Email: drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

January 23, 2010

              CAHOKIA, CAPITAL OF ANCIENT AMERICA
Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, ...
However, close investigation shows the four terraces have broader meanings. Terrace I deals
with the discovery of America ...
“A cache (near Mound 72) of sophisticated, finely worked arrowheads in a variety of different
styles and materials was fou...
southern Crossings of the Atlantic. These Crossings were important for the (suggested) relati-
ons with the Old World.

“N...
“The entire site of Cahokia Mounds has a surface area of about 9 km 2. On 6 km2 of this area
were a total of 120 man-made ...
Fig.2 The so-called “Bell-Beakers” from Europe have the shape of the newly discovered
continent of North America (c.2500-1...
when America was discovered. The side of the diamond around the entire city had an approx-
imate length of 4.4 km, or 40 m...
Fig.3 The widely used Kogi Loom tells the story of the early discovery of America. (Cour-
tesy Ancient American, Vol.13, N...
During the Sixth Dynasty people were recovering from this Disaster. Because of the slowly ri-
sing population in the Old W...
At the same time the importance of Cahokia decreased, and gradually the town lost its prime
position.

In the 14th century...
The capital of Washington D.C. is situated 9° above this border, in honor of the ninth king U-
nas. He discovered the Cros...
13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic
and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2...
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CAHOKIA, ILLINOIS

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CAHOKIA, CAPITAL OF ANCIENT AMERICA

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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  • Note, that the U.S.A. consists of 50 States, because of the important Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. The huge building of the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., refers to this dynasty, too. In this dynasty the Atlantic Ocean was crossed for the first time ...
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CAHOKIA, ILLINOIS

  1. 1. Email: drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com January 23, 2010 CAHOKIA, CAPITAL OF ANCIENT AMERICA Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com Introduction “Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km northeast of St. Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800– 1400 AD), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha (16 km 2) and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and nu- merous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.” (Ref.1) - Based on this brief description Cahokia received the status of “World Heri- tage Site” in 1982. The question arises: “What is the reason this site became so important?” Let us quote people who studied the matter (Ref.2). “The city of Cahokia is the focal point of what is known as the American Bottoms, the broad alluvial valley of the Mississippi River just south of the con- fluence with the Missouri and Illinois Rivers. This area is considered to be one of the most fertile agricultural zones in North America. The rivers that joined within this area not only furnished the transportation needs (trade) of the city, but through seasonal flooding it con- stantly replenished the fertility of the soil.”- This may be correct, but it does not fully explain the case. The local situation is not so exceptional as suggested. It appears, there is an additio- nal reason, which is not mentioned, yet. One of the great discoveries of the last decade is, that ancient people used latitudes the same way as we do. In addition, these people used complementary latitudes, which we don’t use a- nymore (Refs.12,13).- Cahokia, Illinois, is located at 39°N. It is the same latitude as the West Azores, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. However, the southern Aleutian Islands, at the south side of the Bering Sea, are located at the complementary latitude of 90-39= 51°N. It ap- pears, that the local people of Cahokia considered their town as the capital of North America, with ties to Europe in the east, and Asia in the west. Monks Mound This is the largest man-made earthen mound north of Mexico (fig.1). The rectangular structu- re has a length of 290 meters (NS), a width of 245 meters, and a height of c.33 meters (Ref.3). It possesses four rectangular terraces referring to the discovery of America in the Fourth Dy- nasty (c.2570 BC). The head axis of Monks Mound points 5°NNE, which is repeated not only in the neighboring mounds and eastern stockade, but also in the surrounding archaeological sites (Ref.2). It refers to the discovery of all the Atlantic Crossings in the Fifth Dynasty. It was the real start of the contact with the Old World (c.2505 BC). The four terraces are also in honor of the four Egyptian kings, who discovered the sailing routes to America: Menkaure, Sahura, Nefererkare, and Unas. (Ref.4)
