Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
EARLY DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD (I)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

EARLY DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD (I)

222

Published on

EARLY DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD (I) …

EARLY DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD (I)
(Orkney’s, Scotland, c.2450 BC)

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com
November, 2013

Summary
At a recent excavation on the Orkney Islands, Scotland, a large Engraved Stone was found. A-nalysis of its front side leads to the conclusion its decoration should be considered as a primi-tive script, a kind of Megalithic Writing. It is an attempt to fix down an important story. - The story starts with the discovery of Madagascar in the Second Dynasty. It continues with the discovery of Australia and New Zealand in the Third Dynasty, and finishes with the discovery of America via the Bering Sea, which happened in the Fourth Dynasty during the reign of the 5th king Menkaure (c.2580-2562 BC). - The two southern crossings of the North Atlantic O-cean were discovered by the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty. Finally, the northern crossing via Greenland was discovered by the 3rd king Neferirkare (c.2498-2478 BC) of this dynasty.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
222
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. EARLY DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD (I) (Orkney’s, Scotland, c.2450 BC) Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com November, 2013 Summary At a recent excavation on the Orkney Islands, Scotland, a large Engraved Stone was found. Analysis of its front side leads to the conclusion its decoration should be considered as a primitive script, a kind of Megalithic Writing. It is an attempt to fix down an important story. - The story starts with the discovery of Madagascar in the Second Dynasty. It continues with the discovery of Australia and New Zealand in the Third Dynasty, and finishes with the discovery of America via the Bering Sea, which happened in the Fourth Dynasty during the reign of the 5th king Menkaure (c.2580-2562 BC). - The two southern crossings of the North Atlantic Ocean were discovered by the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty. Finally, the northern crossing via Greenland was discovered by the 3rd king Neferirkare (c.2498-2478 BC) of this dynasty. Introduction The Orkney Islands are located in the north of Great Britain at a latitude of 59°N. The small archipelago has a diameter of about 30 miles (50 km), and the southerly shores are situated 10 miles (16 km) north of the Scottish mainland, at the other site of the passage called the Pentland Firth. Most of the megalithic monuments are located on the largest island, called “Mainland”. The Ness of Brodgar on this island is a narrow strip of land between the Loch of Harray (with fresh water) in the north, and the Loch of Stenness (with brackish water) in the south. It is an istmus having a width of a few hundred yards pointing to the north-west. At the eastern entrance of this istmus is the Ring of Stenness, c.1.5 km NW of it the Ring of Brodgar, and another 1.5 km NW of it the Ring of Bookan. All three Rings are major megalithic monuments. (Ref.4) Islands in the Ocean The Azores in the middle of the Ocean were discovered c.3600 BC (with an accuracy of half a century). The Faroes and Iceland, NW of Scotland, were discovered c.3400 BC. The east coast of Greenland was discovered c.3300 BC, and its south coast c.3250 BC. However, half a century later the megalith builders gave up their attempts to cross Davis Strait (behind the west coast of Greenland), c.3200 BC. (Refs.3,12) After the last discovery the Ness of Brodgar became an important ceremonial site. The istmus was symbolic for the narrow strip of land along the south coast of Greenland located west of the Orkney’s, at 59°N. Latitudes were already known c.4800 BC. - The Loch of Harray (with fresh water) in the north was symbolic for the huge ice cap on Greenland, and the Loch of Stenness (with brackish water) represented the Labrador Sea in the south-west. (Refs.3,4) The small Ring of Stenness was symbolic for Cape Farvel, the south cape of Greenland, at 59+1= 60°N. The large Ring of Brodgar represented the important SW Cape of Greenland, at
