When Spanish Speakers Learn English: The trials and tribulations of learning a second language<br />by: Rebecca Yares<br />
Outline<br />List of the issues that Spanish speakers have with learning English<br />Explanation of each issue<br />Possi...
Common Errors Made by Spanish Speakers Learning English<br />Use of present tense for past tense<br />Underdeveloped Contr...
Use of present tense for Past tense<br />Spanish does not have consonant clusters<br />Spanish’s past tense (the preterit)...
Underdeveloped Contractions<br />There are no contractions in Spanish so there is some initial confusion when learning thi...
Article Omitted<br />In Spanish, indefinite articles are sometimes omitted and so speakers will omit them in English where...
Improper subject/verb number<br />There are many irregular verb forms in the English language<br />Difficulty in learning ...
Third person subject omitted<br />Spanish omits their third person subject pronoun since the information exists in the ver...
Preposition omitted<br />English has “in”, “on” and “at” which equates to Spainsh’s “en” for all three of these.  <br />Th...
Improper Pronoun<br />In Spanish the pronoun agrees in number with their antecedents<br />This is not the case in English<...
Ideas for Instruction<br />Third person pronouns in English are a major cause of confusion in Spanish<br />Since there are...
Example for third person pronoun instruction<br />Create a worksheet that has men, women, boys and girls as well as inanim...
Consonant Clusters<br />Bacca Moore et al.  in his study found that Spanish speakers have troubles with certain grammatica...
Consonant Cluster Pronunciation Exercise example<br />In regards to the past tense:<br />By going over the past tense of a...
Contractions<br />Contractions are something we all have to learn how to spell.  <br />The best solution for this is to pl...
Contraction worksheet example<br />Pointing out to the students that normally the last vowel is deleted on the second word...
Article Exercise<br />Articles are tricky especially when a speaker’s native language uses them differently<br />Going thr...
Article Exercise Example<br />Explaining the difference between definite and indefinite can be compared closely to Spanish...
Subject-Verb Agreement<br />A possible way to teach this agreement is to explain that the subject always pays attention to...
Omitting Prepositions<br />Spanish also has many prepositions that need to be memorized and organized<br />When learning E...
English Preposition Exercise<br />Using a bridge is a great way to teach prepositions<br />Someone can be “on” the bridge ...
Summary<br />When teaching a Spanish speaker English, like all L2 learners exercises and practice are key<br />Although th...
References<br />http://www.freelanguagestuff.com<br />http://www.prof2000.pt/users/estante/prepositions.html<br />http://g...
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This is an overview of the difficulties Spanish speakers have when learning English

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  1. 1. When Spanish Speakers Learn English: The trials and tribulations of learning a second language<br />by: Rebecca Yares<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />List of the issues that Spanish speakers have with learning English<br />Explanation of each issue<br />Possible exercises and ideas for effective instruction<br />Summary<br />
  3. 3. Common Errors Made by Spanish Speakers Learning English<br />Use of present tense for past tense<br />Underdeveloped Contractions<br />Article Omitted<br />Improper subject/Verb number<br />Third person subject omitted<br />Omitted preposition<br />Improper pronoun<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979)<br />
  4. 4. Use of present tense for Past tense<br />Spanish does not have consonant clusters<br />Spanish’s past tense (the preterit) normally ends in vowels or ‘s’<br />Final consonant clusters (-ed in English) may be deleted from an Spanish English learner<br />this causes confusion and loses the past tense meaning in English<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  5. 5. Underdeveloped Contractions<br />There are no contractions in Spanish so there is some initial confusion when learning this function<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  6. 6. Article Omitted<br />In Spanish, indefinite articles are sometimes omitted and so speakers will omit them in English where this normally occurs. <br />i.e. Soy estudiante (I am a student)<br />A Spanish speaker may say “I am student” <br />In correct use of the indefinite article before mass nouns such as “He has a chalk” since this is not a mass noun in Spanish<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  7. 7. Improper subject/verb number<br />There are many irregular verb forms in the English language<br />Difficulty in learning these may occur because of the sheer number of them<br />In Spanish the first and second person pronouns are usually omitted because the number and tense is placed on the end of the verb<br />This de-emphazises the importance of the subject/verb relation to the Spanish speaker<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  8. 8. Third person subject omitted<br />Spanish omits their third person subject pronoun since the information exists in the verb<br />English’s “he”, “she” and “it” need to be learned and used<br />“Es unamujer” (She is a woman”) The verb “ser” has the third person singular marker with a femine article before the noun<br />A Spanish speaker may say “Is a woman”<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  9. 9. Preposition omitted<br />English has “in”, “on” and “at” which equates to Spainsh’s “en” for all three of these. <br />This could cause the confusion on which one to use so it prepositions are omitted for ease.<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  10. 10. Improper Pronoun<br />In Spanish the pronoun agrees in number with their antecedents<br />This is not the case in English<br />“His, her, its and their” possessive pronouns in English are all replaced by “su” in Spanish which also causes confusion for the learner on which one to use when<br />(Baca Moore et al. 1979<br />
