appears to be 16 kg, which is a very realistic one. It means, that the overall export of copper across the Ocean has been (24x16=) c.384,000 tons (850 million pounds)! It has been estimated by others in the field, that a total amount of 250 to 500 thousand tons of copper had disappeared from the mining area. So, our conclusion is that its destination can now be understood (Refs.6,7,12-15). Tin In the Old World bronze was made by alloying the copper with 10% tin. In the circle of the large roundel are four pairs of beads, each of these symbolizing copper and tin to make bronze. With two beads in the center (see above), this roundel has a total of 10 beads, confir- ming the 10%. Tin was a very scarce metal. Although generally unknown, a lot of it was im- ported from South America. The minimum amount of copper, mentioned above, was indica- ted with 20 beads. It means, that the minimum amount of tin will be indicated with 2 beads (10%). When counted from the bottom, one arrives in the center of the lowest roundel, which will indicate the most important mining area in South America. The high domed bead in this center symbolizes the hugh mound of tin! Apart from the red bead in this center, the roundels contain a total number of eighteen beads, corresponding with the tin mines near the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. However, the high domed bead in the lower roundel itself encodes the far more important mining area just east of Lake of Poopó, near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S. The tin was transported (as ingots) along the coast to the north, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The large roundel in the middle has a total of nine red beads, encoding the isthmus of Panama, at 9°N, as well as the nine islands of the Azores. In the Bronze Age the overall export of tin from the mentioned sites was 10% of the copper, or 2.4 million tin ingots. The number is accurate in two figures. The large roundel has six cir- cles of intermediate size, and a mound in its center, confirming the seven figures of this num- ber. It corresponds with the density of tin, 7 g/cm3 (seven times heavier than water). The quantity corresponds with c.38,400 tons (85 million pounds) of tin (Refs.14-16)! The upper roundel is identical to the lower roundel. It means, that an other type of metal was exported from South America as well. Outside the roundels are two groups of small beads. Each group consists of a pair of beads, and two single beads. The pair of beads symbolizes the metals copper and tin to make bronze. In antiquity gold compounds were sometimes used to give glass a red colour, as shown in the beads of this shield. The 19 large beads encode the density of gold, 19 g/cm3 (nineteen times heavier than water). So, the two single beads, men- tioned above, will probably symbolize silver and gold. These are the so-called noble metals. When the shield is turned upside down (fig.1), the high domed bead in the lower roundel will symbolize the big mound of noble metals from South America. For a long time past these noble metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with 0.20 gram (3.1 grains). The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). The roundels of the shield symbolize the flowers of this tree, and the beads symbolize these seeds. The upper and lower roundels, at both ends of the bronze shield, each have four small, empty circles around their centers, where the beads are lacking. The total of eight missing beads leaving the metal, and the five beads in each of these roundels show, that the Standard Ingot will have a mass of 80,000 carats (a number of five figures), or 80x0.20= 16 kg (35 pounds). These roundels each have four beads and four missing beads in the circle, with a to- tal of five beads, twice confirming it. The large roundel, which was used to calculate the overall
  • 5. export of copper (and tin), has eight beads around the copper mound, and a total of five double beads (see above), confirming it, again (Refs.13-15). Silver and Gold Silver was found together with tin. The export of tin was calculated using the roundel in the middle. So, the export of silver will be determined in a similar way. In the circle of this roun- del are four pairs of beads, each of these now symbolizing silver and tin. The roundel has a to- tal of nine beads, and in the circle are eight beads, encoding an overall export of 90 million carats (90,000,000, a number of eight figures), or 90x0.20= 18 tons (40 thousand pounds) of silver. The nine beads, and the beads in the upper and lower mounds, encode together the den- sity of silver, 9+2= 11 g/cm3 (eleven times heavier than water). The bead in the lower mound indicates the mining area in South America, around Oruro, but especially near the town of Po- tosi, in Bolivia (see above). It is the 19th bead of the shield. So, all metal trade finished at the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC) (see above). Part of the high domed bead in this center symbolizes the big mound of silver. Most of the silver in the Old World was imported from South America. Gold is a completely different story. In this early time period most of it was traded at the mouth of the Amazone River, in South America. The second bead in the center of the lower roundel encodes its latitude, at 2°S. Note, that this bead is used for both silver and gold. This roundel has a total of five beads, and in the circle of the large roundel above it are eight