Foundations Of Govt 1


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Foundations Of Govt 1

  1. 1. Unit II Foundations of Government
  2. 2. Government <ul><li>the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies </li></ul><ul><li>Public policies=laws </li></ul>
  3. 3. The 4 characteristics of a state
  4. 4. State can be defined as: a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically (under a government), and having the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
  5. 5. Confederate Government <ul><li>Alliance of independent states </li></ul><ul><li>Central govt. operates with consent of members </li></ul><ul><li>Main goal is cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The South-Confederacy (Civil War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.I.S.-Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Unitary Government <ul><li>Centralized government </li></ul><ul><li>All powers held by central government </li></ul><ul><li>Most governments of the world practice this </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 50 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Federal Government (federalism) <ul><li>Powers of govt. are divided between a central government and local governments </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Presidential Government <ul><li>Separate executive & legislative branch </li></ul><ul><li>Branches are independent, but work together </li></ul><ul><li>President and legislature are chosen separately </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch can “check” the other </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parliamentary Government <ul><li>Executive is a Prime Minister or Premier & his cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Executive is ALSO a member of the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Executive is leader of the majority party </li></ul><ul><li>Most nations practice this government </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dictatorship <ul><li>Rulers are NOT responsible to the will of the people . </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian -authority over the people </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarian -power over ALL aspects of life </li></ul>
  11. 11. Democracy <ul><li>Political authority rests with the people </li></ul><ul><li>“government of the people, by the people, for the people…” </li></ul><ul><li>Republic -government in which people’s voice is represented through elected officials </li></ul>
  12. 13. American System of Government <ul><li>Various Parts (of Political Ideologies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greece-direct democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All citizens vote on every issue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome-representative democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Officials elected by citizens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. American System of Government <ul><li>Various Parts (of Political Ideologies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment-scientific revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural rights of citizens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Govt. protects life, liberty, property </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Against slavery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens should rebel if govt. is too powerful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System of checks and balances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. American System of Government <ul><li>Various Parts (of Political Ideologies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment-scientific revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baron de Montesquieu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 equal branches of government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ all men are free and equal” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of church & state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. American System of Government <ul><li>Various Parts (of Political Ideologies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magna Carta-trial by jury & due process of law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition of Rights, 1628 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited power of government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No sheltering of troops </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fair & speedy trial, no excessive bail, no cruel or unusual punishment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. American System of Government <ul><li>“ Madness” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>never done before in the history of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence-letter to king stating grievances </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. American System of Government <ul><li>“ Experiment” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson & Madison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied philosophers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to put theories to the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Brought to Life by an Improbable Act” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military defeat of English superpower </li></ul></ul>