  2. 2. However, close investigation shows the four terraces have broader meanings. Terrace I deals with the discovery of America in the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties (c.2500 BC). Terrace II tells the story of the Biblical Flood, when more than half of the people on Earth perished (Sixth Dynasty, c.2345 BC). Terrace III refers to the metal trade with the Old World (copper, tin, sil- ver and gold) between the start of the Fifth Dynasty and the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty (c.2500-1200 BC). Finally, Terrace IV explains what happened during the Dardanus Flood (Twentieth Dynasty, c.1160 BC). It was another Comet Catastrophe, when about a third of the population on Earth died.- During this whole time period America was a colony of Egypt. It formed the basis of the civilization in Central America. History shows, there were two big threats to humanity: floods and the absence of kings. It is likely, that Monks Mound was built to prevent both threats. In the American Bottoms, near the confluence of three major Rivers, a hugh Mound had to be built. The first terrace has a height of 11 meters (0.1 millimoira), higher than the precipitations of both mentioned Floods, 9 and 5.5 meters of water, respectively. So, in case of a Flood, the people of Cahokia could es-cape by running to the Mound.- However, the biggest threat was the absence of a King. So, it was decided to build the palace of the King on top of it. It was a massive rectangular building of 450 square meters (30x15 m), probably about 11 meters high. (Ref.4) Fig.1 Reconstructed drawing of Monks Mound. The four terraces explain (part of) the histo- ry of America during the Egyptian colonial period (Cahokia, Illinois, c.1000 AD) (Courtesy Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, Ref.18) Other Mounds A few hundred meters south of Monks Mound is ‘Mound 72’. “During excavation four male skeletons were uncovered. However, their heads and hands were missing, which suggest that they were mutilated before their burials.” (Refs.4,5,8) - It appears, these men symbolized kings of the Fourth Dynasty, which formed the basis of the ancient American culture. “Cahokia was the largest city ever built north of Mexico before Columbus and boasted 120 earthen mounds. Many were massive, square-bottomed, flat-topped pyramids -- great pedes- tals atop which civic leaders lived. At the vast plaza in the city's center rose the largest earth- work in the Americas, the 100-foot Monks Mound.” (Ref.5) - The pyramids, which were square-bottomed, were built in honor of the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty.
  3. 3. “A cache (near Mound 72) of sophisticated, finely worked arrowheads in a variety of different styles and materials was found near the grave of this important man. Separated into four ty- pes, each from a different geographical region, the arrowheads demonstrated Cahokia’s ex- tensive trade links in North America.” (Ref.4) - The division into four different types of ar- rowheads is apparently in honor of the Fourth Dynasty, when America was discovered. The culture of Cahokia was based on this Egyptian Dynasty. A beautiful bowl was recovered, having nine edges of equal length on top (Ref.5). So, the cir- cle angle in its center was devided into nine equal angles of 360/9= 40°. It refers to the nearest latitude line of Cahokia, at 40°N, as well as the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. It also encodes the complementary latitude at 90-40= 50°N, which refers to the discovered Crossings of the Atlantic in the Fifth Dynasty. “Archaeologists have also excavated four, and possible five, circular sun calendars referred to as Woodhenge.” (Ref.5) - It is likely, that the four circles celebrate the Egyptian discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. The fifth circle may celebrate the discovery of all the Cros- sings of the Atlantic in the Fifth Dynasty. It enabled the leaders permanent contact with the Old World. A mound nearby “contained a high-status burial of two nearly identical male bodies, one of them wrapped in a beaded cape or cloak in the shape of a thunderbird, an ancient and mystical Native American symbol. Surrounding this ‘beaded burial’ the diggers gradually uncovered more and more accompanying corpses, an apparent mixture of horrific burials and human sa- crifices evidently related to the two important men.” (Refs.2,3) - According to the Egyptian religion these two important men symbolize the sungod Horus and the moongod Osiris. In the hierarchy these are the two gods below the highest SunGod Ra. The kings and pharaohs were the substitutes of these two lower gods. “Excavation on the top of Monks Mound has revealed evidence of a large building, likely a temple or the residence of the paramount chief, that could have been seen throughout the city.” (Refs.4,8,19-24) Egyptian Kings The archaeologist “Pauketat thinks … that a group of 39 men and women had been executed on the spot …” (Ref.4) - Well, it appears that way, but note this