The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands that are responsible for the secretion of specific hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that cause changes in the metabolic activities in specific cells. The hormones that are secreted are responsible for regulating mood, growth, development, tissue function, metabolism, sexual function, and reproduction. The endocrine system regulates and integrates bodily functions and is responsible for maintaining homestasis in response to environmental changes.Add: ?? The principle organs are Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal Glands, and Ovaries & Testes.
The Hypothalamus is the “master” controlling gland of the entireendocrine system. This glad is very important to the endocrine system, because it looks at the information and input that is in the brain and decides what the endocrine system needs to do. After the hypothalamus decides what needs to be done, it gives the information to the pituitary gland and instructs this gland to do the rest of the “ordering around”.
Once the Pituitary Gland has received the information from the hypothalamus, it becomes the “master” gland of the body—controllingmany functions of the other endocrine glands.The pituitary gland also produces a number of hormones that are essential for many aspects of life. For example, some of the hormones that the pituitary gland produces send messages to other endocrine glandstelling them whether to increase or decrease the production of their hormones.
The Pineal Gland’s basic function is to produce a hormone called Melatonin. This hormone influences biological patterns— such as waking and sleeping. The Pineal Gland creates melatonin best when it is dark; therefore, it mainly produces melatonin during the night. Because of this, the pineal gland is greatly affected by the amount of contact a person (or other mammal’s) eyes have with the light.
The basic function of the thyroid gland is to produce the hormones that control our metabolism. The thyroid takes iodine found in food eaten and converts it into the hormones thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4). Thesehormones control the rate at which our cells burn fuel from the food we eat, in order to produce energy.
The Thymus gland produces immunity cells called T-lymphocytes that help fight foreign invaders and infection. This gland beginsto decrease in size and function around the age of 13.
The pancreas produces hormones, such as insulin and glucagon. It releases these hormones directly into the blood stream, tomaintain bloodsugarlevels.
The Adrenal glands produce hormones that regulate salt and water balance in the body. They regulate stress hormones and metabolism, and they also produce epinephrine. Epinephrine is also known as adrenaline; this hormone increases heart rate and blood pressure so as to aid us in our fight and flight responses.
Ovaries and Testes are known as gonads and their primary purpose is to produce gametes. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone which affect female characteristics and reproduction; while testes produce testosterone which affect sperm production and many male characteristics.
Cardiovascular System: Carries, transports, and circulates the hormones that the endocrine system produces. All 10 of the endocrine system organs secretes their hormones into the Cardiovascular system.Nervous System: Many endocrine glands and tissues are situated within the nervous system. One way the endocrine system affects the nervous system is by reducing pain with the release of endorphins.
The endocrine system produces hormones that regulate:The Reproductive System: The hormones the endocrine system sends out controls the reproductive system after puberty, and controls fertility. Which Controls fertility..The Circulatory System: The endocrine needs the circulatory system to transport more then 20 major hormones to various parts of the body. Acts as the super highway to transport the hormones throughout the body.Problem within The Immune System: can cause problems with the endocrine system. The pancreas secretes hormones and produces enzymes that aid in the Digestive System: The Digestive system is aided by hormones and enzymes produced by the endocrine system.
The Endocrine system uses negative feedback to regulate hormone secretion. The negative feedback is used as the means that the glands within the endocrine system stimulate the release of a hormone from another gland.
The endocrine system is a complex network, a failure within any organ within the system can have far reaching effects throughout the body.
Diabetes: One of the most prevalent endocrine system diseases resulting from inadequate production of insulin from the pancreas.
Growth Disorders – Given that the endocrine system regulates growth processes, endocrine diseases often result in growth disorders. To much or to little growth hormone can cause gigantism in adults or slow growth in children.
There are many more endocrine system diseases, often a symptom resemble many possible diseases making failures within the endocrine system difficult to pinpoint.
Did you know! The endocrine system influences who you are!
What you do!
How you feel when you do it!
Your endocrine system is affected by your environment in ways you may not realize!
Your system is affected by the chemicals we use to grow our food. Over 30,000 chemicals in the US.
Or Create in our laboratories. There are over 84,000 commercial synthetic chemical substances in the world
And these chemicals can effect or even alter our endocrine system and hormone production.
We are all interconnected, Everything, Everywhere!
Ovaries and Testes Figure 17: Ovaries—oval/almond shaped glands that are located on both side of the uterus—in the lower pelvic region (La Vista Church of Christ). Figure 18: Testes—egg shaped and located in the scrotum, a skin pouch located on the outside of the body (Medicalook.com).
How it is related to other systems Figure 19:(Wheeler)
Related systems cont. Immune Figure 20:(International Churches of Christ, 2008)
Many possible disorders! Thyroid Disorders Osteoporosis (fragile bones) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 7-10% of Women (Infrequent or irregular menstruation Hypogonadism (Low Testosterone -> Sex drive, hair, muscle mass)