CHAPTER 11: THE
PROKARYOTES
Domains Bacteria and Archaea
The Prokaryotic Groups
◦ Prokaryotes are
divided into two
groups
◦ Bacteria
◦ Archaea

◦ See difference on
Page 291 figure...
The Proteobacteria
◦Includes most G(-) bacteria and are thought to
have arisen from a common photosynthetic
organism

◦Lar...
Alphaproteobacteria
◦ Typically can grow at a low
level of nutrients
◦ Unusual morphology including
buds or stalks
◦ Stalk...
◦Name comes from the
mythological Greek god
Proteus who could morph into
many shapes
◦ Alpha◦ Beta◦ Gamma◦ Delta◦ Epsilon-
◦ Alpha- are very important in
agriculture because many
of these bacteria can fix
nitrogen and can live in
symbiosis with ...
◦Rickettsia and Chlamydia
are obligate intracellular
parasites
◦They can only reproduce
within a mammalian cell
◦They are ...
◦ Caulobacter bacteria are found
in low-nutrient aquatic
environments
◦ They have prosthecae because
of the constant chang...
◦Bartonella is a gram (-) bacillus that causes
cat scratch fever
Betaproteobacteria
◦There are many similarities
between alpha- and beta◦Often use ammonia,
hydrogen gas, or methane
◦Patho...
◦Spirillum is found in fresh water and has
polar flagella and is an aerobic organism
◦ Sphaerotilus are sheathed,
G(-) bacteria found in
sewage

◦ The sheath is a protective
layer which provides
protection a...
◦Bordetella is the group of bacteria responsible for
whooping cough. It is nonmotile, aerobic, and
G(-)
◦Neisseria are aerobic,
G(-), cocci that live in
mucosal membranes
of mammals
◦Pathogens in this groups
cause gonorrhea an...
Gammaproteobacteria
◦Largest
subgroup of
Proteobacteria
◦ Pseudomonas is aerobic, G(-) rods with
polar flagella

◦ Very common in soil
◦ Infects urinary tract, burns, wounds
◦ So...
◦Moraxella is a group of bacteria that cause
conjunctivitis
◦Vibrio bacteria are facultatively
anaerobic, G(-) slightly curved rods
◦ Cause of cholera and gastroenteritis
◦Salmonella is potentially
pathogenic
◦They inhabit intestine tracts
of many animals
◦Causes Typhoid fever and
salmonellos...
Deltaproteobacteria
◦Include bacteria that prey on other bacteria.
They are predators.
◦Desulfovibrio are obligately anaerobic bacteria
that form hydrogen sulfide
◦Can be found in the intestinal tracts of huma...
◦Myxococcus leave behind a slime trail and
they get their energy by lysing other
bacteria
Epsilonproteobacteria
◦ Slender G(-) rods that are helical or vibrio and are
microaerophile
◦Heliobacter is the
most common
cause of peptic
ulcers and causes
stomach cancer
GRAM + BACTERIA
Gram Positive Bacteria
◦Can be divided into two groups
◦High G+C ratio
◦Low G+C ratio
◦G = guanine
◦C = cytosine

DNA
Research

◦ Where does the bacteria live?
◦ Shape or arrangement?
◦ Disease it causes (if it does)?
◦ Growth conditions?
◦...
Clostridium
Epulopiscium
Staphylococcus
Lactobacillus
Listeria
Propionibacterium
Leptospira
Fusobacterium
DOMAIN ARCHAEA
◦Cell walls lack peptidoglycan (like eukaryotes)
◦Halophiles- organisms that can survive a high
salt content
◦Methanogens-...
MICROBIAL
DIVERSITY
◦Though many prokaryotes have
been discovered, scientists have
hardly reached the tip of the
iceberg when it comes to
disc...
Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes
Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes
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Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes

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Difference between Gram + and - organisms