beads, encoding an overall export of 50 million carats (50,000,000, a number of eight figures), or 50 x0.20= 10 tons (22 thousand pounds) of gold. Part of the high domed bead in this center sym- bolizes this big mound of gold. However, most of the gold in the Old World was imported from Africa. All mentioned results, including the mass of the Standard Ingot, could be com- pared with other sources, showing their reliability (Refs.12-16). All these metals were shipped along the coast to the north. Part of the cargo ended up on the safe islands east of Florida. The Battersea Shield has a total of 19+8= 27 red beads, corres- ponding to Abaco Island, NE Bahama’s, at 27°N. From there it was transported, with the wind and the current, via Bermuda to the Azores. The rest of the cargo was transported further north in the direction of Newfoundland. Both small roundels have four beads in the circle, and a fifth bead in the center, corresponding with America’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, and the south point of Nova Scotia, four degrees above the West Azores, at 39+4= 43°N, and with Sa- ble Island, five degrees above the West Azores, at 39+5= 44°N. From these places it was transported, together with the copper from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, with the wind and the current, to the Azores. The metal trade lasted from the start of the Fifth Dynasty till the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty, which is from c.2500 BC to c.1200 BC, a time period of a- bout 1,300 years (2,3,7,9,12). The river transport of the copper ingots was largely in the hands of local people. They took their cargo to Poverty Point, or beyond, and to the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. It ap- pears, that Central America was building seagoing vessels already at an early stage. Later, they were capable of crossing the Ocean to the Mediterranean (around 1600 BC). In this man- ner they could compete with the rich merchants of the Old World. For sure they had good re- lations with the many islands in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The end of the metal trade did not coincide with the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1085 BC), but earlier, with the end of the 19th Dynasty. It seems that Central America had joined the Sea People, which started war from these islands with many peaceful peoples on
  • 6. the mainland. Both Egyptian kings Merenptah and Ramses III had to fight ferocious battles with them on their own territory (c.1223-1190 BC). It appears, that the end of the metal trade was a political decision. In this late time period there were more rich sources of both copper and tin. It surely had painful consequences for the New World. According to the Egyptian mythology of Thebes, Upper Egypt, the central mound of the large roundel symbolizes the “worldbuilder” Kematef. He produced the Ogdoade, which is the na- me for the eight primeval gods, represented by the eight beads in the circle around it. A simi- lar myth says, that the god Shu created them in four pairs, each of them consisting of a man and a woman. They were born in the Luxor temple (Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty), on the east bank of the River Nile, where they lived for a long time, performing an important mission. Together with Kematef they were finally buried in a mythical grave in the temple of Medinet Habu (Ramses III, 20th Dynasty), on the west bank of the River. This is the victory temple o- ver the Hanebu, or Sea People, as clearly illustrated on its walls (Refs.19-24). Fig.2 The lowest roundel of the Battersea Shield. The four beads in the circle and the fifth bead in its center encode the discovery of the Americas by the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty. The design of each “bead” confirms it many times. (London, c.190 BC, Refs. 1-3) (Courtesy S. James)
  • 7. Peoples of America Central America The red beads of the Battersea Shield appear to have different sizes. In the circles of the three roundels are a total of sixteen identical beads, referring to the culture around the north coast of Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala, at 16°N. Both small roundels have slightly larger (additio- nal) beads in the center, encoding the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, at 16+2= 18°N. It was the center of civilization around this Gulf, the well-known Land of Punt. It was also considered as the center of the Realm of the Dead, or the Underworld, at a distance of 18 Moiras, or 180°, from the Land of the Living, the Old World. It equals half the circumference of the planet Earth! It also corresponded with the eighteen years of reign of king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty (c.2580-2562 BC), who discovered the Americas. The roundel in the middle has the largest (additional) bead in its center, encoding the latitude of 18+1= 19°N around the Gulf of Campeche. It is often indicated, because it was considered to be an impor- tant part of the famous Land of Punt. The shield has three roundels, also symbolizing North, Central, and South America (fig.1). The large roundel in the middle, and the nineteen beads of the shield, refer to the situation of Central America at the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC). It corresponds with the start of both the Olmec Civilization and the Middle Pre-Classic Period of the older Maya Civilization. The large roundel has a vertical