  • 2. 59+2= 61°N. Finally, the Ring of Bookan symbolized the west coast of Greenland, at 59+3= 62°N. After its discovery the megalith builders surrendered. However, the Ness of Brodgar was also symbolic for the three island groups of the Azores, located west of the Strait of Gibraltar, at 36°N. The Ring of Stenness was symbolic for the two islands of the East Azores, at 36+1= 37°N, the Ring of Brodgar for the five islands of the Central Azores, at 36+2= 38°N, and the Ring of Bookan for the two islands of the West Azores, at 36+3= 39°N. The Strait of Gibraltar, at 36°N, was symbolic for the circumference of the planet Earth of 36 Moiras, or 360°. So, it was symbolic for the desire to circumnavigate the Earth. (Refs.2-6) Engraved Stone In 2013 an Engraved Stone was found during the excavation of a habitation site at the Ness of Brodgar, which consisted of at least five huts. So far a total of 450 inscribed pieces were discovered, but this was a very nice one. The front side of the Slab is shown in Fig.1. Close investigation shows the decoration appears to be a primitive script. An attempt was made to write down an important story. This story appears to deal with the Egyptian discovery of America. (Ref.1) Length and width of the Stone are about two feet, or 60 cm. The surface area is rather smooth. It appears this area symbolizes the North Atlantic Ocean. The coasts of Europe and Africa are in the east, the equator is in the south, and the coasts of America are in the west. Note, that the attempts to cross the Ocean lasted from about 5700 to 2500 BC, which is for more than 3,000 years! The Stone has the approximate shape of a square, with four equal sides and angles. It means the size of the Ocean was known in the Fourth Dynasty (c.2600 BC). Note, the Orkney’s are located at the complementary latitude of the northern Nile Delta, at 90-31= 59°N. In antiquity the use of complementary latitudes was very common, and Egypt was the greatest civilization on Earth! For centuries Greenland was the westernmost land of the then known World (c.3300-2500 BC). It means we have to start reading this script with the first decorated triangle at the left side above (Fig.1). It represents South Greenland, because it has the approximate shape of this land, its correct orientation, and its correct geographic position in the NW corner of the Ocean (the surface area of the Stone). The horizontal line at the top is the 70st latitude line through Cape Brewster, the east cape of Greenland, at 70°N. The line at the bottom is the 60st latitude line through Cape Farvel, the south cape of Greenland, at 60°N. The southern Nile Delta is located at its complementary latitude, at 90-60= 30°N. – Note, that the upper Row has four similar decorated triangles, all of them representing South Greenland. The lower Row has three decorated triangles, which represent South Greenland as well! (Refs.1,7-11)
  • 3. Fig.1 Front side of Engraved Stone (Ness of Brodgar, Orkney’s, c.2450 BC) (Courtesy: Ref.1) DYNASTIES First Dynasty The first decorated triangle at the left side above represents the First Dynasty of Egypt. It has a single edge at both sides, confirming it. It confirms South Greenland was already known during this dynasty. The inside pattern of small diamonds refers to the four archipelagos of small islands in the Ocean, which were already known during this dynasty. (A diamond has four equal sides.) These are the Canary Islands (discovered c.5700 BC), the Cape Verde Islands (c.4600 BC), the Islands of Madeira (c.4200 BC), and the Azores (c.3600 BC). The two areas of this triangle refer to the discoveries of the Faroes and Iceland (c.3400 BC), respectively. (Refs.3,12) However, the pattern also refers to all the islands around the South Chinese Sea, SE Asia, which were discovered by the 3rd king Djer and the 4th king Djet of the First Dynasty (c.3025 BC), and the islands of East Indonesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, and Solomon Islands, which were discovered by the 6th king Anedjib and the 7th king Semerkhet of this dynasty (c.2945 BC). The two areas of this triangle refer to these two expeditions, respectively. (Ref.35) Second Dynasty Discovery of Madagascar The second decorated triangle represents the Second Dynasty. It has two edges at both sides, confirming it. It was placed at the east side of the first triangle, because during this dynastyexploration of the World continued towards the east.
