It was the cause of the chaos during the First Intermediate Period (FIP), which lasted about
three centuries, until the start of the Twelfth Dynasty (c.2007 BC). During this time period the
Sahara, the dry desert of Africa, strongly increased in size. It was called after king Sahura of
the Fifth Dynasty, who reached America via the Atlantic for the first time (Refs.7-9).- There
are many monuments on Earth describing the Biblical Flood (Ref.11).
The Brandenburg Stone strongly suggests, that the same Comet Swarm was also responsible
for the Dardanus Flood of 1159 BC, 35 years after the appearance of the Comet in 531-(3x
575)= 1194 BC (Ref.3). The Coelbren text of twenty letters refers to the Twentieth Dynasty
when it happened. This Flood lasted 40+40= 80 days, and in total the precipitation was about
5.5 meters of water. 3.8 million people on Earth perished, which was 21% of the world popu-
lation. Subsequently, 2.0 million people died because of system collapse (lack of govern-
ment), which was 11% of the original world population. So, in total 3.8+2.0= 5.8 million peo-
ple died (21+11= 32%).
The Catastrophe ended the New Kingdom of Egypt, and almost all other ancient civilizations
on Earth. Famine, and dry and cold weather, were the main features, again. It was the cause of
the chaos during the Third Intermediate Period (TIP), which lasted for almost four centuries.
It was the worst Catastrophe in human history. Descriptions of this Catastrophe are very rare.
The Brandenburg Stone is an exception. The Catastrophe coincided with the end of the inter-
national Copper and Tin trade in the Bronze Age (Refs.13,14). It marked the start of the Iron
Other early Disasters
The Stone shows, that the same Swarm caused the Calamity known as Caesar’s Comet, two
months after the appearance of the main object, in 531-575= 44 BC (Ref.3). This time there
was no Flood but only a dust veil, which caused 0.5 million casualties, about 1.3% of the
world population. It strongly resembled a volcano catastrophe. Famine and dry weather lasted
for two years. It ended the Ptolemaic Dynasty, and it was the beginning of the time period of
the Roman Emperors. The Catastrophe marked the start of the Christian Era, in which we are
It appears, the Brandenburg Stone does not indicate any calamity before the Biblical Flood,
but the periodicity of the Comet suggests a Catastrophe at 531-(6x575)= 2919 BC. This date
coincides with the last years of the First Dynasty of Egypt, and it is very probable that it cau-
sed its abrupt end. Tree-ring data and ice core research confirm a major event around this da-
te (Refs.15,16), and the unstable Second Dynasty suggests chaos in this early time period in
human history. It was the reason that most of the time Egypt was not united during this Dy-
The Comet appeared again in 531-(4x575)= 1769 BC, which is c.24 years after what appears
to be the best date of the end of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, c.1793 BC. The
reason for the end of the Middle Kingdom is presently unknown, but it is highly probable this
Comet was involved. It was the start of the Second Intermediate Period (SIP), which lasted
two centuries, until the start of the Eighteenth Dynasty (New Kingdom), c.1580 BC. It was a
time period of political chaos, again, as generally accepted by Egyptologists.
The Comet also appeared in 531-(2x575)= 619 BC. Literature sources report a huge Comet in
the sky, larger than previously seen for several centuries (Ref.17). It appears, that for the first
time people on Earth were rather lucky. A cosmic collision with the tail of the Comet, or with
debris from this object, did not occur. The nine Kaali Impact Craters on the island of Saarema,
Estonia, have a similar date (Ref.18). During the early Iron Age a stone wall of half a kilo-
meter length was built around the lake inside the main crater. The date of the Comet is indi-
cated by tree-ring minima.
Fig.1 The Brandenburg Stone is a memorial stone for the 2.9 million victims of the Comet
Catastrophe of 536/540 AD.- The upper edge symbolizes the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
The petroglyph is an Arrow, pointing to the Mississippi Delta. At the right edge is a carving
of a Comet, at the left edge a carving of a volcano. (560 AD, Battletown, Meade County,
Kentucky) (Courtesy S. Murphy, Ref.1)
After the 6th Century
As predicted by the Brandenburg Stone a huge Comet appeared in the later year of 531+575=
1106 AD! After perihelion the Sun-grazer broke into two fragments, but the Swarm did not
cause a major Catastrophe (Refs.4,5).- As predicted by the Stone the same Comet appeared a-
gain in the later year of 531+(2x575)= 1680 AD! The Comet was “discovered” by the Ger-
man astronomer Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710). For that reason it is now called Kirch’s Comet
(Refs.4,5). He also invented and charted the now obsolete star constellation called the Bran-
denburg Scepter. The name of the town of Brandenburg, Kentucky, USA, is related to it.