axis of symmetry. At both sides are three circles of interme- diate size, forming together a group of six. Until now, these special circles were hardly used! They appear to encode a population of 300,000 men (a number of six figures). The three cir- cles contain two single beads, and one double bead. It means, that this number is only accu- rate in one figure (3), but that the first two figures (30) are interesting. The three roundels with the three high domed beads confirm the population (Refs.15,16). The eighteen and nineteen red beads of the shield indicate the positive influence of the impor- tant 18th and 19th Dynasties of the New Kingdom on the development of America (c.1580-1200 BC). Outside the roundels are two other groups of four, much smaller beads (figs.1,2). These belong to the large roundel, but are clearly less important. Together, these correspond with Dynasties 20 to 27 (c.1200-404 BC), covering a time period of almost eight centuries. We are forced to conclude that the metal trade shown on this shield, declined to a very low le-vel, only a small fraction of what it was before. It appears, that the ties between the Old and the New World became very weak. The metal trade was apparently finished because of the terrific war against Egypt and the neighboring countries. This war was started by the Hanebu, or Sea People, in the eastern Mediterranean, and an important part of them were descended from Central America. The upper roundel symbolizes the Copper Culture in North America, and the lower roundel represents the Andes Culture in South America. Both peoples had strong ties with Central America. The upper and lower roundels each have four red beads and four small empty circles around the centers, together corresponding with the north coast of Honduras, Belize, and Gu- atemala, at 8+8= 16°N. Together with the two high domed beads, these encode the civiliza- tion around the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, at 16+2= 18°N. Both roundels are iden- tical, which suggests that in prehistoric times the sizes of both peoples were about equal. So, these will be treated together here. Copper and Andes Cultures In the circles of the three roundels are a total of sixteen identical beads, referring to the latitu- de of the north coasts of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, sixteen degrees above the Missis-
  • 8. sippi Delta, at 30+16= 46°N. The upper roundel represents the Copper Culture. It has a slight- ly larger (additional) bead in its center, encoding the copper mines of Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, and the area above St. Mary’s River, on the eastern end of Lake Superior, at 46+1= 47°N. Keweenaw Peninsula might be considered as the main center of the Copper Cul- ture. The roundel in the middle has the largest (additional) bead in its center, corresponding to the copper mines of Isle Royale in Lake Superior, at 48°N. This large roundel was used to cal- culate the overall export of copper. The lower roundel has the last (additional) bead in its cen- ter, corresponding to the latitude of the north coast of Lake Superior, at 48+1= 49°N. The circles of the three roundels contain a total of sixteen identical beads, also referring to the south side of Lake Titicaca and southern Peru, at 16°S. For a long time the ancient town of Tiahuanaco near the lake was the center of the Andes Culture. The two upper roundels have slightly larger (additional) beads in the center, encoding the area around Oruro, Bolivia, at 16+2= 18°S. Sometimes, it was also considered as the center of the Realm of the Dead, at a distance of 18 Moiras, or 180°, from the Old World. It equals half the circumference of the planet Earth. The lowest roundel on the shield symbolizes the whole culture around the Alti- plano of the Andes in South America. It has the last (additional) bead in its center, encoding the mining area around Lake of Poopó, Bolivia, and northern Chili, at 19°S. The Battersea Shield contains valuable information about the Copper Culture as well as the Andes Culture (fig.1). The nineteen beads in the roundels refer to their situation at the end of the 19th Dynasty (c.1200 BC). It coincided with the end of the intercontinental metal trade. The upper and lower roundels each have a total of five red beads, encoding a population of 50,000 men for each area (a number of five figures). On the shield are a number of small bronze globules. These can be used to support the obtained data. The mentioned roundels each have five globules, confirming the population of each area: fifty thousand men. North and South America The three roundels are joined to each other. It probably means, that the three peoples formed a kind of league. We shall call this league the American Metal Alliance, or AMA. At the end of the 19th Dynasty the population of the AMA was 50+300+50= 400 thousand men (c.1200 BC). The inner part of the large roundel, representing Central America, contains four globules around the central mound (of four metals), which might confirm this population. During the metal trade the AMA was strong. This is shown by the large red beads inside the roundels. However, after 1200 BC it was probably weak, as illustrated by the small beads at the outside. Outside the roundels are two identical groups of small beads (fig.1). These also symbolize the peoples in America outside the AMA. So, the upper group represents the peoples in North A- merica, outside the Copper Culture. This group touches