  • 4. There is no pattern inside this triangle, because there weren’t any important discoveries in the Ocean. However, this second triangle refers to the discovery of Madagascar, 20° east of the River Nile, at c.20°S, which occurred in this Second Dynasty. The pattern of small diamonds in the second area of this decorated triangle shows the shortest sailing distance from Mozambique, East Africa, of 4 Egyptian moiras, or 4°, was discovered by the 2x4= 8th king Peribsen (c.2820-2772 BC) of this dynasty. (A diamond has four equal sides.) The two edges of the second decorated triangle encode the start of this sailing route at 2x8= 16°S, as well as its sailing direction of 2x8= 16° ESE. – The three areas of this triangle confirm the 3x16= 48 years of reign of king Peribsen, as well as the correct surface area of the island of 48 square moiras, or 593 thousand km2 (officially 587 thousand km2, deviation of +1.0%). (Ref.35) Third Dynasty Discovery of Australia The third decorated triangle represents the Third Dynasty. The pattern inside has three small isosceles triangles pointing downwards, confirming it. It has one small isosceles triangle pointing upwards, referring to an important King. This small triangle resembles two large and similar triangles at the immediate left side of it. These two large, empty triangles encode the 2nd king Djoser (c.2753-2723 BC) of this dynasty, who discovered the continent of Australia. Both the third decorated triangle and the mentioned three small triangles inside confirm his 30 years of reign. The first decorated triangle has two enclosed areas, the second one three, and the third one six. Added together these 2+3+6= 11 areas refer to Cape York in Queensland, Australia, at 11°S, 110° east of the Nile Delta. So, Australia was discovered by king Djoser at the eastern crossing from New Guinea. It also encodes the position of the southern island of Roti, Indonesia, at 11°S. The pattern inside contains a total of four small triangles, corresponding to the sailing distance of 4 moiras, or 4°, to the Kimberley District of Australia. So, this western crossing was also discovered. It also encodes the crossing of Bass Strait to the island of Tasmania, at 40°S, which was discovered, too. The third triangle has six enclosed areas, referring to the step pyramid of king Djoser in Saqqara, near Memphis, Egypt, having six steps, because the surface area of Australia, including Tasmania, equals 6 square Moiras (1 Moira= 10°, or 1111 km), or 7.4 million km2 (officially 7.6 million km2, deviation of -2.6%). Discovery of New Zealand The third decorated triangle encodes the discovery of New Zealand, 30° east of Bass Strait, in the Third Dynasty. The six enclosed areas refer to the 2+6= 8th king Huny (c.2685-2661 BC), who discovered it. (The next decorated triangle contains a total of eight enclosed areas, confirming it.) The three small triangles pointing downwards confirm his 3x8=24 years of reign. The small triangle pointing upwards and the similar triangle below it represent North and South Island, respectively. Together with the two large, empty triangles at the left side a sur-
  • 5. face area is encoded of 20+2= 22 square moiras, or 272 thousand km2 (officially 268 thousand km2, deviation of +1.5%). (Refs.12-17,35) Fourth Dynasty Discovery of America via the Bering Sea The fourth decorated triangle represents the Fourth Dynasty. The pattern inside contains a diamond having four equal sides, confirming it. The plus-sign divides its surface into four smaller areas, confirming it, too. It is the fourth and last triangle at the east side of the Stone, which means America was discovered in the far east in the Fourth Dynasty. - The lower half of the diamond is a kind of arrow pointing to the southern Aleutian islands, at the south side of the Bering Sea. The upper half of the diamond is a similar arrow pointing to the Bering Strait in the north. The previous decorated triangle is more or less similar, which confirms this view. Both decorated triangles resemble large arrows pointing to the south. These show America was discovered via the southern Aleutian islands, at c.50°N. Including the diamond each of the triangles contain five enclosed areas, which show America was discovered at this latitude by the 5th king Menkaure (Mycerinos, c.2580-2562 BC). A total of 3+2= 5 small triangles pointing downwards confirm it. The fourth triangle contains a total of 4+4= 8 areas, referring to its exact latitude, 8° below the Orkney’s, at 59-8= 51°N. On the return route he also discovered the crossing of the Bering Strait, 1° below the holy Arctic Circle, at 67-1= 66°N (Sun religion). The inside pattern of the fourth triangle contains a total of 2+4= 6 patches, confirming its latitude, 6° above Cape Farvel, Greenland (shown in the glyph), at 60+6= 66°N. The diamond contains 4 small patches, also confirming the latitude, 4° below the 70th latitude line (shown in the glyph), at 70-4= 66°N. Fifth Dynasty Discovery of the Atlantic Crossings At the left side of this Row a single piece of line was engraved, which represents the east coast of Greenland. It shows this island was already known in the Predynastic Period (c.33003100 BC). – It also shows the explorations of the Ocean to the west continued in the next, Fifth Dynasty. The decorated triangles in the lower Row represent the Kings of this dynasty. – The line also represents the coast of Baffin Island, Canada, at the other side of Davis Strait. This coast was reached for the first time in the Fifth Dynasty! (Refs.16-24) KINGS First King The first decorated triangle of the lower Row represents the 1st king Userkaf (c.2517-2510 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty. It has a single edge at both sides, confirming it. The pattern inside has one small triangle pointing upwards to the large, empty triangle above it. It appears he is compared with a predynastic king! It suggests nothing happened during his short reign. The four small triangles and the outside edge form together 4+1= 5 units, confirming the Fifth Dynasty. Including the two inner edges these form a total of 5+2= 7 units, confirming the 7 years of reign of this king. The pattern inside more or less resembles the previous pattern of the Third Dynasty (upper Row). The three enclosed areas suggest the 3rd king of the Fifth Dynasty will be important