Sir Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was the first who studied the Great Comet of 1680/1. On the
basis of the suspected previous appearances of 44 BC, 531 AD and 1106 AD, he proposed a
single Comet having a periodicity of 575 years. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) agreed with
this view. However, he studied the problem in much greater detail. For that reason astrono-
mers sometimes call it Newton’s Comet. William Whiston (1667-1752) published in 1696 his
book “A New Theory of the Earth”, in which he confirmed these ideas. He was convinced the
Comet caused the Biblical Flood in c.2344 BC. Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) asserted that up
to seven past visits of Caesar’s Comet could most probably be distinguished (in 1767, 1193,
618, 44 BC and 531, 1106, 1680 AD) with a return yet to come in 2255 (Refs.19-26).
The danger of a worldwide Comet Catastrophe is highly underestimated. At the moment the
Western Civilization based in Europe and North America is the leading power in the World.
A Cosmic Collision with a Comet is capable to wipe out this power, together with other civi-
lizations, within a single year. The Christian Church is the head of spirituality. A Comet
might destroy its basis, together with other important religions, within a few months. Chaos
might rule the World for centuries. It happened several times before (Ref.11)!
The present world population is about 7 billion men (a number of ten figures). At this moment
we believe that each century a Comet Catastrophe will occur with more than 1% casualties
(70 million victims, a number of eight figures). Comet Catastrophes with less victims will
happen more often. People are not aware of the fact that their governments are sleeping, as
they always have done in this respect. After the Events happened, accurate data about these
Catastrophes were not even recorded by them. With the greatest difficulty we are slowly able
to enravel what might have happened (Refs.3,11,13)!
Research on worldwide Catastrophes was only done on a limited scale during the last decade
(Refs.27-35). Archaeologists and historians are not aware of the existence of these events.
They only know about local volcanic catastrophes, but for instance Mike Baillie had, and still
has, the greatest difficulty to show that Comets are much more dangerous (Refs.15,29). Most
of these ‘scientists’ do not even know about the presence of comets and astroids. They often
do not know the meaning of these words.- The website of Barry Warmkessel is the only place
on the internet which discusses the subject in a serious manner (Ref.11). It shows the low sta-
tus of this subject in the present year of 2010.
The Great Comet of 1680/1 did not cause an official Catastrophe. However, the date clearly
shows up in tree-ring measurements and ice core research (Refs.15,16,36,37). These signals
are usually explained in terms of eruptions of one or more (local) volcano’s. These explanati-
ons are definitely wrong.- This Sun-grazer left a lot of debris in the solar system, which cau-
sed, together with other comets around this date, a global downturn of the climate on Earth.
As a rule the influence of a Comet is at least an order of magnitude bigger than that of a vol-
cano (10 to 100 times). It is a recent example of a Comet Catastrophe, which is simply not
described in the literature. The number of casualties is not even mentioned!
The Brandenburg Stone predicted possible Comet Catastrophes in 531+575= 1106, and in 531
+2x575= 1681. These predictions turned out to be correct.- The Stone also predicts possible
Comet Catastrophes in 531+3x575= 2256, and in 531+4x575= 2831. Huge Catastrophes
might occur around these future dates in the Third Millennium, in which we are presently li-
ving. Sir Isaac Newton, one of the greatest scientists who ever lived on this Planet, supported
these conclusions (Refs.20,23). It is clear, that the English government and the Church in the
17th Century supported this view, too.
The German astronomer Johann Encke (1791-1865) calculated the periodicity of the Great
Comet of 1680/1, and found a value of 9,356 years, in stead of circa 575 years
(Refs.4,5,38,-39). It appears, that his calculation has an official status within the astronomical
world. In view of the importance of the subject, I suggest to repeat this calculation, and to
consider the possibility that an accuracy of four figures in the answer might not be justified, in
view of the low level of accuracy of the observed data from that time period.
