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Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
Strategies that work!.ppt 2011
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Strategies that work!.ppt 2011

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  • 1.
    • Strategies that Work!
    • Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • 2011-1012 School Year
    • Rosalou Maxwell
  • 2.
    • Autism is a neurological disorder. There are various theories regarding the cause of autism:
    • -genetics
    • -abnormal brain development
    • -environmental “triggers”
    • None have been scientifically proven.
    • Students range in their abilities and skills within the spectrum. Generally children will show characteristics of this disorder before age 3. Autism significantly affects the following areas:
  • 3.
    • 1. Communication:
    • Non-verbal, minimal speech
    • Repetitive speech
    • Difficulties with comprehension
    • Literal interpretation of language
    • May use words without attachment of meaning.
  • 4.
      • 2. Social Interaction :
      • Poor eye contact
      • Limited facial expressions
      • Limited or inappropriate interactions with peers
      • Limited understanding of social rules or cues
      • Unusual reactions to social situations
      • Minimal cooperation with peers
  • 5.
      • 3. Behavior Patterns :
      • Repetitive movements, self-stimulation
      • Restricted interests
      • Inflexible routines/rituals
      • Resistance to change/transitions
      • Behavior episodes (meltdowns/tantrums)
      • Possible aggressive behavior
      • Possible Self-injurious behaviors
      • Sensory issues
  • 6.
    • Approximately 1 in 110 children have the diagnosis of autism. It is the fastest growing developmental disability.
    • Ratio of 4 boys to 1 girl
    • Approximately 560,000 individuals in the United States between the ages of 0 and 21 have autism.
    • Autism is increasing at a rate of 10-17% per year. At this rate there could be 4 million individuals with Autism in the U.S. in the next decade.
    • (Dr. Jennifer Sellers, Auburn University
  • 7. Successful Strategies for the School Year
  • 8.
    • Weak Processing Speed
    • Verbalize more than they understand
    • Slow work speed
    • Poor writing skills
    • Poor organizational skills
    • Difficult to see the big picture
    • Immature and inappropriate social skills
    • Behavior/motivational issues
    • Perception and theory of mind issues
    • Sensory Integration issues
    • Good rote memory
    • Difficulty regulating their emotions
    • Poor coping strategies
  • 9.
    • The ability to pick up and act on social assumptions
    • The ability of think about other people’s thinking, (“Is this person I’m speaking with interested in what I’m talking about?)
    • Mind reading: facial expressions, body stance, voice tones,
    • Problems with planning, organizing, shifting attention and multitasking
    • Difficulties approaching complex tasks, breaking them down into parts and budgeting time
    • Unable to leave one task if it is not finished
    • Difficulties drawing diverse information together to construct higher level meanings in context
    • Grasping the “gist” of a story, Seeing parts over the whole
    • By age 4, children understand that people have thoughts, knowledge, beliefs, and desires of their own. Students with ASD don’t realize that their comments may offend or embarrass others. They are generally “blunt” and “say it like they see it”.
  • 10.
    • Seating arrangement
    • Organization
    • Routine/Rules
    • Daily Schedule
    • Advance Planning
    • Classroom Positive Behavior Management Plan
    • Visual Strategies
    • Develop a Supportive Classroom
  • 11.
    • Clear visual schedules
    • Materials organized and labeled for easy access
    • Picture labels or icons when necessary
    • Individual and group work spaces clearly delineated
    • Materials accessible and within reach for students when appropriate
    • Checklists for procedures and rules are posted
    • Color-coding used where appropriate to build in independence in tasks
    • Transition times marked by visual or auditory cues
    • Student desks and tables are appropriate size and comfortable
    • *2010 LRP Publications
  • 12.
    • Areas of Concern:
    • Challenge for students with autism
    • Difficulty seeing the perspective of others
    • Isolation from peers
    • Difficulty managing day-to-day interactions
    • Struggle with communication skills
    • Poor problem solving skills
    • Confusion with “hidden curriculum”
  • 13. Why Teach Social Skills??
    • For many students, the development of social competencies, even more than academic or vocational skills, will determine how independently they can be as adults.
    • ( Staying in the Game , Loomis)
  • 14. Social Tools to Assist Student
    • 1.Rule Cards:
      • Proper greeting behaviors
      • Problematic behaviors to avoid
      • Play rules
      • 2. Conversational Starters
      • 3. Scripts
      • 4. Social Stories
      • 5. Situational Fact Sheets (Written or in pictures)
      • 6. Relaxers/Fidgets
      • 7. Environmental Supports
      • 8. Incentives/Rewards
  • 15. Being Friends with Boys
    • Girls may like boys and may have a “crush” on them. Having a crush on a boy is okay when you are older. At school we need to follow our rules:
    • 1. Look at my friend when he is talking to me. Do not stare at my special friend when he is not talking with me.