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Chapter 11: The Prokaryotes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11: THE PROKARYOTES Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  2. 2. The Prokaryotic Groups ◦ Prokaryotes are divided into two groups ◦ Bacteria ◦ Archaea ◦ See difference on Page 291 figure 10.6
  3. 3. The Proteobacteria ◦Includes most G(-) bacteria and are thought to have arisen from a common photosynthetic organism ◦Largest group of bacteria
  4. 4. Alphaproteobacteria ◦ Typically can grow at a low level of nutrients ◦ Unusual morphology including buds or stalks ◦ Stalks that are used to adhere to a surface are called prosthecae
  5. 5. ◦Name comes from the mythological Greek god Proteus who could morph into many shapes ◦ Alpha◦ Beta◦ Gamma◦ Delta◦ Epsilon-
  6. 6. ◦ Alpha- are very important in agriculture because many of these bacteria can fix nitrogen and can live in symbiosis with plants and humans Azosprillium
  7. 7. ◦Rickettsia and Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites ◦They can only reproduce within a mammalian cell ◦They are commonly transmitted within insect bites and ticks ◦ Spotted fever, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  8. 8. ◦ Caulobacter bacteria are found in low-nutrient aquatic environments ◦ They have prosthecae because of the constant changing flow of water
  9. 9. ◦Bartonella is a gram (-) bacillus that causes cat scratch fever
  10. 10. Betaproteobacteria ◦There are many similarities between alpha- and beta◦Often use ammonia, hydrogen gas, or methane ◦Pathogenic bacteria are considered betaproteobacteria
  11. 11. ◦Spirillum is found in fresh water and has polar flagella and is an aerobic organism
  12. 12. ◦ Sphaerotilus are sheathed, G(-) bacteria found in sewage ◦ The sheath is a protective layer which provides protection and a source of nutrient accumulation
  13. 13. ◦Bordetella is the group of bacteria responsible for whooping cough. It is nonmotile, aerobic, and G(-)
  14. 14. ◦Neisseria are aerobic, G(-), cocci that live in mucosal membranes of mammals ◦Pathogens in this groups cause gonorrhea and meningitis.
  15. 15. Gammaproteobacteria ◦Largest subgroup of Proteobacteria
  16. 16. ◦ Pseudomonas is aerobic, G(-) rods with polar flagella ◦ Very common in soil ◦ Infects urinary tract, burns, wounds ◦ Some species have evolved to grow inside some antiseptics
  17. 17. ◦Moraxella is a group of bacteria that cause conjunctivitis
  18. 18. ◦Vibrio bacteria are facultatively anaerobic, G(-) slightly curved rods ◦ Cause of cholera and gastroenteritis
  19. 19. ◦Salmonella is potentially pathogenic ◦They inhabit intestine tracts of many animals ◦Causes Typhoid fever and salmonellosis
  20. 20. Deltaproteobacteria ◦Include bacteria that prey on other bacteria. They are predators.
  21. 21. ◦Desulfovibrio are obligately anaerobic bacteria that form hydrogen sulfide ◦Can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans
  22. 22. ◦Myxococcus leave behind a slime trail and they get their energy by lysing other bacteria
  23. 23. Epsilonproteobacteria ◦ Slender G(-) rods that are helical or vibrio and are microaerophile
  24. 24. ◦Heliobacter is the most common cause of peptic ulcers and causes stomach cancer
  25. 25. GRAM + BACTERIA
  26. 26. Gram Positive Bacteria ◦Can be divided into two groups ◦High G+C ratio ◦Low G+C ratio ◦G = guanine ◦C = cytosine DNA
  27. 27. Research ◦ Where does the bacteria live? ◦ Shape or arrangement? ◦ Disease it causes (if it does)? ◦ Growth conditions? ◦ Interesting fact? ◦Clostridium ◦Epulopiscium ◦Staphylococcus ◦Lactobacillus ◦Listeria ◦Propionibacterium ◦Leptospira ◦Fusobacterium
  28. 28. Clostridium
  29. 29. Epulopiscium
  30. 30. Staphylococcus
  31. 31. Lactobacillus
  32. 32. Listeria
  33. 33. Propionibacterium
  34. 34. Leptospira
  35. 35. Fusobacterium
  36. 36. DOMAIN ARCHAEA
  37. 37. ◦Cell walls lack peptidoglycan (like eukaryotes) ◦Halophiles- organisms that can survive a high salt content ◦Methanogens- organisms that produce methane ◦Hyperthemophiles- organisms that can survive and thrive in high temperatures
  38. 38. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
  39. 39. ◦Though many prokaryotes have been discovered, scientists have hardly reached the tip of the iceberg when it comes to discovering the vast number of organisms still out there ◦Maybe YOU will be the next scientist to discover a new bacterium!
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