number corresponds with the local latitude of Cahokia, at 39°N, and with the Egyptian discovery of the continent via the southern Aleutian Islands at the complementary latitude of 90-39= 51°N. It suggests these 39 people had to be ‘sacrified’ to rule the country in accord with the Egyptian religion. “South of Monks Mound, and astronomically aligned with it, is ‘Mound 72’, also known as the ‘Mound of the Ruler-Priest’. In this ridge-top burial mound, archaeologists found the re- mains of an important ruler, a male in his 40’s, lain on a bed of more than 20,000 marine shell beads. Nearby were caches of arrow tips from as far away as Arkansas, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wisconsin, apparently sent in tribute to the deceased.” (Refs.5,8) - Note, that the menti- oned number of beads equals the estimated number of inhabitants of Cahokia in this time pe- riod, c.20,000 men (Ref.2). “The man was buried on a bed of more than 20,000 marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon.” (Ref.4) - This last feature, the shape of a falcon, means he had the position of a king. The marine-shell disc beads appear to indicate his authority was partly related to the Ocean. The number of 20,000 (a number of five figures) is significant. It probably means he compared himself with the 2nd king Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty, who discovered the two
  4. 4. southern Crossings of the Atlantic. These Crossings were important for the (suggested) relati- ons with the Old World. “Nearly a thousand years ago, when many European cities were little more than villages, the people living at Cahokia, near present day St. Louis, built a wooden barricade surrounding their most important buildings. Almost two miles long and enclosing more than 120 acres, the fence required felling 20,000 trees.” (Ref.5) - Note, this is a number of five figures, again. It appears to be equal to the c.20,000 inhabitants, and also in honor of the 2nd king Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty, who discovered the two southern Crossings of the Ocean. “The buried man is thought to be the highest ruler of Cahokia, who was revered as the mani- festation of the ‘Great Sun’ (or the SunGod). The main skeleton was accompanied by the bo- nes of six ‘human sacrificial victims’, and nearby were the bodies of 53 young women and four men who had their heads and hands cut off. The human sacrifices may have been part of a mythical ritual, possibly a retelling of the story of creation.” (Ref.8) - The six ‘human sacri- ficial victims’ could symbolize the six kings, who founded the six dynasties of the Old King- dom. “It appeared that 53 lower-status women were sacrificed specifically to be buried with the men …” (Ref.9) – It appears that way. These 50+3= 53 women were probably buried in honor of the 3rd king Nefererkare of the Fifth Dynasty, who discovered the third, Northern Crossing of the Ocean. Note, that the meridian, or NS line, through Cahokia runs from the north coast of Queen Elizabeth Islands, at 82°N, till the mouth of the Mississippi, at 29°N. These 82-29= 53° across the whole continent of North America confirms the importance of this king. Geographic Meanings Note also, that the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, two degrees south of Ca- hokia, is located at the complementary latitude of 90-53= 37°N (fig.5). The width of North A- merica at this level is 37 moiras, or 37°. North America was considered as the ‘Realm of the Dead’. It also corresponds with the latitude of Sta Maria, the last island of the East Azores, at 37°N, when returning, with the wind and the current, to the Old World. The large continent in the east was called the ‘Land of the Living’.- Part of the meridian through Cahokia runs from Hudson Bay, at 57°N, till Lake Superior, at 48°N. These 57-48= 9° over land correspond to the nine islands of the Azores, in the middle of the Ocean. Cahokia itself is located 39-30= 9° above the Mississippi Delta, confirming it. Cahokia “maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south. Pottery and stone tools in the Cahokian style were found at the Silvernale site near Red Wing, Minnesota.” (Ref.4) - This site at the Mississippi River is located at 44°N. It is the same latitude as Sable Island, about 1 moira, or 111km, offshore No- va Scotia. This island has the shape of the hull of an ancient Egyptian reed boat. It is situated on the Return Route from Nova Scotia to the Azores, with the wind and the current. Note, that the huge Pyramid complex recently discovered in Bosnia, is located at 44°N, too (Ref.30). It appears, this complex was built in honor of the discovery of America in the Fourth Dynasty. “Instead of stone, Cahokians used red cedar posts 15 to 20 inches in diameter and about 20 feet long. Several woodhenges were built over the centuries, and the third 48-post ring has been reconstructed.” (Ref.2) - This 48-post ring may refer to Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and the East Cape of North America, Newfoundland, at 48°N.