    • 2. Give my special friend his personal space. Do not touch him.
    • 3. Talk about what all my friends are talking about. It is not appropriate to talk about my special friend. It is a good idea to change topics when I am asked. I can talk about the weekend, pets, holidays, vacations, or school projects.
    • 4. Observe my friends to see if they want to talk with me. If they don’t look at me, walk away, or don’t talk to me, then I will find someone else to talk with.
    • My special friend does not like for me to follow him, to stare at him, or to touch him. I will try to follow my school rules. I will look at my Rating Scale, and try to stay at numbers 1 or 2. If I start to act like a number 3, 4, or 5, I will try to remember when I need to do to be friendly and show appropriate behavior at school.
  • 16.
    • Peer buddies check for understanding and prompt for direction-following
    • Small groups or partners during guided practice activities
    • Peer buddies at recess and breaks for social support
    • Peers taught appropriate ways to prompt for appropriate responses and behaviors.
    • Cross age tutors for academic support
    • Lunch bunch to encourage social skills
  • 17. Generalization of Social Skills
    • Peer Mentors: More naturally occurring support
    • Adult Intervention: Levels of support
      • Monitor Level
      • Guide Level
      • Intervention Level
      • Gradually “fade” levels of support:
      • - Fade the amount of information given, the length of teaching sessions, the frequency of sessions
  • 18. Social Goal for Student:
    • The goal of any social skills training should be to make sure the student learns enough social skills so that he can function independently in the community as an adult.
    • We want the student to master sufficient social skills so that as an adult he’ll be able to “choose” how much social activity he would like in his life.
  • 19.
    • Look at homework and reduce if needed to allow student to be able to complete it independently at home.
    • Be creative in finding motivations for the student to complete work.
    • Teach and use a system for organizing his work and in writing his homework.
    • Use a positive behavior management plan
  • 20. Accommodations
    • Use visuals to teach as much as possible
    • Have “rules” specific for the student and teach him those rules. Have a copy in his notebook.
    • Use “gestures” (V for volume) in the class to remind student of desired behavior.
    • Teach the student to be a self-advocate for his needs
    • Teach him strategies to relax and to use those when he requires them.
  • 21. Accommodations
    • Allow him to the computer for written work (Writing may be difficult or the student may dislike it.)
    • Be creative with projects allowing power point presentations and allowing the student to focus on his area of interest if possible
    • Provide routine and an agenda for your classes so the student will know what to expect
    • Use Multi-media in the classroom to engage students (projectors, computers, DVD’s, Ipads, tablet computers, smart boards, video recorders)
    • See handout for other suggestions
  • 22.
    • Generally the “biggest challenge”
    • Behavioral concerns “top of list” for strategies
    • Required to use “PBS”-Positive Behavioral Supports
    • Philosophy: Behavioral concerns can be anticipated and prevented through careful planning and well-designed motivational systems.
    • If problems occur with system, may need additional “accommodations”
  • 23. Examples of Systems and Accommodations:
    • Sticker Chart:
      • 1.Provide “rules” for earning stickers
      • 2.Begin with a high success rate for the student
      • 3.Carry stickers with you throughout the day or determine a set time the stickers will be issued
      • 4.Honor the conditions you established until the chart is full
      • 5.Before issuing the chart, let the student determine the reward
      • 6.Give the reward per the agreement (Don’t make him wait for the reward. )
  • 24. Examples continued:
    • Red, Yellow, Green Pocket Charts
    • 1. Clearly post your expectations for staying on green
    • 2. Be consistent with changing cards
    • 3. Make sure the motivation for staying on green is motivating for the student with ASD
    • 4. Increase the frequency and duration with which you provide rewards
    • 5. Use consequences with caution. Research indicates that issuing a consequence will temporarily stop a behavior, but not change it in the long term
  • 25. Examples continued:
    • The Marble Jar
      • 1.Post the conditions for placing marbles in the jar
      • 2.Make sure the students experience a high rate of success
      • 3.Provide specific feedback when you put marbles in the jar
      • 4.Allow students to put marbles in the jar
      • 5.Be consistent and generous with filling the jar
      • 6.Never take marbles out for “bad behavior”. Instead remind them of their rules for filling the jar
      • 7.Have the students come up with the reward (Have a reward menu visible, but select when jar is full)
      • 8.Allow different student to choose the reward and rotate the reward menu
  • 26. Examples continued:
    • Race to the Finish Line:
      • 1.Make sure the conditions for moving the vehicle are visible and specific
      • 2.Set conditions that are easily achieved
      • 3.Never move backwards
      • 4.Have the students select the reward
      • 5.Keep reward menu visible
      • 6.Be prompt with using rewards. IF you have to wait a few days for the reward, make sure you set the date it will happen and stick to it.
