Cadir Hoyuk - Ancient Zippalanda

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Overview of our excavations in the Hittite Period at Cadir Hoyuk in central Turkey

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Cadir Hoyuk - Ancient Zippalanda

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Alisar Regional Project Excavations at Cadir Hoyuk The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago </li></ul>Çadır Höyük Ancient Zippalanda
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dr. Ronald L Gorny, Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Gregory McMahon, Associate Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Sharon Steadman, Field Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Samuel Paley, Assistant Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jenni Ross, Asstant Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Marica Cassis, Byzantine Project Director </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Bruce Verhaaren, Survey Director </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Schneider, Project Manager </li></ul>Çadır Höyük: The SeniorStaff
  3. 3. Çadır Höyük: The Specialists <ul><li>Ben Arbuckle: Faunal Remains </li></ul><ul><li>Alexia Smith: Paleobotanical Remains </li></ul><ul><li>Carola Manzano: Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Terence Ahern: Computerization </li></ul><ul><li>Claudia Glatz: Second Millennium </li></ul><ul><li>Marica Cassis: Byzantine Era </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hittite Anatolia 2000-1200 BC <ul><li>Cadir Hoyuk </li></ul>Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Dündartepe Ikiztepe Pendik Beycesultan Kuruçay Hacilar Höyücek Erbaba Suberde Çatal Höyük Canhasan Bademagacı Gelveri-Güzelyurt Kosk Höyük Asikli Höyük Ilıpınar Yarımburgaz Tilkiburnu Tarsus Mersin Alaca Höyük Yarıkkaya Alisar Höyük Çadır Höyük Büyük Güllücek 100 200 km 0 Orta Höyük Demirci Höyük , , ˇ Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Ikiztepe Acemhöyük Tarsus Mersin Alaca Höyük Bogazkoy Alisar Höyük 100 200 km 0 , ˇ Kultepe Salur Höyük Troy Alalakh Carchemish Miletus Malatya Ugarit Izmir
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Geographic Setting for </li></ul><ul><li>the Alisar Regional Project: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cadir Hoyuk Excavations </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><li>The </li></ul><ul><li>Kanak Su </li></ul><ul><li>Basin, </li></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul> Salur H ö y ü k • (Katapa?) (Ankuwa?) (Zippalanda?) (Mt. Daha?) • ( Hurrana šš u ?) and Bo ğ azk ö y (Hattu š a) (K ü ltepe/Kane š )
  7. 7. After the long trip from Chicago, we arrive home… <ul><li>Life in the Village of Peyniryemez </li></ul>
  8. 8. Excavation Compound in Peyniryemez with Kerkenes Dag (Mt. Pushkurunwa?) in the background
  9. 9. Excavation House Peyniryemez
  10. 10. The Excavation House: at home in Peyniryemez
  11. 11. Men’s Tents Ron’s Room Excavation House Scenes Huseyin’s Garden
  12. 12. The Terrace ‘Lokanta’
  13. 13. Hanging out after a long day
  14. 14. Saving Cadir Hoyuk 1994
  15. 15. <ul><li>Çadır Höyük/Zippalanda from Çaltepe/Daha </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Çadır Höyük and Gelingüllü Lake </li></ul><ul><li>As seen from the Excavation House </li></ul>
  17. 17. North Slope South Slope Citadel Summit Northern Terrace N East Slope Step Trench Aerial View of Cadir Hoyuk in 1994
  18. 18. Excavation Areas <ul><li>Area 1 East Trench </li></ul><ul><li>Area 2 Terrace </li></ul><ul><li>Area 3 The S. Trench </li></ul><ul><li>Area 4 Citadel </li></ul><ul><li>Area 5 Lower S.Slope </li></ul><ul><li>Area 6 North Trench </li></ul><ul><li>Area 7 Çaltepe </li></ul>Area 2 Area 6 Area 4 Area 1 Area 5 Area 3 Area 7