  • 6. (last decorated triangle of lower Row). However, the two small, upper triangles each have an edge, which suggest the 2nd king of this dynasty will be important, in particular (next decorated triangle). Second King Sahure The second decorated triangle of this Row represents the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498 BC) of this dynasty. It has a single edge at both sides, which clearly refers to the first decorated triangle of the upper Row, which represents the First Dynasty. The complicated pattern inside appears to show he crossed the Ocean and returned via the archipelagos of small islands already known in this First Dynasty. The bottom part of the pattern inside contains four long strips, which show he departed from the four southern Cape Verde islands, at 15°N. The three enclosed areas of the triangle encode the sailing direction of 30° SSW. It resembles an arrow pointing south, which indicates he discovered the Southern Crossing of the Ocean, with the wind and the current. This second decorated triangle shows the sailing distance was about 2 Moiras, or 20°. So, he arrived at Cape São Roque (the holy Rock), Brazil, at 5°S, as confirmed by the total number of five vertical strips. The western part of the pattern inside contains 4+4= 8 small areas, which show the Return Route started at Cape Race, the SE Cape of Newfoundland, 8° above the West Azores, at 39+8= 47°N. This second decorated triangle shows the initial sailing direction was 20° ESE and the sailing distance, with the wind and the current, was about 2 Moiras, or 20° to the two islands of the West Azores. It is clear this Return Route was also discovered by the 2nd king. The total number of 8+1= 9 areas inside confirm he returned via the nine islands of the Azores. So, the 2nd king Sahure discovered the two southern crossings of the Ocean. The two Rows of decorated triangles on this Stone are made in honor of this 2nd king. The two edges of the triangles of Dynasties II, III and IV are made in honor of him. The two enclosed areas of the first triangle representing Dynasty I are also made in honor of this king! His decorated triangle contains a total of 9+1= 10 areas. The two small, upper triangles inside the previous decorated figure refer to this 2nd king. Together the 10+2= 12 patches confirm his 12 years of reign. Third King Neferirkare The third decorated triangle of the lower Row represents the 3rd King Neferirkare (c.24982478 BC) of the Fifth Dynasty. It has no edge, because Greenland was already known in the Predynastic Period (c.3300-3100 BC). The triangle consists of two parts, because he used the knowledge of the 2nd king Sahure, who discovered the two southern crossings of the Ocean. The third triangle shows this king discovered the Northern Crossing of the Ocean, from the Shetland Islands via Cape Farvel, Greenland, to Cape Chidley, Canada, at the complementary latitude of the southern Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. In antiquity the use of complementary latitudes was very common. The left side of the triangle shows he crossed Davis Strait from the west coast of Greenland, at 60+3= 63°N. So, the 3rd king Neferirkare discovered the third, Northern Crossing of the Ocean. At the western edge of the Stone is a carving of a row of three small triangles (images of South
  • 7. Greenland), which confirm this 3rd king reached North America. This third carving is in honor of this 3rd king. The three large, empty triangles pointing upwards are made in honor of him. The second decorated triangle of the upper Row consists of three enclosed areas in honor of this 3rd king! – The two areas in his decorated triangle confirm his 20 years of reign. The first and second triangle of the upper Row has a total of 2+3= 5 areas, encoding the Fifth Dynasty, when all these important discoveries occurred. It honors the 2nd and 3rd king, respectively. This Stone has a length as well as a width of c.55 cm, or 5.0 micromoiras, confirming this important Dynasty. It was found in a habitation site of five huts, which confirm this Dynasty, too. (Refs.25-29) Discussion Fourth Dynasty Lower on the Stone is a carving of an angle of 40°. It refers to the Stone itself, which represents the North Atlantic Ocean. Its approximate size was known in the Fourth Dynasty. It is the fourth carving on the front side of the Stone, confirming it. – However, the Stone also symbolizes the continent of North America, which was discovered in the Fourth Dynasty. It has the shape of a square with four equal sides and angles, confirming it. The Stone also symbolizes the South Atlantic Ocean. Its approximate size was known since the Fourth Dynasty. It also represents the continent of South America, which was discovered simultaneously. America The first decorated triangle of the upper Row has two enclosed areas, and the second one three. Including the diamond (symbol of the Fourth Dynasty) each of the third and fourth triangles contain five enclosed areas. Together these 2+3+5+5= 15 enclosed areas encode the surface area of the discovered continent of South America of 15 square Moiras, or 18.5 million km2 (officially 17.8 million km2, deviation of +3.9%). Together with the three decorated triangles of the lower Row (or the three empty triangles of the upper Row) these areas encode the surface area of the discovered continent of North America (without Greenland) of 15+3= 18 square Moiras, or 22.2 million km 2 (officially 22.5 million km2, deviation of -1.3%). (Refs.30-38) References 1. ORCA, Neolithic artwork revealed in Orkney, Past Horizons, August 1, 2013. Website: http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/08/2013/neolithic-engraved-stone-discovered-at-ness-ofbrodgar 2. Susan English, Yahoo Group of the Ancient Waterways Society. 3. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com 4. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98083. Website: www.rocksandrows.com 5. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge 6. Pellech, Chr., Website: www.migration-diffusion.info 7. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.5. 8. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)” (2009), Ref.5. 9. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders” (2009), Ref.5. 10. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)” (2009), Ref.5. 11. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)” (2009), Ref.5.