  • 27. Techniques for Behavior Management
    • Behavioral Charts (1-5)
    • Relaxation Schedules
    • Self-Management Strategies
    • Behavioral Contracts
    • Be aware of “stressors” (unstructured times, transitions, crowded hallways, changes in schedule, social interactions, P.E., lunch, recess)
    • Positive Behavior Management
  • 28. 5 Point Scale
  • 29. Santa Goofy Point Card Sheet 1 one 2 two Book on Tape / Music 3 three Chips Cheetos Smarties 4 four Chitty Bang Bang-Barney- or movie 5 five 6 six Computer and Printer 7 seven Choices Points
  • 30.
    • My Relaxation Techniques
    • 1.Close my eyes
    • 2. Take 5 deep breaths
    • 3. Count to 10 slowly
    • 4. Stretch my arms over my head
    • 5. Take 5 deep breaths
    • ASK:
    • Am I relaxed? YES Then go back to class
    • B. Am I relaxed? NO Then start at number 1
  • 31. Additional Strategies for Behavior
    • Be generous with praise
    • Be specific about what the student is doing “right”.
    • Use token cards/visual systems to manage behaviors
    • Establish reinforcements/incentives for the students to complete work and to maintain positive behavior. These may change throughout the year.
    • Consult with Behavior Specialist (Functional Behavior Analysis )
  • 32.
    • Use visual methods to teach strategies
      • SOCCSS: Situation-Options-Consequences-Choices-Strategies-Simulation, Developed by Jan Roosa
      • SOLVE: Seek-Observe-Listen-Vocalize-Educate
      • Live out Loud: Talk about the steps you are doing as you solve daily problems: (There is no room to write on the board, I need to erase
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • Use literal language in explanations or explain more abstract concepts
    • Talk about idioms in class if they come up and explain
    • Talk about one item a day of the “Hidden Curriculum”
    • Use shorter, simpler sentences
    • Involve the Speech/Language Pathologist
    • Ask him questions to make sure of comprehension or ask him to repeat the direction
  • 35. Additional Strategies for Language
    • Remember comprehension is not guaranteed
    • Clearly define your expectations, tell the student specifically what you want them to do (i.e. Put the microscope in the cabinet instead of clean up the science lab)
    • Combine verbal instruction with pictures and/or gestures
    • Explain generalities (i.e. If there is a science test on Thursday, be sure the student knows he should start studying before Wednesday night)
    • Be specific with directions (call the student’s name, have the student paraphrase directions)
    • Encourage the student to clarify any direction he does not understand
  • 36.  
  • 37. Sensory Integration
    • What is it?
    • It is the ability to take in sensory information, process the information and then respond to the information.
    • What are the sensory systems?
    • Tactile-touch Olfactory-smell
    • Auditory-hearing Proprioception-knowing
    • Visual-seeing where your body is in space
    • Gustatory-taste Vestibular-movement
  • 38. Sensory Issues
    • Oversensitivity
      • Noises
      • Visuals
      • Fixations
      • Excessive Verbalizations/talking
      • Obsessions
      • Sensory processing can be affected by medication, lack of sleep, nutrition, holidays, etc. Be aware of what is going on in a child’s life.
  • 39. Be Proactive Verses Reactive Everyone has a sensory system that is being regulated constantly….we just don’t have to think about it! Children with impaired sensory systems need extra help to achieve “just the right balance”.
  • 40. Strategies
    • If the student is having difficulties in class, deal with those early
    • Try giving her a job to do within the class or ask her to “run an errand” or deliver a message to the office (prepare office staff)
    • Ask her if she needs a break
    • Have a break area in your room
    • Call the student’s special education teacher for help
  • 41. Additional techniques for Sensory Issues
    • Manage Environment
    • Seating
    • Schedule
    • Routine/Rules
    • Advance Planning
    • Visual Strategies
    • Supportive Classroom
    • Fidget Items
    • Organization
    • Daily Agenda
    • Notebook
    • Checklists
    • Accommodations
    • Sensory Activities
    • Sensory Diet during day
    • Sensory Breaks
    • Occupational Therapy
  • 42.