  5. 5. “The entire site of Cahokia Mounds has a surface area of about 9 km 2. On 6 km2 of this area were a total of 120 man-made mounds,” of which the majority has been identified (Ref.6). The meaning of this number is significant. Cahokia is located at the same latitude as the West Azores, at 39°N. Its culture was based on the Egyptian religion, and the contacts with the Old World were important. The 120 mounds may encode the distance from Cahokia to the East Coast, 120 moiras, or 120°. It also corresponds with the important Twelfth Dynasty (c.2007-1793 BC) of the Middle Kingdom. This dynasty had a positive influence on the development of America. “The Mounds were named after a clan of historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 1600’s. As this was centuries after Cahokia was abandon- ed by its original inhabitants, the Cahokia were not necessarily descendants of the original Mississippian-era people.” (Ref.4) “The Illini Indians in the region told Europeans that they did not know who had built the mounds.” (Ref.11) “The name of Cahokia litterally means ‘Wild Geese’.” (Ref.10) - However, the consequence of this statement is clearly limited. “The name ‘Cahokia’ is a misnomer. It comes from the name of a sub-tribe of the Illini who didn't reach the area until the 1600’s, coming from the East.” (Ref.11) Bell-Beakers in Europe Developments in Europe were different, of course. The Megalithic Culture started about 5000 BC. Big Stone Monuments were built along its West Coast, because people wanted to cross the Atlantic Ocean. One succeeded to reach Greenland, but people gave up their efforts to cross Davis Strait (c.3200 BC). Then, finally, Egyptians crossed the Atlantic, and reached A- merica for the first time (c.2500 BC). People were so relieved that the huge Ocean was final- ly crossed, that their whole culture changed (start of the Bronze Age, Refs.12-16). They started to make the so-called Bell-Beakers (fig.2). These beakers are called that way, be- cause they resemble the inverted bell of a church. However, it is a misnomer, of course, be- cause in this early time period there were no bronze bells, and there weren’t any churches. These European Beakers were made in the shape of the newly discovered continent of North America (c.2500 BC)! Their decorations often resemble latitude lines. So, they should be cal- led ‘American Beakers’, or something like that. This culture lasted about seven centuries, till the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, c.1800 BC (Refs.15,16).
  6. 6. Fig.2 The so-called “Bell-Beakers” from Europe have the shape of the newly discovered continent of North America (c.2500-1800 BC). (Courtesy Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, Ref.14) Cahokia “The cultural tradition represented at Cahokia is called Mississippian by archaeologists. Cha- racteristics of a Mississippian site include shell-tempered pottery, triangular projectile points, rectangular-shaped trench houses, pyramid mounds, diagnostic settlement patterns and site plans, and corn-bean-squash agriculture.” (Ref.2) The pyramid mounds clearly show this cul- ture is based on the ancient Egyptian tradition. The rectangular-shaped trench houses (having four sides) may refer to the Fourth Dynasty, when America was discovered. “Another predominant characteristic of Cahokia is the matrix of interaction called the ‘Caho- kia Interaction Sphere’. The influence exerted by Cahokia and the interrelationship of sites is far-reaching. Within the Cahokia Interaction Sphere, Cahokia's influence can be demonstrated at Aztalan in south-central Wisconsin, Red Wing in (south-east) Minnesota, the Spoon River Focus of the Central Illinois River Valley southward throughout the southern Mississippi Ri- ver Valley.” (Ref.2) “Excavations at surrounding sites show that the amount of Cahokian hardware dwindles stea- dily as one moves farther from the city, suggesting a fairly small radius of trade and few large trade missions to faraway places, (anthropologist) Milner says. Still, Cahokia attracted copper from mines near Lake Superior, salt from nearby mines, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, chert, a flint-like rock, from quarries as far as Oklahoma, and mica, a sparkling mineral, from the Carolinas.” (Ref.11) “In general terms, the city center seems to have been laid out in a diamond-shaped pattern ap- proximately a mile (1.6 km) from end to end, while the entire city is five miles (8 km) across from east to west.” (Ref.4) - Note, that in ancient petroglyphs the continent of North America is often represented by a diamond. It has four sides, which correspond to the Fourth Dynasty,