  19. 19. East Trench Views
  20. 20. Aerial View of Step Trench 1994
  21. 21. East Trench 1994: Walls 7 and 6
  22. 22. <ul><li>East Trench </li></ul><ul><li>2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Square 800.940 </li></ul><ul><li>Walls 7 & 6 </li></ul>Width of Casemate Wall 6 m mudbrick Wall 7 Wall 6
  23. 23. East Trench: Wall F 20 Trench 800.930
  24. 24. F 20 F 6 (exterior of casemate wall) F 7 Early Old Hitt building and pots East Trench 2001 Mudbricks Thickness of wall F 6 = 6 m Burned debris from wall F 20 destruction 1994 Superstructure F 20
  25. 25. The makeup of Wall F 20 F 20 F 6 Burned debris F 20 superstructure
  26. 26. F 20 (OH-MB Trans) F 67/71 (Hittite Emp.) Double Rooms (OH) Iron Age F 1 (MH) Byzantine East Trench Settlement Sequence
  27. 27. <ul><li>East Trench 2005: </li></ul><ul><li>Trench 800.920 </li></ul><ul><li>Early Old Hittite Rooms and Pit 41 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Knobbed-Pot from Pit F 41
  29. 29. Early Old Hittite Pottery East Trench: 800.920
  30. 30. Early Old Hittite Pottery Goldglimmerware Karum Period Animal foot
  31. 31. Early Old Hittite Period Small Finds from 800.920
  32. 32. <ul><li>Miniature Figurine… </li></ul><ul><li>… The Stormgod? </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder Seal ca. 1400 BC </li></ul>Small Finds
  33. 33. F 20 (OH-MB Trans) F 67/71 (Hittite Emp.) Double Rooms (OH) Iron Age F 1 (MH) Byzantine East Trench Settlement Sequence F 20 superstructure
  34. 34. F 1 MH Wall Later Pit Pottery “bench” Two rooms (Old Hittite) Remains of F 20 superstructure Hittite Empire
  35. 35. The superstructure above F 20 Tumble Door ? Pit? Follow this “wall” Mud/mudbrick of wall F 20 (OH) superstructure - looking south 2 Meters + ?? mb wall? ??
  36. 36. East Trench : The Empire Period Wall 6 m F 67 F 67 F ?? Middle Hittite Fill F 1 MH Wall Middle Hittite Fill F 71 F 68 F 68 F 69 F 72 F 69 F 72
  37. 37. East Trench Detail F67 and F 71 Hittite Empire Wall ? Middle Hittite Period Fill Ca. 1550-1450 BC F 71 F 67 MH Fill
  38. 38. East Trench 800.910 Wall F 68 Old Hittite 15 th Century? Early Old Hittite
  39. 39. The Hittite Empire Period Upper East Trench
  40. 40. Lower East Trench
  41. 41. Lower East Trench
  42. 42. <ul><li>The Second Millenium Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Seen from the Northeast Terrace </li></ul>Wall F 20 (Early Old Hittite) Wall F 1 (Middle Hittite/15th-14 th C.) Walls F 6 and 7 (OACP Karum II and Ib) North Gate (Hitt. Empire) Old Hittite Rooms and Pots OACP and Old Hitt on the Terrace Wall F 71& 67 (Hittite Empire/13 th C.) Walls F 34 and 35 (OACP) Lower East Trench (OACP & OH)
  43. 43. East Trench Finds in Context
  44. 44. <ul><li>Cadir Hoyuk </li></ul><ul><li>South Slope Excavations </li></ul><ul><li>2006 </li></ul>
  45. 45. The South Trench 2000
  46. 46. Southern Slope in 2001 Hittite EB II Chalcolithic Iron Age Byzantine Hellenistic Late Classical wash and fill Iron Age Hittite
  47. 47. X A Hittite Cultic Alter and other items from the Stormgod’s Temple at Zippalanda?
  48. 48. Middle (and Late) Iron Age Gate Upper South Slope Late Iron Addition Middle Iron Gate(?) Early Iron Installation
  49. 49. <ul><li>The North Slope and Gate </li></ul>
  50. 50. Late Iron Age blockage of Hittite gate
  51. 51. <ul><li>North Slope: </li></ul><ul><li>Three phases of North Gate </li></ul><ul><li>2nd millennium </li></ul><ul><li>Early Iron Age </li></ul><ul><li>Late Iron Age </li></ul>2006 2004
  52. 52. An Approach to the Citadel? Ramp or Stairway a la Bogazkoy North Gate
  53. 53. Base of the Mound Magnetometry
  54. 54. The Lower City from the Citadel Mound OA/OH Sounding halentuwa /palace Lower Gate From Bogazkoy To Caltepe To Citadel Monumental Gate ramp or steps?
