Foundations Of Govt 1
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Foundations Of Govt 1

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    Foundations Of Govt 1 Foundations Of Govt 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Unit II Foundations of Government
    • Government
      • the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
      • Public policies=laws
    • The 4 characteristics of a state
    • State can be defined as: a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically (under a government), and having the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
    • Confederate Government
      • Alliance of independent states
      • Central govt. operates with consent of members
      • Main goal is cooperation
      • Examples:
        • The South-Confederacy (Civil War)
        • C.I.S.-Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union)
    • Unitary Government
      • Centralized government
      • All powers held by central government
      • Most governments of the world practice this
      • Examples:
        • All 50 states
        • Great Britain
    • Federal Government (federalism)
      • Powers of govt. are divided between a central government and local governments
      • Examples:
        • United States
        • Canada
    • Presidential Government
      • Separate executive & legislative branch
      • Branches are independent, but work together
      • President and legislature are chosen separately
      • Each branch can “check” the other
    • Parliamentary Government
      • Executive is a Prime Minister or Premier & his cabinet
      • Executive is ALSO a member of the legislature
      • Executive is leader of the majority party
      • Most nations practice this government
    • Dictatorship
      • Rulers are NOT responsible to the will of the people .
      • Authoritarian -authority over the people
      • Totalitarian -power over ALL aspects of life
    • Democracy
      • Political authority rests with the people
      • “government of the people, by the people, for the people…”
      • Republic -government in which people’s voice is represented through elected officials
    •  
    • American System of Government
      • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
        • Ancient Civilizations
          • Greece-direct democracy
            • All citizens vote on every issue
          • Rome-representative democracy
            • Officials elected by citizens
    • American System of Government
      • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
        • Enlightenment-scientific revolution
          • John Locke
            • Natural rights of citizens
            • Govt. protects life, liberty, property
            • Freedom of religion
            • Against slavery
            • Citizens should rebel if govt. is too powerful
            • System of checks and balances
    • American System of Government
      • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
        • Enlightenment-scientific revolution
          • Baron de Montesquieu
            • 3 equal branches of government
          • Jean Jacques Rousseau
            • “ all men are free and equal”
            • Separation of church & state
    • American System of Government
      • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
        • English Tradition
          • Magna Carta-trial by jury & due process of law
          • Petition of Rights, 1628
            • Limited power of government
            • No sheltering of troops
          • English Bill of Rights
            • Fair & speedy trial, no excessive bail, no cruel or unusual punishment
    • American System of Government
      • “ Madness”
        • Independence
          • never done before in the history of the world
          • Declaration of Independence-letter to king stating grievances
    • American System of Government
      • “ Experiment”
        • Jefferson & Madison
          • Studied philosophers
          • Wanted to put theories to the test
      • “ Brought to Life by an Improbable Act”
        • Military defeat of English superpower