  7. 7. when America was discovered. The side of the diamond around the entire city had an approx- imate length of 4.4 km, or 40 millimoiras, confirming it (1 Egyptian moira= 1 degree of lati- tude= 111km) (Refs.20-22). Basically, an earthen mound is the grave of a king. The birth of a king is a rare event. Accor- ding to the Egyptian Sun religion it only happened once in a generation of 30.5 years. This number was determined by the latitudes of the southern and northern Nile Delta, at 30°N and 31°N, respectively. The 120 mounds on the site appear to mean, that Cahokia had a history of about 120 generations, or 120x30.5= 3,660 years. According to archaeologists the culture va- nished in the 14th century, c.1360 AD. It means Cahokia was founded 1360-3660= c.2300 BC. So, it appears, people settled here after the Biblical Flood of c.2345 BC. (Refs.25,26) The Kogi Loom The Kogi is a tribe in Columbia, South America, which uses a rectangular loom for weaving textiles (fig.3). This type of loom is already thousands of years old, and depicted as symbol on many artifacts. It is called the quincunx, because of the five knots which held the loom toge- ther: four around the corners, and one in its center. According to leaders of this tribe the loom is the basis of their culture. They never changed its construction, because it is part of their i- dentity. This symbol is, and has always been, the expression of their faith.- It is interesting though, that the quincunx was not only used by the Kogi tribe, but in a large area of the Ame- ricas, from Bolivia in the south till the US in the north. Without doubt it was also used in an- cient Cahokia (Ref.17). The question arises: What might be the meaning of the Kogi loom? Probably, there are seve- ral meanings, a complicated mixture of ancient stories, which are lost in the mist of time. However, for sure it will tell the early discovery of America.- The five knots of the quincunx illustrate its discovery via the southern Aleutian Islands, at 50°N. The four wooden bars show it happened in the Fourth Dynasty. The five knots correspond to the fifth king. So, the fifth king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty discovered the Americas.- He had to return. So, he also discovered the crossing of the Bering Strait. The central knot corresponds to its latitude, 1° below the holy Arctic Circle, at 67-1= 66°N. The five knots of the quincunx encode the destiny of the Southern Crossing of the Atlantic, Cape São Roque, Brazil, at 5°S, but also the Fifth Dynasty. The two lower knots correspond to the sailing distance, 2 Moiras, or 20°, but also to the 2nd king. So, the 2nd king Sahura of the Fifth Dynasty discovered the Southern Crossing.- He had to return. The two lower knots correspond to the (initial) sailing direction from Cape Race, Newfoundland, of 20°ESE, and the sailing distance of 2 Moiras, or 20°, to the two islands of the West Azores. So, the 2nd king also discovered this important return route, with the wind and the current.- The two dia- gonals confirm the discovery of the two southern Crossings by this 2nd king. The three upper knots encode the Northern Crossing of the Ocean, from the Shetlands via the south point of Greenland to Cape Chidley, Canada, at the complementary latitude of the Nile Delta, at 90-30= 60°N. These knots form the shape of South Greenland. The three knots en- code the third king. So, the third king Nefererkare discovered the Northern Crossing.- The four bars and the five knots of the quincunx form together nine units. These encode the island of Bermuda, 9° above the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23+9= 32°N, but also the discovery of the return route via Bermuda to the nine islands of the Azores by the ninth king Unas.- The four wooden bars confirm the discovery of America by these four Egyptian kings. (Refs.19-24)
  8. 8. Fig.3 The widely used Kogi Loom tells the story of the early discovery of America. (Cour- tesy Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, Ref.17) Central America The meridian through Cahokia runs from the north coast of Queen Elizabeth Islands, at 82°N, till the northern shore of Hudson Bay, at 64°N, over 82-64= 18° over land. Again, it runs from Lake Superior, at 47°N, to the mouth of the Mississippi, at 29°N, over 47-29= 18° of land. This meridian points to the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, at the east side of the civilization a- round the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, at 18°N. This is the center of the ‘Realm of the Dead.’ It is the holy Land of Punt! The shape of the Grand Plaza around Monks Mound resembles the western part of the Gulf of Mexico (Ref.3). The mentioned latitude corresponds to half of the circumference of the planet Earth, 18 Moiras, or 180°. It symbolizes the ‘Underworld’, the Realm of the Egyptian moon- god Osiris. It is situated at a distance of 18 Moiras from the ‘Land of the Living’ (the Old World).- It also corresponds with the important Eighteenth Dynasty (c.1580-1314 BC) of the New Kingdom. This dynasty had a positive influence on the development of America. The south point of the Gulf of Campeche is located halfway the level of the Strait of Gibral- tar, which is the important entrance and exit of the Mediterranean. This Sea is the womb of Mother Earth. Gibraltar is located at 36°N, and it corresponds with the entire circumference of our planet, 36 Moiras, or 360°. For millennia people started here trying to cross the Ocean, in order to circumnavigate the planet Earth. The latitude of Punt, at 18°N, also corresponds to the 18 years of reign of king Menkaure of the Fourth Dynasty, who discovered the Americas (Refs.12,13). America was discovered from the west in the Fourth Dynasty, c.2570 BC. It was the start of the so-called Early Contact Period. Subsequently it was reached from the east in the Fifth Dy- nasty, c.2505 BC. It was the beginning of the copper trade from Upper Michigan, and the tin trade from Bolivia. Silver and gold were also shipped. The Biblical Flood happened slightly later, c.2345 BC. During this Catastrophe more than half of the people of the planet Earth pe- rished. It was the start of the Late Contact Period.