  55. 55. The Terrace Sounding
  56. 56. The Terrace Sounding
  57. 57. The Terrace Sounding
  58. 58. The Terrace Sounding
  59. 59. Hittite Processional Way? Terrace Sounding
  60. 60. Cadir 2 nd Millennium Objects
  61. 61. Weaponry from Cadir Hoyuk
  62. 62. Miniature Libation Bowls
  63. 63. “ Lion” Representations
  64. 64. Second Millennium Ceramics
  65. 65. Cadir – Caltepe: Zippalanda - Daha Stormgod of Zippalanda’sTemple Complex Hilammar
  66. 66. Mt. Daha overlooking Zippalanda Temple Complex hilammar Cult Niche
  67. 67. The Royal Route to Daha Temple Mound Storerooms? Egri Su (river) Caltepe/Mt. Daha Alisar (Ankuwa) Kirklartepe Salir (Katapa)
  68. 68. Mt. Daha overlooking Zippalanda Temple Complex hilammar Cult Niche
  69. 69. A Cult Niche?
  70. 70. <ul><li>A Stone Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Summit of Caltepe - Daha </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>“ Awaken from your sweet sleep O Stormgod of Zippalanda. </li></ul><ul><li>Look! We have brought to you on your beloved mountain, our Lord, </li></ul><ul><li>the king, the priest of your mother the Sungoddess of Arinna!” </li></ul><ul><li>- Prayer from Zippalanda Text </li></ul>Hittite king’s view of Zippalanda (center) from the Gate to the “Temple Area” on Mt Daha.
  72. 72. Temple of the Stormgod overlooking Zippalanda Gate Cadir Hoyuk 40 m 80 m
  73. 73. The Stormgod of Zippalanda’s Temple on Mt. Daha Courtyard Storeroom Storeroom Storeroom
  74. 74. <ul><li>Gate to the Hittite hilammar </li></ul><ul><li>on Çaltepe - Mt. Daha </li></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>The King’s Road from Daha (Çaltepe) </li></ul><ul><li>To Katapa (Salur) and Ankuwa (Alişar) </li></ul>Salur Hoyuk/Katapa? Alişar /Ankuwa?
  76. 76. <ul><li>Proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Indentifications </li></ul><ul><li>in the </li></ul><ul><li>Kanak </li></ul><ul><li>Su </li></ul><ul><li>Basin </li></ul> Salur H ö y ü k • (Katapa?) (Ankuwa?) (Zippalanda?) (Mt. Daha?) • ( Hurrana šš u ?) and Bo ğ azk ö y (Hattu š a) ( K ü ltepe/Kane š ) Ç altepe (Mt. Puskurunwa?) Hatti
  77. 77. Early Iron Age / “Dark Age” Cadir Caltepe - Mt. Daha
  78. 78. Early Iron Age / “Dark Age” Çadır <ul><li>Plaster Surfaces and Spindle Whorls </li></ul>
  79. 79. 2 nd Millennium - Iron Age Transition Iron Age Building and Underlying Hittite Pits
  80. 80. Dark Age Building and Fallen Mudbrick Upper South Trench
  81. 81. Late Hittite Ritual Pits?
  82. 82. X Late Hittite Ritual Pits?
  83. 83. Dark Age Pottery
  84. 84. <ul><li>Early </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery </li></ul>
  85. 85. An Iron Age Pot
  86. 86. The Late Iron Age Southern Gate Eastern (2008) and Western (2005) Piers of the Late Iron Age Gate (cf. Alisar gate).