The possibility that the whole calculation cannot be justified should also be considered. These
observations have been performed (often by illiterate amateurs without a telescope) around a
huge, bright Comet in a possibly cloudy sky during a winter at the end of the 17th Century.
The possibility of political manupulation of official data must also be considered. In general,
governments do not like panicky reactions from the academical world, which challenges the
authority of the Head of State.
1. Murphy, S., Website on the Brandenburg Stone (2002),
2. Midwestern Epigraphic Society, Website: www.midwesternepigraphic.org
3. De Jonge, R.M., “The Brandenburg Stone, Comet Catastrophe of 536/540 AD (560 AD,
Battletown, Meade County, Kentucky)”, Ref.8, to be published.
4. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Comet
5. Website: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gro%C3%9Fer_Komet
6. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the Sungod Reached America, c.2500 BC, A
Guide to Megalithic Sites, MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box
3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-3392, also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com
7. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy,
c.2300 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.8.
8. Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge
9. De Jonge, R.M., “Discovery of America and the Flood (c.2300 BC, Ita Letra, Villarrica,
Paraguay)”, Ref.8, to be published.
10. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Australia and the Flood (The Rainbow Serpent Shel-
ter, Mt. Borradaile, Arnhem Land)”, Ref.8, to be published.
11. De Jonge, R.M., “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC”, (seven articles)
12. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henbury_Meteorites_Conservation_Reserve
13. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic
and the Copper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box
3392, Kirkland, Wa USA 98033. Website: www.rocksandrows.com
14. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994 (ISBN 0-684-81297-5).
15. Baillie, M.G.L., Exodus to Arthur, Catastrophic Encounters with Comets, BT Batsford
Ltd., London, 1999 (ISBN 0-7134-8681-3).
16. Salzer, M.W., and Hughes, M.K., Quaternary Research 67, 57-68, 2007.
17. Website: www.huanacauri.com/cms/early-records-of-Halleys-Comet.html
18. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaali_crater
19. Website: www.jwwerner.com/history/Comet.html
20. Newton, I., Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, third ed., 1726, Book III, Pro-
position XLI, Problem XXI.
21. Website: www.uic.edu/las/clas/comet/ABSTW51.DOC
22. Ramsey, J.T., and Lewis Licht, A., The comet of 44 B.C. and Caesar's funeral games, The
American Philological Association (1997).
23. Website: www.kouroo.info/kouroo/thumbnails/N/SirIsaacNewton.pdf
24. Website: www.varchive.org/itb/ecwhist.htm
25. Whiston, W., New Theory of the Earth (1696).
26. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Gibbon
27. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizati-
ons, BAR International Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X).
28. Peiser, B.J., “Evidence for a Global Disaster in the Late 3rd Millennium BC”, Ref.27, pgs.
29. Baillie, M.G.L., “Hints that Cometary Debris played some Role in several Tree-Ring Da-
ted Environmental Downturns in the Bronze Age”, Ref.27, pgs.109-117.
30. Courty, M.-A., “The Soil Record of an Exceptional Event at 4000 BP in the Middle East”,
31. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Serpent, Faber and Faber, London, 1982.
32. Clube, S.V.M., and Napier, W.M., The Cosmic Winter, Blackwell, Oxford, 1990.
33. Joseph, F., Survivors of Atlantis, Their Impact on World Culture, Bear & Co., Vermont
2004 (ISBN 1-59143-0-040-2).
34. Grondine, E.P., Man and Impact in the Americas, Kempton, Illinois (2005) (ISBN 0-9776
35. Bruce Masse, W., Earth, Air, Fire, and Water, The Archaeology of Bronze Age Cosmic Ca-ta-
strophes, Ref.27, pgs.53-92.
36. Baillie, M.G.L., A Slice Through Time: Dendrochronology and Precision Dating, Rout-
ledge, London (1996) (ISBN 0-713-47654-0).
37. Baillie, M.G.L., New Light on the Black Death: The Cosmic Connection, Ed. Tempus
38. Marsden, B., Website: http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc100898.html
39. Website: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreutz-Gruppe