  9. 9. During the Sixth Dynasty people were recovering from this Disaster. Because of the slowly ri- sing population in the Old World, trade slowly increased, too. Finally, the metal trade finished at the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty, c.1200 BC, probably because of participation of people from Central America in wars against Egypt and allies in the Eastern Mediterranean. During the time period of the metal trade Central America, but also North and South America, were colonies of Egypt. The end of it coincided with the start of the Iron Age. The Dardanus Flood happened slightly later, c.1160 BC: about one third of the people on Earth died. After this event Central America became independent. However, religion and go- vernment remained to be based on the Egyptian Sun religion. It also became responsible for the political situation in North and South America. The town of Cahokia could be easily reached by ship via the Mississippi River. This period lasted for a long time, till the end of the Middle Ages. (Refs.12,13,19-29) The Middle Ages “Many Native American cultures built mounds. Until 1000 AD, earthworks typically were bu- rial or effigy mounds. Flat-topped temple mounds, with buildings on them, came into vogue with Cahokia. Mounds often were the village centerpiece and have become their builders' sig- nature across time. Cahokia's mounds were bigger than the rest, but did this make them grea- ter people?” (Ref.11) - It appears, that the people of Cahokia were descended from the south. Probably, they were not of North American stock. Note, a typical piece of pottery from Ca- hokia (fig.4). It is a shell-tempered bowl in the shape of the Gulf of Campeche. It appears, this civilization was highly important to them. It appears, Cahokia was a town of long-distance seafarers and traders, descended from Central America. “At its peak from 1100 to 1200 AD, the city covered nearly six square miles and boasted a po- pulation of as many as 20,000 people.” (Ref.5) “Cahokians had an affinity for ornamentation, favoring beads made from sea shells collected more than a thousand miles away.” (Ref.11) “Since there was no money, commerce was by barter.” (Ref.11) “At its peak in the 12th cen- tury, this settlement along the Mississippi River bottomland of western Illinois, a few miles east of modern-day St. Louis, was probably larger than London, and held economic, cultural and religious sway over a vast swath of the American heartland.” (Ref.9 ) In the 13th century its importance decreased, and around 1400 AD the entire town was completely abandoned (Refs.5,6). “Cahokia was evidently an imperial center that abruptly exploded, flourished for more then a century and then collapsed …” (Ref.9) “The fate of Cahokia is unknown.” According to some archaeologists “depletion of resources probably contributed to the city’s decline.” (Refs.2,3) “Archaeologists continued to be puzz- led by the fact that there are no legends, records, nor mention of the once-grand city in the lo- re of other local tribes, including the Osage, Omaha, Ponca and Quapaw. This strange silence has led some experts to theorize that something particularly dreadful happened at the site, for which the other tribes wished to forget.” (Ref.5) - It appears, these conclusions are not correct. It is probable, that the decline of the culture around the town of Cahokia was the result of a change in the geo-political situation. It appears, that the settlement was founded by people from Central America. They lived from agriculture in the floodplane, and from ‘long distance’ trade. These people knew a lot about sailing, and maybe a little about catching fish. They wanted to rule North America from this capital, but it appears that, after a while, they did not get any support from Central America. Instead a new capital was founded at the East Coast, which was later called Washington, D.C.
