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Mass-Eviction and Resettlement of Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines
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Mass-Eviction and Resettlement of Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines

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For any inquiries regarding this research, feel free to contact Ryan Letada at rletada@gmail.com or twitter: @rletada. ...

For any inquiries regarding this research, feel free to contact Ryan Letada at rletada@gmail.com or twitter: @rletada.

How do we view evicted urban poor communities as assets and rather than liabilities in the economic development of the Philippines? This study attempts to answer this critical question. This research explores the mass-eviction and resettlement of urban poor communities (commonly referred to as "squatters") due to infrastructure development and commercial estate development in metro-manila. Through policy reviews, extensive mapping of resettlement sites, and interview with local experts, this research begins to explore the role of urban planning, entrepreneurship, and community-based efforts in creating sustainable relocated communities.

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    Mass-Eviction and Resettlement of Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines Mass-Eviction and Resettlement of Urban Poor Communities in the Philippines Presentation Transcript

    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Photo Courtesy of Flickr
    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • WHAT IS A HOME? Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Photo courtesy of Flckr: Reinar
    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • SHIFTING PARADIGMS:Eviction and Resettlement in Metro-ManilaRyan Onell Letada (US Fulbright Scholar) Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • DEMOGRAPHICS 88.57M Total population of the Philippines in 2007 2.04% Average annual rate of growth from 2000 to 2007 11.55M Total population of Metro Manila in 2007 53% Filipino Families in Metro Manila or National Capital Region who considered themselves as Mahirap or Poor Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • URBAN-RURAL POPULATIONS 78,595,000 90000 80000 Population (in thousands) 70000 53,032,000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 URBAN Year RURAL Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unup Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • PERCENTAGE URBAN 80 69.6 72.3 70 66.4 62.7 58.5 60 54 Percentage urban 48.8 50 43 40 33 35.6 37.5 30 20 10 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unup Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • TWO WORLDS COLLIDE Urban Poor vs. Urban Rich Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Push Factors Skyrocketing Prices of Real Estate Increase Demand for Shopping Malls, Condominiums, Recreation, etc. Need to Develop Urban Infrastructure Drive towards Environmentally Balanced or “Green” Cities MMDA’s METRO GWAPO Program Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • AYALA LAND TAKEOVER Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • 5000 families face eviction according to MMIACButing ∙ Pasig ∙ Santolan ∙ Mindanao Avenue ∙ Balintawak ∙ Quiapo ∙ Nissan Tatalon ∙ Pasay ∙ Estero de Paco ∙ R-10 Navotas ∙ Market 3 Fishport of Navotas ∙ Sta. Cruz. Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer: 5,000 Metro-Manila face eviction Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Evictions are like physical amputations… [current]relocations plans never make up for the lost limbs or home. - Dennis Murphy Urban Poor Associates RE.IMAGINEPH [Youtube Channel] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7xqBklA2H-k Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Impoverishment Risk Model (MichaelCernea) Joblessness  Marginalization Homelessness  Morbidity/Mortality Social Disarticulation  Food Insecurity Landlessness Loss of Access to Common PropertyDemolition of Entire Communities:• Wipes out Informal Markets• Demolishes Employment Opportunities• Dismantles Social Capital Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • For every case of demolition, two goesunreported. This is equivalent to morethan 240,000 families. Source: Urban Poor Associates (UPA) Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Violation: Urban Development Housing Act (1992) 1. 30 Day Notice prior to the date of eviction and demolition 2. Consultation on the matter of resettlement 3. Presence of local government officials 4. Proper Identification of all persons taking part in the demolition 5. Eviction or Demolition during office hours, and good weather 6. No Use of Heavy Equipment 7. Proper uniforms for members of the Philippines National Police 8. Adequate Relocation Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Violation: Article 25 United Nations Declarationof Human Rights Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services… Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Violation: Section 10, Article XIII 1987Philippine Constitution Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner. Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • EVICTION LEADS TO A SIGNIFICANTDECREASE IN THE QUALITY OF LIFE Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • UNSUSTAINABLE: VICIOUS CYCLE Eviction Remigration Relocation Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • KASIGLAHAN VILLAGE: Montalban Rizal Case Study Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Pasig River Environmental Management and Rehabilitation SectorDevelopment Program (SDP) implemented by the PhilippineGovernment through the Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission(PRRC), assisted by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).10m wide Environmental Preservation Areas along Riverbanks andEsterosPrincipal Relocation Site: Other sites include Trece Martires andGeneral Trias in Cavite for the approximately 10,000 informal settlersthat will be relocated.Relocation started 1999Origins of Resettled Peoples: Pasig River, Payatas Garbage LandslideVictims, Quiapo, Valenzuela, Tatalon, etc.1hr 15min from Ateneo Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Post-LocationKunting Bato, Kunting Cemento, Cementerio.. - Doc MirandaUnprepared Site (Infrastructure, basic services – barelyor non-existent)Dislocated from their source of livelihood and incomeCrime, Gangwars… Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Present“Masmaganda na ng buhay dito” - Doc MirandaInfrastructure and basic services improved significantlyDiseconomies such as crime, gang wars and theft havedecreased, but still existsCommunity Needs: Livelihood opportunities(Hanapbuhay) and improved Peace and Order. Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • “What Sapang Palay did in 30-40 years, KV1 did in 10 Years…” Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Leadership with VisionHigher Standards of Resettlement Resettlement Action Plan The People Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • RESEARCH FOCUS:Identify milestones in the development of KasiglahanVillages’ economyIdentify economic hubs and its effect on the economy ofthe resettlement site.Determine risk management strategies adopted by“relocatees” to restore or increase income levels.Determine role of “relocatees” in the economicdevelopment of Kasiglahan Village Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Research Methods Cognitive Mapping (Spatial Approach) Quantitative Survey Qualitative Interviews “Non-standardized Interviews” Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Economic Hubs and History: Step 1 Step 2 Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Pamantasan Ng Montalban (College)30 Businesses were established to cater to the needs of the students. Instant Entrepreneurs.90 Employment opportunities were generatedDeveloped Human CapitalAbsorbed unemployed members of thecommunityImproved integration with local communities Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Jeepney Terminal Before: Tricycle and Jeepney Ride to Quezon City: 106P (Roundtrip) Now: Tricycle and Jeepney ride to Quezon City: 36P (Roundtrip)66% Decrease in Transportation Cost Decrease in the cost of living Noticeable drop in commodity prices sold in the market and community Better Access to Market and employment opportunities outside KV1 Facilitated Community Integration Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Private Market 212 Employed in the Private Market 84% of workers reside in Kasiglahan Village•Instantly created an economic hub, or area for commerce•Overtime, the private market generated employmentopportunities•Private Market absorbed unemployed community members•Improved Integration with Local Community•Sign of Economic Growth Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Lessons Learned…Address Transportation Cost from the onset.Integrate into Resettlement Action Plan.Using RAP as the foundation, design communitieswith the intent of creating strategically-placedeconomic hubs.Leverage “economic hub” framework to avail basicservices and community amenities. Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES:OPPORTUNITIES FOR STIMULATINGECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • 552 Home-based Businesses 80% Are Sari-Sari Stores68% Started with Savings 62% Relocated Peoples 2% 1% 0% 1% 0% Sari Sari Store1% 1% 3% Internet Café 3% 7%1% Restaurant, Turo Turo, Carenderia Utility, Electricity, Coal Mixed (Mixture of all the other business) 80% Beauty Products, Barbershop, Salon Tailor Home Improvement, Plumbing, Hardware Agri-Business Micro Businesses Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • Sari Sari Store Start Up: 4500-6000Pesos Market: Depends on Location Primarily Neighbors Daily Net Profits: 350-1000PesosReasons:• Related to Previous Employment Vendors• Low Start-Up• Source of Income for “stay-at-home” family member• Low Risk: Open to possibility of Bankruptcy: Consumable Products• “Low Batt” – “Close Open” Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • 552 Home-owners stimulating economy68% Are investing their savings into Enterprises342 Relocatees are economically activeMoving Forward:Expose to alternative business models – Identify low risk, mid-high return businesses Support high risk, high return business through micro-creditUse data to identify area needsEconomically stimulate areas through the establishment of community facility Photo courtesy of Urban Poor Associates
    • ORGAN Market Market: Middle East, China, and Upper Class Filipinos Blood 500cc: 500P Kidney: 90,000- 175,000PCase Study 1: Kidney Seller (rare story)Price: 175,000PMonthly Stipend: P5000Purchaser: Transplant Service Foundation (St. Luke)What did she do with the money? Bought Appliances and Computer. Investedin Sari-Sari store and padjak. Home Improvement
    • Bio: Lola 82 Year OldLives with sick daughter.No electricity.3-4 Days per SackSack = 40Pesos
    • ENTREPRENEURRizalina RoseSells mice, colorful chicks, andducklings…Works across from church…300-600P/per day –One of her source of income
    • HARDWORKERERLuzvininda Flores(Pasig Relocatee May 2001): Sold Ukay Ukay, Siomai, Bag, and Divisoria Products inMunicipal Building. Sold School Supplies. Started Sari-Sari Store and Carenderia inCommercial Strip. Invested in 2 Stalls in Public Market.
    • Community Entrepreneurship The Repackaging Business Model
    • Aling Yolanda CREATIVEENTREPRENEUR
    • Building Sustainable Communities driven by resettled people