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Foundations Of Govt 1
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Foundations Of Govt 1

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  • 1. Unit II Foundations of Government
  • 2. Government
    • the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
    • Public policies=laws
  • 3. The 4 characteristics of a state
  • 4. State can be defined as: a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically (under a government), and having the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
  • 5. Confederate Government
    • Alliance of independent states
    • Central govt. operates with consent of members
    • Main goal is cooperation
    • Examples:
      • The South-Confederacy (Civil War)
      • C.I.S.-Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union)
  • 6. Unitary Government
    • Centralized government
    • All powers held by central government
    • Most governments of the world practice this
    • Examples:
      • All 50 states
      • Great Britain
  • 7. Federal Government (federalism)
    • Powers of govt. are divided between a central government and local governments
    • Examples:
      • United States
      • Canada
  • 8. Presidential Government
    • Separate executive & legislative branch
    • Branches are independent, but work together
    • President and legislature are chosen separately
    • Each branch can “check” the other
  • 9. Parliamentary Government
    • Executive is a Prime Minister or Premier & his cabinet
    • Executive is ALSO a member of the legislature
    • Executive is leader of the majority party
    • Most nations practice this government
  • 10. Dictatorship
    • Rulers are NOT responsible to the will of the people .
    • Authoritarian -authority over the people
    • Totalitarian -power over ALL aspects of life
  • 11. Democracy
    • Political authority rests with the people
    • “government of the people, by the people, for the people…”
    • Republic -government in which people’s voice is represented through elected officials
  • 12.  
  • 13. American System of Government
    • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
      • Ancient Civilizations
        • Greece-direct democracy
          • All citizens vote on every issue
        • Rome-representative democracy
          • Officials elected by citizens
  • 14. American System of Government
    • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
      • Enlightenment-scientific revolution
        • John Locke
          • Natural rights of citizens
          • Govt. protects life, liberty, property
          • Freedom of religion
          • Against slavery
          • Citizens should rebel if govt. is too powerful
          • System of checks and balances
  • 15. American System of Government
    • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
      • Enlightenment-scientific revolution
        • Baron de Montesquieu
          • 3 equal branches of government
        • Jean Jacques Rousseau
          • “ all men are free and equal”
          • Separation of church & state
  • 16. American System of Government
    • Various Parts (of Political Ideologies)
      • English Tradition
        • Magna Carta-trial by jury & due process of law
        • Petition of Rights, 1628
          • Limited power of government
          • No sheltering of troops
        • English Bill of Rights
          • Fair & speedy trial, no excessive bail, no cruel or unusual punishment
  • 17. American System of Government
    • “ Madness”
      • Independence
        • never done before in the history of the world
        • Declaration of Independence-letter to king stating grievances
  • 18. American System of Government
    • “ Experiment”
      • Jefferson & Madison
        • Studied philosophers
        • Wanted to put theories to the test
    • “ Brought to Life by an Improbable Act”
      • Military defeat of English superpower