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Cyber-ocracy vs. Cyber-tarianism: The Chinese Internet

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A presentation given at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on February 18, 2009.

A presentation given at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on February 18, 2009.

Published in: News & Politics

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  • Pembentangan yang mengandungi kaedah pembelajaran yang bersesuaian untuk golongan yang terlibat dalam industri internet. Saya berminat untuk embed ke dalam website saya, iaitu www.ringtonesz.org/ dan www.lyrics-search.org/

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  • 1. Cyber-ocracy vs. Cyber-tarianism: What does the Internet mean for China? Rebecca MacKinnon Open Society Fellow Assistant Professor, Journalism & Media Studies Ctr., University of Hong Kong e-mail: rebecca.mackinnon@gmail.com blog: http://rconversation.blogs.com
  • 2. Cultural loss of control: “Back dorm boys” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2HOD-nrOY8
  • 3. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship
  • 4. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall”
  • 5. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall” • Filtering of websites outside of China
  • 6. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall” • Filtering of websites outside of China • “Inside the great firewall”
  • 7. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall” • Filtering of websites outside of China • “Inside the great firewall” • Deletion of content on domestic commercial websites
  • 8. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall” • Filtering of websites outside of China • “Inside the great firewall” • Deletion of content on domestic commercial websites • Takedown of domestically hosted websites
  • 9. 2 layers of Chinese Internet censorship • “Outside the great firewall” • Filtering of websites outside of China • “Inside the great firewall” • Deletion of content on domestic commercial websites • Takedown of domestically hosted websites • Shut-down of data centers
  • 10. All websites are physically hosted on a computer server in some countryʼs jurisdiction Neopolitan and CityNAP data center in San Antonio, Texas. Photo by Robert Scoble, Creative Commons-BY on Flickr at: http://flickr.com/photos/scobleizer/2340202215/
  • 11. The “Great Firewall” in action
  • 12. Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”
  • 13. Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”
  • 14. Image search for “Tiananmen massacre”
  • 15. Censorship by Chinese blog-hosting companies Tianya blog service: Blog post about “Tiananmen Mothers”
  • 16. CENSORED Your post “Tiananmen mothers organization publishes a website” has been successfully submitted! Because it contains sensitive words, please wait for the community editors to approve it. Please donʼt re-post. Thank you.
  • 17. Sina.com: Report about explosion in Xinjiang, published successfully, but...
  • 18. Post is removed within 24 hours. Error message at same URL: “Sorry, the blog address you visited does not exist.” 8 OUT OF 15 BLOG SERVICES TESTED CENSORED THIS CONTENT
  • 19. Tests show blogs are censored by companies, amount and methods very decentralized Company A 60 B 44 15 blog hosts tested, C 34 D 31 108 valid tests E 27 F 26 Blog services G NOTE: Company names have been replaced with 24 letters due to concerns that companies who censor H 22 less will be subject to repercussions. I 20 J 19 For more about Chinese blog K 17 censorship see February issue L 13 of First Monday at: M 9 http://firstmonday.org N 3 O 1 0 27 54 81 108 Number of blog posts tested
  • 20. Riot in Wengʼan county, Guizhou province, Julyʼ08 Summer 2008 marked a shift in official media strategy: let official news agencies cover bad breaking stories to get the official version out quickly, then censor unofficial versions.
  • 21. “Pushups” were used by bloggers to talk about Wengʼan incident Above Sina.com website no longer exists
  • 22. “Pushups” were used by bloggers to talk about Wengʼan incident Above Sina.com website no longer exists 3 images from: http://www.caobian.info/?p=3778
  • 23. Political joke: “River crab wears three watches” “Harmonious” “Rivercrab”
  • 24. Anti-censorship Protest video: “song of the alpaca sheep” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3tPA_Z_MT0
  • 25. CCTV news spoof http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYWW1k-dqhg
  • 26. Feb. 9th CCTV fire: netizens react
  • 27. Feb. 9th CCTV fire: netizens react
  • 28. Feb. 9th CCTV fire: netizens react
  • 29. Mental images of the Chinese Internet
  • 30. “Iron curtain 2.0” Photo courtesy “PC fish” on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Point_Alpha_Ostseite.jpg (GNU Free Documentation License)
  • 31. “Net nanny” Photo courtesy “merwing” at http://flickr.com/photos/merwing/2569326878/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-ND license)
  • 32. Hydro-electric management Photos: LEFT: “noelinthebahamas” on Flickr at http://flickr.com/photos/noelinthebahamas/2417798169/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-ND) RIGHT: “yunmeng” on Flickr at http://flickr.com/photos/yunmeng/323886547/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-SA)
  • 33. Cyber civil war 2.0
  • 34. Where is all of this heading?
  • 35. Cyber-tarianism? President Hu Jintao: “We pay great attention to suggestions and advice from our netizens. We stress the idea of quot;putting people firstquot; and quot;governing for the people.quot; With this in mind, we need to listen to people's voices extensively and pool the people's wisdom when we take actions and make decisions. The web is an important channel for us to understand the concerns of the public and assemble the wisdom of the public.” • “Authoritarian deliberation” (Zheng Yongnian) http://video.sina.com.cn/news/c/v/2008-06-20/105617742.shtml
  • 36. Cyber-nationalism
  • 37. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs.
  • 38. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico “It is only by way of this frankness that the confidence of a responsible big power can be better displayed; it is only by way of this frankness that the bright attitude of an increasingly powerful China can best be shown; and also it is only with this frankness our fellow countrymen will feel excited.” Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs.
  • 39. V.P. Xi Jinping in Mexico “It is only by way of this frankness that the confidence of a responsible big power can be better displayed; it is only by way of this frankness that the bright attitude of an increasingly powerful China can best be shown; and also it is only with this frankness our fellow countrymen will feel excited.” “Vice President Xi Jinping is so cool! He trashed the unfriendly foreigners.” Some foreigners who have eaten their fill have nothing better to do than point their fingers at our affairs.
  • 40. Cyber-ocracy? 2008 Chinese Blogger Conference, Guangzhou. Photos courtesy “HKdom” http://www.flickr.com/photos/hkdom/3046205362/ and http://www.flickr.com/photos/hkdom/3046219444/in/photostream/
  • 41. Isaac Mao If we want free speech, first we need free thinking. http://www.isaacmao.com/ Philosophy of “sharism” - using technology and social networks that enable people to engage and share with one another in ways that facilitate collective learning, critical thinking, public discourse, social justice and emergent democracy. Photo by Joi Ito (Creative Commons BY) at: http://freesouls.cc/essays/07-isaac-mao-sharism.html
  • 42. Internet as “special political zone?” Photos by Josh Chin at 2007 CNbloggercon, Beijing. On Flickr under “hunxue-er” at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/21953266@N00/1849687423/ and http://www.flickr.com/photos/21953266@N00/1849689005/ (Creative Commons BY-NC-SA)
  • 43. Zhang Shihe a.k.a. “Laohumiao” Using the Internet to raise awareness of social problems and organize Grassroots ad- hoc charity
  • 44. Ai Weiwei: online auction of poisoned milk powder to fund-raise for homeless Argues that Chinese people must take greater responsibility for the state of their society