the large roundel in the middle, sug- gesting a population comparable with that of Central America. However, note that the small beads are of half size! The upper group has four half-size beads, and the large roundel below it has six circles of intermediate size, encoding a population in the rest of North America of (400/2)= 200 thousand men (a number of six figures) (c.1200 BC). The two globules, and the four small beads below these, form together six units, confirming it. The shield indicates that the situation in South America (outside the Andes Culture) was similar. So, just after the me- tal trade the total population in America was 400+200+200= 800 thousand men (Refs.25-27). Final Remarks The three roundels contain a total number of nineteen red beads. Just below the large roundel is a group of four (additional) beads, corresponding to the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 19+4=
  • 9. 23°N. At midsummer day, the Sun is there at right angles above. The slow northerly move- ment of the Sun turns into a southerly movement. So, people believe in the SunGod! It also corresponds to the place where the Tropic of Cancer crosses the River Nile. It is the center of the Sunreligion at the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. Above the large roundel is the o- ther group of four (additional) beads, encoding the center of the United Egyptian Empire, at 23+4= 27°N. It is situated halfway the Tropic of Cancer and the Northern Nile Delta (at 31 °N). It symbolizes the seat of government of Egypt (Refs.2,12). The Battersea Shield was made in London, England, in the time period of the dynasties of Ptolemaeus in Egypt (323-30 BC). The three roundels appear to symbolize the first three, suc- cessful dynasties of this group. A period of serious decline followed. Apart from the bead in the center of the shield, these roundels contain a total of eighteen beads, corresponding to the eighteen years of reign of Ptolemaeus IV Philopator (222-204 BC), which was the next dynas- ty. The three roundels may also symbolize the three island groups of the Azores in the middle of the Ocean. So, the central, high domed bead of the large roundel may symbolize the five islands of the Central Azores, but also the last, fifth dynasty. So, the shield was made during the reign of Ptolemaeus V Epiphanus (204-180 BC)! It appears, that the last mentioned, weak dynasties of Ptolemaeus IV and V were compared with the important Fourth and Fifth Dy- nasties of the Old Kingdom. People of that time period remembered, again, that the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt discovered paradise in the west (Refs.2,3,8,12,15), and they decided to make this beautiful shield for America! References 1. James, S., Exploring the World of the Celts, Thames & Hudson, London, 2005 (ISBN 0-500-27998-5). 2. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com 3. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c. 2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007). 4. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Ancient American, Vol.13, No.81, pgs.18-25 (2008). 5. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500 BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006). 6. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, A Collection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005. 7. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN 0-9744679-2-8). 8. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)”, Ref.24, to be published. 9. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, Ameri- ca’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003). 10. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper Tra- ding Route of the Bronze Age (Kennebec River, Embden, Maine, c.1500 BC)”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).
  • 10. 11. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for Ri- ver Travel in America, c.1500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002). 12. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98033. 13. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)”, Ref.24, to be published. 14. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)”, Ref.24, to be published. 15. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, Mid- western Epigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be published. 16. New World and Pacific Civilizations. The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995). 17. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-7141-1735-8). 18. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, College Station, Texas, 1998. 19. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997. 20. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991. 21. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN 0-486-22780-4). 22. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090-631-6) (Dr. Stecchini). 23. Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS), Website: www.aaapf.org 24. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge/ 25. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-671-67974-0). 26. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5). 27. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994 (ISBN 0-9612990-4-4). 28. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.24, to be published. 29. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of America and the Flood (c.2400 BC, Ita Letra, Villar- rica, Paraguay)”, Ref.24, to be published.