  • 8. 12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Discovery of the Islands in the Ocean (Cairn T, Loughcrew, Co. Meath, Ireland, c.3200 BC)” (2011), Ref.5. 13. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Passage Grave of Karleby, Encoding the Islands Discovered in the Ocean, c.2950 BC", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.18, pgs.64-74 (2004), Ref.6. 14. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guide-post for River Travel in America", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002), Ref.6. 15. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003), Ref.6. 16. De Jonge, R.M., “Stonehenge, Monument for the Discovery of America (Salisbury Plain, South England, c.2000 BC)” (2011), Refs.5,6. 17. De Jonge, R.M., “Tripod Rock, Pyramid Mountain (Morris County, New Jersey, c.1900 BC)” (2011), Refs.5,6. 18. De Jonge, R.M., “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC”, (sixteen articles), Webpage: http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/dejonge.html 19. De Jonge, R.M., “Gold Ring (Grand Canyon, Arizona, c.1450 BC)” (2010), Ref.5. 20. De Jonge, R.M., “Sentinel Rock, Vermont (Discovery of America and Biblical Flood, c.1900 BC) ” (2011), Refs.5,6. 21. De Jonge, R.M., “Oil City Glyphs (Pennsylvania, c. 2000 BC)” (2012), Ref.5. 22. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN 0-9744679-2-8). 23. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region I (Minnesota, c.1900 BC)” (2012), Ref.5. 24. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region II (Minnesota, c.1900 and c.770 BC BC)” (2012), Ref.5. 25. De Jonge, R.M., “Grave Creek Mound (I) (Moundville, Marshall County, WV)” (2012), Ref.5. 26. De Jonge, R.M., “Grave Creek Mound (II) (Moundville, Marshall County, WV, c.720 BC)” (2012), Ref.5. 27. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Spear Tip, (Crow Wing County, MN, c.1500 BC)”, (2013), Ref.5. 28. De Jonge, R.M., “Ancient Stone Balls, (Redwood Co. and Stevens Co., MN, c.1900 BC)”, (2013), Ref.5. 29. De Jonge, R.M., “Circle Cross Symbol, (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1900 BC)”, (2013), Ref.5. 30. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Stone Chambers (I), (Crestone, Colorado, c.1900 BC)”, (2013), Ref.5. 31. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Stone Chambers (II), (Crestone, Colorado, c.1900 BC)”, (2013), Ref.5. 32. De Jonge, R.M., “Balanced Rock (I), (Buhl, Twin Falls County, Idaho)”, (2013), Ref.5. 33. De Jonge, R.M., “Balanced Rock (II), (Buhl, Twin Falls County, Idaho)”, (2013), Ref.5. 34. Faulkner, R.O., The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, British Museum Press (2010) (ISBN 978-0-71411992-2). 35. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, 300 pgs., Netherlands (2008). Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge 36. De Jonge, R.M., http://independent.academia.edu/ReinoudDeJonge 37. Robin Mueller, FB Group: “Old Copper Complex and Ancient Waterways America”. 38. Molina, Y., FB Group: “Mystery Mountain, West Virginia”.

×