    • Provide schedules of your day on the board, on desk, in notebook
    • Give mini-schedules for projects/book reports
    • Help them learn new routines
    • Structure assignments for understanding
    • List steps to complete assignments
    • Be consistent as a team in dealing with behavior
  • 43. Additional Guidelines for Routines/Rules
    • Eliminate power struggles by establishing rules for the class and rules for getting along with peers and for understanding how to do things
    • Give him acceptable things to do in free time
    • Examples of Hidden Curriculum Rules
      • During silent reading, read in your mind, not out loud
      • Use your own supplies and ask if you want to borrow something
      • Raise your hand to ask a question
      • When standing in line make sure there is space between you and your friend
  • 44. Extra: Extra: Extra: Wednesday Folder Reading Log Spelling Words/Homework Challenge Math Folder Vocab. Words D.O.L. Or English Math Minute Completed and/or Turned In at School Work on at Home Pack Up Check When You’ve Turned In Check Off When Completed Daily Checklist
  • 45. Mini Schedule for Packing Up ____Get Back Pack ____Check Agenda for Homework ____Get Books for Homework ____Get Homework Folder ____Put in Back Pack and close ____Wait for Teacher to call your group for dismissal
  • 46. My Daily Schedule Pack Up/Home 2:45-3:15 Social Group 2:15-2:45 Science 1:45-2:15 Recess 1:15-1:45 Specials 12:15-1:15 Restroom Noon-12:15 Lunch 11:30-Noon Math 10:30-11:30 Restroom 10:15-10:30 Break/Snack 9:30-10:15 Reading 8:30-9:30 Morning Work 8:00-8:30 Friday Thursday Wednesday Tuesday Monday Time
  • 47. Visual Schedules
    • Class Schedule
    • ____DOL
    • ____Reading
    • ____Snack/Break
    • ____Math
    • ____Lunch
    • ____Recess
    • ____Science
    • ____Social Studies
    • Rules for Science
    • Place all your belongings under your desk
    • Raise your hand if you need the teacher’s assistance
    • You may quietly get up and sharpen your pencil
  • 48. Art Project Needs _____Colored Paper ____ Scissors _____Glue _____Markers
  • 49. My School Rules 1. Use my relaxation techniques before I get angry. 2. Ask for break and go to my “safe place” if I need one. 3. Complete my work I missed when I return to class 4. Keep my hands to myself. 5. Take turn on being first in line. I will be able to do something special when I follow my rules at schools
  • 50.  
  • 51. Teacher Communication
    • Team meetings
    • All teachers consistent with behavior plan
    • Advise Special Education teacher of areas for accommodations/
    • Discuss skills needed
    • Consult with related services
    • Advise teacher of social group of areas observed that need special attention during the group
  • 52. Home School Communication
    • Establish “rules”
    • E-mail
    • Daily notes on schedule
    • Student writes notes
    • Teacher signs agenda and adds notes
    • Notification system for changes in schedule/teacher absence
    • Scheduled meetings
  • 53. “ I Can’t Argue with That” Tips regarding education from Chris McIntosh, a person with ASD,
    • 1. Avoid our strengths: Usually in the area of intellect, will power, logic and ability to argue. We lack good judgment and perspective. You don’t want to reinforce a disruptive pattern of arguing that causes us grief in adulthood.
    • 2. Play to our weaknesses in the areas of emotional and considering other’s feelings. Logical arguments may not work. It is best to use emotional needs-based statements like, “You have to go to bed because I’m very tired, and I need to have some time to myself to relax and unwind.”
    • 3. Emotional Content, Tone, and Blame: We need to hear emotional content in language. ( use emotional tones when we upset you.) But when correcting us or asking us to do something speak as if you are telling us an unemotional, indisputable fact. (2+2=4).
  • 54. Additional Tips:
    • 4. Be Explicit: We are confused over what is expected.
    • 5. Responsibility for Clarify: Teach me to ask: “Is that what you meant or is this what you wanted me to do?”
    • 6. Natural Consequences: ( A result that flows naturally from an action, not a punishment) They should impact us, not you. Get all the information first. Give natural consequences without blame. They are simply the natural results of our actions.
    • 7. Don’t let arguing Work: When we argue and win, we are learning that arguing works. Say: “When you argue, it wears me down and I have no energy to do things for you. When you argue, the answer will always be no.
  • 55. Tips continued:
    • 8. Model Better Ways of Meeting our Needs: Model talking, listening, and helping others as better ways we can meet our needs. Ensure we understand we will not always get what we want.
    • 9. Expect Results, Not Time: We’re good at working on our own goals, but have difficulty working on the goals others set for us. Say: “Work on this until you finish this part” Don’t say work on this for 15 minutes. With a goal, we won’t look at the clock, and argue for more time. We’ll engage and learn good work habits.
    • 10. Stick with It: Use these strategies. “Things may get worse before they get better, but in the long run, the rewards will be worth it.”
    • Autism Digest: July-Aug. 2009
  • 56. Ancient Chinese Proverb
    • Tell Me, I Forget
    • Show Me, I remember.
    • Involve Me, I Understand
  • 57. In Conclusion:
    • Involve your students
    • Use Your Strategies
      • Know your students
      • Manage the environment
      • Teach social skills
      • Make accommodations
      • Manage behavior
      • Assist with problem solving
      • Structure your language
      • Teach coping strategies: sensory integration
      • Be consistent: provide routine and structure
      • Work as a team: strengthen communication
      • Relax and Enjoy Your Year

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