  10. 10. At the same time the importance of Cahokia decreased, and gradually the town lost its prime position. In the 14th century there was an important change in the geo-political situation. Central Ame- rica could not take responsibility for developments in North America any longer. Its position was too weak. China was too far away, so Europe took responsibility. The Europeans, inclu- ding the Vatican, did not want to negotiate with Cahokia in the center of North America. The capital was based on the Egyptian religion. It was too far away, and it could only be reached after a long and perilous voyage on the Mississippi River. Its long term position on the flood- plain of the River was rejected as a unsafe place, too. So, they demanded a shift of the capital to the East Coast. Rome had already built the New- port Tower, R.I., at its own latitude, at 42°N. This development resulted in the fall of Cahokia as capital of Ancient America. Instead, a new capital was built at the same latitude, at 39°N, exactly 1 Moira, or 10°, to the east. It was built and based on a new religion, Christianity. It was the birth of the later capital of the United States of America, Washington, D.C. Fig.4 A typical piece of pottery from Cahokia, Illinois. It is a shell-tempered bowl in the sha- pe of the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico. (Courtesy Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, Ref.18) The United States of America The present shape of the territory of the USA, between Canada and Mexico, might be the re- sult of the Egyptian colonial period (c.2500-1200 BC). Its borders were established along ‘na- tural’ lines, based on cultural tradition and historical information. The position of its capital was deliberately chosen, the result of a slow, but careful process. This hypothesis, outlined below, will not be proven in this article, because it needs an awful lot of additional research. We know it is a long shot, but it might contain a lot of truth … The people of the USA live around the 40th latitude line, because of the Egyptian discovery of the continent in the 4th Dynasty. The northern border roughly coincides with the 50th lati-tude line, in honor of the fifth king Menkaure, who actually did it. This border also refers to the Fifth Dynasty, when the Atlantic Ocean was crossed. The height of the country equals 20° in honor of the 2nd king Sahura, who discovered the two southern Crossings. The southern border roughly coincides with the 30th latitude line, in honor of the 3rd king Nefererkare. He discovered the third, Northern Crossing, at the complementary latitude of the Nile Delta.
  11. 11. The capital of Washington D.C. is situated 9° above this border, in honor of the ninth king U- nas. He discovered the Crossing via Bermuda to the nine islands of the Azores. This city was founded at the latitude of the West Azores, at 39°N, but also because of the discovery of A- merica via the southern Aleutian Islands, at the complementary latitude of 90-39= 51°N. The people of the USA live around the 40th latitude line, in honor of the four Egyptian kings who discovered America. Fig.5 Map of the continent of North America (Ref.31) References 1. Unesco, Website: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/198 2. Website: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/sites/northamerica/cahokia.html 3. Website: http://cahokiamounds.org/ 4. De Jonge, R.M., “The Myths of Monks Mound (Cahokia, Illinois, 650-1400 AD)”, Ref.19, to be published. 5. Website: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/IL-Cahokia.html 6. Website: http://www.nps.gov/history/worldheritage/cahokia.htm 7. Website: http://www.state.il.us/HPA/hs/cahokia_mounds.htm 8. Website: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/usa/cahokia 9. Website: www.salon.com/books/review/2009/08/06/cahokia/index.html 10. Website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Cahokia 11. Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/march/12/cahokia.htm 12. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A Guide to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com
  12. 12. 13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98033. 14. Chouinard, P., “The Bell-Beaker Culture in Central Europe”, Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, pgs.6,7 (2009). 15. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, The Illustrated History of Hu- mankind, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1994) (ISBN 90-215-2406-6). 16. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Tha- mes and Hudson, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8). 17. Herberger, C.F., “Light on the Aagard Lamp”, Ancient American, Vol.13, No.85, pg.20 (2009). 18. Roberson, J., “Cahokia: a Lethal Bite to Cahokia’s Population”, Ancient American, Vol.-13, No.85, pgs.8-10 (2009). 19. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge/ 20. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Ita- ly, c.2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.19. 21. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)”, Ref.19, to be published. 22. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.19, to be published. 23. De Jonge, R.M., “Discovery of America and the Flood, (c.2300 BC, Ita Letra, Villarrica, Paraguay)”, Ref.19, to be published. 24. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)”, Ref.19, to be published. 25. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, Mid- western Epigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be pu- blished. 26. De Jonge, R.M., “Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC)”, Ref.19, to be publish- ed. 27. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)”, Ref.19, to be published. 28. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)”, Ref.-19, to be published. 29. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)”, Ref.19, to be published. 30. Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, Website: www.semirosmanagic.com 31. Grote Winkler Prins Encyclopedie, 7de druk, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1975). (Dutch)

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