The distribution of Australia’s population is undergoing change.
The most important of these changes are:
The proportion of the population living in rural areas is declining . As a result many small rural communities are struggling to survive. The proportion of people living in the Northern Territory, WA & QLD has increased, while the proportion living in NSW, VIC, SA & TAS, has declined There are regional variations in population growth rates. During the 1950/60s the fastest growing areas were the state capitals.
Account for Australia’s population Distribution. Use p129 of your text to aid you. Write approx 1-2 A4 pages
Figure 5.1a on pg 126 of the text shows the contribution made by the two components of population growth: natural increase and net migration
Draw figure 5.1a into your books
NATURAL INCREASE- is the difference between the birth rate (which is expressed as the number of live births per thousand of the population per year) and the death rate (the number of deaths per thousand people per year).
NET MIGRATION- is the difference between the number of permanent departures from Australia and the number of people arriving to live in Australia on a permanent basis.
Net migration is the difference between the number of permanent departures from Australia ( emigration ) and the number of people arriving to live in Australia on a permanent basis ( immigration )
permanent arrivals (immigration) – permanent departures (emigration) = net migration
Australian Population Change 1901-2002 Growth rates
My husband is away fighting in Europe. Some of my friends’ husbands have been killed. I was born just after the war, and now I’m having a family myself I have a great job. I would ruin it by having kids now. I have a good job and I’m earning a good wage. I could support a larger family. We need workers to build the Snowy Mountains Scheme We were nearly invaded in the war. We need more people to defend Australia I’ve lost my job. I can barely support my wife and me, let alone kids.
Reasons for the ageing population- Increasing Life expectancy * Australians are living longer * Life expectancy for: -83 years
Declining birth rates- Lower fertility rates have resulted in a decrease in the proportion of young people in the population Changes in Australia’s immigration program In the 1950s/60s there was a large scale immigration program. Majority of immigrants were young. Many of them had children. Late 1980/90s, the immigration program was significantly reduced & many of those who did arrive were older.
With the fertility rate plummeting to record lows the Australian Government in recent times has offered a Baby Bonus
In 2004 Peter Costello in his budget address famously said
"You should have one for the father, one for the mother and one for the country. If you want to fix the ageing demographic, that's what you do,"
Describe and Account for the difference in Indigenous and Non indigenous population pyramid shapes. Read pgs 132-133 Ethnic composition & structure
Describe and Account for the difference in Indigenous and Non indigenous population pyramid shapes
Description: Age/gender structure resembles that of a developing country
Higher birth rate – the population is very young
Lower life expectancy
Accounting: due to isolation from health care facilities, poor health, education and limited access to specialised care.
High infant mortality rates due to the same reasons above
Research shows that too many indigenous Australians die from a range of preventable diseases
More indigenous Australians are smokers
Lack of family planning, lower participation of women in the workforce, health problems, social issues with alcoholism and drug abuse .
It is evident that there is a health care crisis with indigenous people in Australia and their health is amongst the worst in the world. Poor health is a result of poverty and social factors and conditions are harshest for those people living in remote areas.
Identify what are the important implications for government planners examining the indigenous population pyramid?
Good health is expensive and it is evident that the Government must make spending on health care facilities and support services for Aborigines a priority. The emphasis should be on children with the indigenous population being so young.
Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his or her remaining lifetime.
Reductions in mortality in the early part of the 20th century have been attributed to improvements in living conditions, such as better water supply, sewerage systems, food quality and health education.
The continuing reduction in mortality in the latter half of last century has been attributed to improving social conditions, and to advances in medical technology such as mass immunisation and antibiotics.
Some economists/politicians believe that Australia’s population growth will result in resource creation , and economic growth and that technology will be able to overcome the environmental problems created by the increase in population.
In contrast, some scientists/ ecologists believe that population growth will only worsen the problems of resource depletion , water availability and quality , land degradation , pollution and habitat loss .