  11. 11. Ideas for Instruction<br />Third person pronouns in English are a major cause of confusion in Spanish<br />Since there are feminine and masculine nouns in Spanish taking a lesson to compare the third person pronouns with this grammatical gender in Spanish and running through examples on the third person neuter as well as the others would be highly beneficial.<br />
  12. 12. Example for third person pronoun instruction<br />Create a worksheet that has men, women, boys and girls as well as inanimate objects. Like the one here from freelanguagestuff.com<br />Then have each student write the correct third person pronoun under each one<br />Repeat the same activities for the possessive pronouns<br />
  13. 13. Consonant Clusters<br />Bacca Moore et al. in his study found that Spanish speakers have troubles with certain grammatical or tense functions because of consonant clusters<br />Spending a class on pronunciation would be beneficial.<br />However, this might only be effective if the students have a grasp on the writing or there may be confusion when explaining the pronunciation<br />
  14. 14. Consonant Cluster Pronunciation Exercise example<br />In regards to the past tense:<br />By going over the past tense of a group of commonly used words and then going over the pronunciation<br />Draw a line down on a chalkboard<br />Give each student a word on a slip of paper in the past tense and have them group the pronunciation as either ending with a ‘t’ sound or an “ed” sound<br />
  15. 15. Contractions<br />Contractions are something we all have to learn how to spell. <br />The best solution for this is to place to words on the board and then cross out the unncecssaryonces and form the contraction<br />Then have a worksheet that puts the students through theses exercises. <br />
  16. 16. Contraction worksheet example<br />Pointing out to the students that normally the last vowel is deleted on the second word before it becomes contracted is beneficial and use the chart below to have the students create contractions<br />Can + not -> cannot -> cannot-> cant -> can’t<br />Would not -> wouldnot -> wouldnot -> wouldnt ->wouldn’t<br />I am -> Iam -> Iam -> Im -> I’m<br />
  17. 17. Article Exercise<br />Articles are tricky especially when a speaker’s native language uses them differently<br />Going through exercises of articles is the only way to effectively learn how to approach it<br />using the articles “the” and “a/n” and explaining that they are usually always necessary<br />
  18. 18. Article Exercise Example<br />Explaining the difference between definite and indefinite can be compared closely to Spanish definite and indefinite articles.<br />The key to having the Spanish speaker master the English articles is to stress that they are always used unlike in Spanish<br />Giving several sentences with articles removed will aid in this mastery between definite and indefinite<br />
  19. 19. Subject-Verb Agreement<br />A possible way to teach this agreement is to explain that the subject always pays attention to the number of people, instead of the number of objects<br />As well with the Subject-Verb agreement, another good way to learn to master this is to circle the subject and circle the verb<br />check to see if the verb is in the right agreement with the subject<br />(Grammar Girl 2011)<br />
  20. 20. Omitting Prepositions<br />Spanish also has many prepositions that need to be memorized and organized<br />When learning English, repetitiveness and worksheets like this image will assist in effectively learning English prepositions<br />http://www.prof2000.pt/users/estante/prepositions.html<br />
  21. 21. English Preposition Exercise<br />Using a bridge is a great way to teach prepositions<br />Someone can be “on” the bridge and draw a person on the bridge. using the sentence<br />“I saw Brian the other day on the bridge”<br />Someone could be “in” the water and draw them in the water<br />“I saw Brian the other day in the water”<br />Then explain if these get mixed up their meaning is different. Someone would be “on” the water and “in” the bridge and draw them as such<br />
  22. 22. Summary<br />When teaching a Spanish speaker English, like all L2 learners exercises and practice are key<br />Although there are cognates that Spanish speakers recognize, there are some problems that do arise that can be specifically zeroed in on Spanish speakers.<br />
  23. 23. References<br />http://www.freelanguagestuff.com<br />http://www.prof2000.pt/users/estante/prepositions.html<br />http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/<br />Baca Moore, Fernie and Marzano, Robert J. “Common Errors of Spanish Speakers Learning English”Research in the Teaching of English: Vol. 13, No. 2 (May, 1979), pp. 161-167 Published by: National Council of Teachers of English<br />

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