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Organelles Power Point Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 20 ORGANELLES By: Rose, Marshall, Kat, and Alana
  • 2. Nucleus -Central membrane bound organelle that manages or controls cellular functions. -Positively charged center of an atom composed of neutrons and positively charged protons and surrounded by negatively charged electrons and eukaryotic cells. -The central membrane – bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA.
  • 3. Cell Membrane Thin, flexible envelope that surrounds the cell. It allows the cell to change shape and controls what goes into and out of the cell. It contains carbohydrates, glycolipids, glycoprotein, cholesterol, integral protein, peripheral protein, filaments of cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, extra cellular fluid.
  • 4. Cell Wall A fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection. -A rigid boundary in prokaryotic cells and cellulose in plant cells.
  • 5. Nucleolus A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It also makes ribosomes.
  • 6. Ribosomes Ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm and on the endoplasmic reticulum. Their job is to make proteins needed in the cell for everyday life. The DNA tells the ribosomes which proteins to make, so that the cell can work efficiently. The nucleus also makes the ribosomes and sends them out for work.
  • 7. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is a jelly like material that is made up of mostly water. It is what fills the cell is most of the time clear in color. It is more like a gel then a watery substance, but it liquefies when it is shaken or stirred.
  • 8. Smooth ER Site of cellular chemical reactions.
  • 9. Rough ER The outer surface of rough ER is covered with tiny structures called ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. These proteins are transported into the rough ER, where enzymes fold and link them into the three dimensional shape that completes their structure. The rough ER also transports proteins either to regions of the cell where they are needed or to the Golgi apparatus, from which they may be exported from the cell. Rough ER is particularly dense in cells that manufacture proteins for export. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Golgi Apparatus Flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies the proteins. It sorts proteins into packages and packs them into vesicles to be sent to the right place.
  • 11. Vacuoles The blue dots are vacuoles Membrane Bound Compartments; storage areas. It also plays a role in intracellular digestion and release of cell waste. It has a variety of functions ranging from protection of a plant to endocytosis. Each plant cell also has a central vacuole, which is formed by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles.
  • 12. Lysosomes Lysosome, membrane-bound sac found in nucleated cells that contains digestive enzymes that break down complex molecules in the body. Lysosomes are numerous in disease-fighting cells, such as white blood cells, that destroy harmful invaders or cell debris .Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved .
  • 13. Chloroplasts Cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy. Chloroplasts are mostly disk-shaped organelles, 4 to 6 micrometers in diameter. They occur most abundantly in leaf cells, where they can apparently orient themselves to light. Perhaps 40 to 50 chloroplasts exist in one cell and 500,000 in each sq mm (0.06 sq in) of leaf surface. Each chloroplast is enclosed in a double membrane.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Cytoskeleton Support Structure for the cell.
  • 15. Mitochondria Membrane – bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell.
  • 16. Microtubules Thin hollow cylinders made of protein
  • 17. Microfilaments Smaller, solid protein fibers.
  • 18. Centriole Protein fibers that aid in cell division by helping to move chromosomes.
  • 19. Cilia Short, numerous projections that look like hairs.
  • 20. Flagella Longer projections that move with a whip-like motion.
  • 21. Plastid Plant Organelles used for storage.