  87. 87. Iron Age Architecture North Slope Casemate Wall 2005 2006
  88. 88. Late Iron Age “Gate” Architecture
  89. 89. Lower South Trench ---------------- Iron Age Overview --------------- East Balk <ul><li>The </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Iron Age </li></ul><ul><li>Wall and Foundation </li></ul>later disturbance Late Iron Age gate pier
  90. 90. Cadir Hoyuk Chronology <ul><li>The following tables provides a chronological outline of the site's settlement as revealed in archaeological efforts undertaken at Çadır between 1993 and 2005. Please note that the phases of occupation are numbered in ascending order, on the assumption that we have exposed all the major phases that we will find (with the possible exception of the Neolithic) from earliest to latest (I - X). The subphases, on the other hand, are lettered in descending order on the assumption that additional subphases may be uncovered below those already accounted for. I emphasize that while this is a preliminary chart and is susceptible to change and organization, it does reflect our current understanding of Çadır's historical development. </li></ul>
  91. 91. <ul><ul><li>Period Phase Dates/sublevels Primary Areas Comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic X 1100 and after Area around mound Misc. Pottery and a Seljuk coin in a nearby valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine IXa ca. 1075, Latest rebuild Area 4 (800.890) Poorly rebuilt walls (unfinished?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone pile in central courtyard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine IXb1 ca. 1000 AD Area 2 (910.920 Ceramics, walls, and many Rebuilding of main fort 1050.1000); coins; Ash and burning Area 4 (800.890) over animal remains, many 11th c. coins with animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Alusianos lead sealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXb2 Last sublevel Bldg I (terr) Area 2 (950.970, 840.970) Const. X (1059-1067) coin on Foundations in Terrace sounding Sounding (910.920) terrace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine IXc1i 2nd sublevel of Bldg A (cit) Area 4; Citadel (800.890) 2 nd phase exterior citadel wall; ca. 800-900 AD Large mortared interior wall F! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continues in use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXc1ii 2 nd sublevel building I (terr) Area 2 (950.970, 840.970) Coarse Ware pots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXc2i 1 st sublevel Bldg. A (cit) Area 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXc2i 1 st sublevel Bldg I (terr) Area 2 (950.970, 840.970) Imitation African Red Slip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine IXd1 Early Byzantine Area 4 (Citadel ?) 1 st phase exterior citadel wall; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ca. 500-600 AD main interior wall (F 1); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plaster floors and plaster basin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXd2i Early Byzantine Area 2 (950.970, 840.970) African red slipped ware. ca. 500-600 AD especially Surface F33/34) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXd2i Early Byzantine Citadel (?) unexcavated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ca. 500-600 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IXd2ii Terrace (esp. surface F 37). Inlaid box lid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman VIII 100 BC-300 AD Area 2 (910.920) Pottery on the terrace only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic VII 300-100 BC Area 2 (910.920) Pottery and robber trench, Area 3 (770.890 Wall at top of E.step- trench. and 770.900) </li></ul></ul>Islamic (X) to Hellenistic (VII)
  92. 92. Iron Age (VI) – Middle Bronze (III) <ul><li>Late Iron VI 500-300 BC Area 4 (790.890) Painted sherds across site, esp. in (Achaemenid) Area 5 (850.880) Monumental north gate rea and south Phrygian Gate area. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Iron Age Va ca 1000-500 B.C. Area 3 (770.890) “Phrygian” Sherds, pots, </li></ul><ul><li>gate, city walls and installations. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Iron/ Late Vb ca. 1200-1000 BC Area 4 (780.890) Early Iron and “Dark Age Bronze Trans. sherds” with walls foundations; c14 dated. </li></ul><ul><li>Late Bronze II IVa ca 1400-1200 BC Area 1 (800.930) Hittite Empire Period: sherds, Area 3 (770.880) architecture & City wall. Area 4 (790.890) Area 5 (850.880) Monumental gate. Area 7 (Caltepe) Temple and hilammi (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Late Bronze I IVb ca. 1600-140. BC Area 1 (800.930 ) Old Hittite Kingdom: sherds,pots, and walls </li></ul><ul><li>throughout whole east trench. </li></ul><ul><li>MB/LB trans. IIIa Old Assyrian Colony Age Area 1 (800.930) Wall 20 w/ burned bricks ca. 1750-1700 BC Area 3 (760.880) OACP Pottery sherds </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (=Karum Ia) Area 2 (Terrace) Pottery sherds and installation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Bronze IIIb Old Assyrian Colony Age Area 1 (800.930) Casemate wall, rooms w/ ca. 1850- 1750 BC Area 3 (760.880) OACP Pottery, pits above (=Karum Ib) mudbrick walls., c14 dated. Area 2 (terrace) Pottery sherds </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Bronze II IIIc Old Assyrian Colony Age Area 1 (800.93 0) City Wall and Gate; ca. 2000 -1850 BC other architecture; c14 dated (=Karum II) </li></ul>
  93. 93. Early Bronze III (II) to Neolithic (I) <ul><li>Early Bronze III IIa ca. 2300-2000 BC (EB III) Area 1 (800.930) Intermediate and Area 3 (789.890) Cappadocian wares. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Bronze II IIb ca. 2800-2300 BC (EB II) Area 3 (760.880) Red chaff-tempered Pottery sherds. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Bronze I IIa2 ca. 3000-2800 BC (EB I) Area 3 (770.910) 2-room houses </li></ul><ul><li>Trans. EB I/LC IIa1 ca. 3200 BC Area 3 (770.890) Graves cut into 1b; hearths above &quot;burned room; black polished pottery and black incised wares; copper grave goods; c14 dated. </li></ul><ul><li>Late Chalco. Ia1 ca. 3200-3250 BC Area 3 (770.890) Small weak wall foundations (1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Late Chalco. Ia2 ca. 3250-3300 BC Area 3 (770.890) Stronger foundations under and 770.900) Ia1. Pithos room, above gate </li></ul><ul><li>Late Chalco. Ib1 ca. 3300-3350 BC Area 3 (770.890 and Levels under Ia2 wall 770.900). Separated| from gate by plaster floor and destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>debris; c14 dated </li></ul><ul><li>Late Chalco. Ib2 ca. 3350-3600 BC Area 3 (770.890 and Gate and Enclosure Wall: 770.900) (latest Phase) c14 dated </li></ul><ul><li>Late Chalco. Ib3 ca. 3600-3700 BC Area 3 (770.890 and Gate and Enclosure wall 770.900) (earliest Phase); c14 dated. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Chalco. Ic ca. 4500 BC (c14) Deep Sounding fill layer w/ F 42; c14 dated </li></ul><ul><li>Early Chalco. Id ca. 5200 BC (c14) Deep Sounding F 43 wall; c14 dated. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Chalco. Ie ca. 5300 BC Deep Sounding F 44 wall foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic If ca. 5500 BC unexcavated No evidence </li></ul>
  94. 94. Cadir Hoyuk c14 Samples <ul><li>Sample FCN no. Year 14C Age Square context 2s max cal age (cal age intercept) min cal age </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 134066 2494 1999 4840 +/- 180 BP 770.900 L 53 3780 - 3505 BC (Cal BP 5730 - 5455) and 3435 - 3380 BC (Cal BP 5385 - 5330) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 134069 2454 1999 4850 +/- 50 BP 770.900 DS L 46 3705 - 3620 BC (Cal BP 5655 - 5570) and 3590 - 3525 BC (Cal BP 5540 - 5475) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 134070 2582 1999 4380 +/- 130 BP 770.890 L 42 3485 - 3475 BC (Cal BP 5435 - 5423) and 3370 - 2835 BC (Cal BP 5320 - 4785) and 2830 - 2645 BC (Cal BP 4780 - 4595) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146703 3193 2000 2890 +/- 60 BP 780.890 L 5 1270 - 910 BC (Cal BP 3220 - 2860) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146704 3467 2000 2840 +/- 60 BP 780.890 F 4 1190 - 840 BC (Cal BP 3140 - 2790) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146705 3856 2000 4080 +/- 80 BP 789.890 L 11 2880 - 2450 BC (Cal BP 4830 - 4400) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146707 3130 2000 6130 +/- 40 BP 770.89 DS F 43 5220 - 4940 BC (Cal BP 7170 - 6890) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146710 3510 2000 5740 +/- 50 BP 770.900 L 65 4520 - 4480 BC (Cal BP 6670 - 6430) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 146714 3565 2000 4750 +/- 80 BP 770.900 F 56 3670 - 3360 BC (Cal BP 5620 - 5310) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 159385 4400 2001 2920 +/- 70 BP 780.890 F 5 1360 - 1360 BC (Cal BP 3310 - 3300) and 1320 - 920 BC (Cal BP 3260 - 2870) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 159388 4794 2001 3300 +/ - 80 BP 800.930 F 23 1750 - 1410 BC (Cal BP 3700 – 3360 </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 159389 5360 2001 3400 +/- 70 BP 800.930 F 23 1910 - 1530 BC (Cal BP 3860 - 3480) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 159391 4568 2001 4700 +/- 80 BP 770.890 L 69 3650 - 3340 BC (Cal BP 5600 - 5290) </li></ul>
  95. 95. Cadir Hoyuk c14 Samples by Period
  96. 96. Funding for the Cadir Hoyuk Excavations has come from: <ul><li>The National Science Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>The Loeb Foundation of Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>Dumbarton Oaks </li></ul><ul><li>The University at Buffalo Foundation, </li></ul><ul><li>A State University of New York Chancellor’s Award for Overseas Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Hood College </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic </li></ul><ul><li>The Anatolian Archaeological Research Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>The University College London Institute of Archaeology </li></ul><ul><li>Ramerica International, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Turkish Society, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Couture, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Private donors included Mr. Erden Arkan, Mr. George Blumenthal, Mr. Arnold Flegenheimer, Mr. I. Michael Kasser, Mrs. Louise A. Valdes-Fauli, Mr. Frank Spring, Mrs. Edmee Reit, Mr. Rick Schneider and Ms. Barbara Koz Paley. </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Te ss ek ü r </li></ul><ul><li>Ederim! </li></ul>

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