OutlineI. Class Introduction and AuthorityII. Sola ScripturaIII. Transmission of ScriptureIV. Canonization of the OTV. Canonization of the NTVI. InspirationVII. Proving InspirationVIII.InerrancyIX. History of InterpretationX. Historical-Grammatical Hermeneutics
LXX Genre Canon Dual-source theory Apocrypha Sola ScripturaRegula Fidei Bible Translations Manuscripts Authorial Intent Autographa Inspiration Revelation Interpretation Mechanical Dictation Inerrancy Hermeneutics Prima Scriptura Authority
AuthorityQuestions:1. What does sola Scriptura mean?2. What is the Roman Catholic understanding of Tradition?3. What does Eastern Orthodoxy believe concerning Tradition?4. What is the difference between sola Scriptura and Solo Scriptura?
Authority"Unless I am convinced by the testimony fromscripture or by evident reason—for I confide neitherin the Pope nor in a Council alone, since it iscertain they have often erred and contradictedthemselves—I am held fast by the scripturesadduced by me, and my conscience is held captiveby God‘s Word, and I neither can nor will revokeanything, seeing it is not safe or right to actagainst conscience. God help me. Amen.― —Martin Luther Diet of Worms, April 18, 1521
AuthorityFive Primary Views:1. Sola Ecclesia2. Prima Scriptura3. Regula Fidei4. Sola Scriptura5. Solo Scriptura
AuthorityWhat Is Tradition?American Heritage Dictionary:• The passing down of elements of a culture from generation to generation, especially by oral communication.• A mode of thought or behavior followed by a people continuously from generation to generation; a custom or usage.• A body of unwritten religious precepts.• A time-honored practice or set of such practices.
AuthorityTwo Types of Tradition inEcclesiastical History:
AuthorityTradition 1: A ―summary‖ of Christian orthodoxy that has been held by the universal/catholic Church since its inception. It is infallible only because it accurately represents Scripture. If it does not accurately represent Scripture, it is not true Tradition. Therefore, it is subject to the Scripture. Often referred to as the regula fidei.
AuthorityTradition 2: An infallible unwritten body of material that contains information beyond that which is contained in Scripture (e.g. Marian dogmas, infallibility of the pope). This Tradition began with the Apostles’ teaching and is passed on through a succession of bishops. It is only revealed when issues arise that make it necessary for a pope or a council to speak authoritatively from this ―deposit‖ of information. Often referred to as ―living Tradition.‖
Authority Regula Fidei ―Rule of Faith‖This is a Greek phrase used often in the early Church to refer to the summation of the Christian faith. The regula fidei wasseen as the faith which was held ―always, everywhere, and byall.‖ It was seen as being inherited and passed on, not through an avenue of inspired or infallible information distinct from that of Scripture, but as representative of the essential doctrinal and moral elements of the faith contained in Scripture.
AuthoritySola Ecclesia: Belief that Tradition, represented by the magisterial authority of the Roman Catholic Church, is infallible and equal to Scripture as a basis for doctrine; it is the final authority in all matters of faith and practice since it must define and interpret Scripture.Adherents: Roman CatholicsTradition: Tradition 2Alternate: Dual-source theory
―. . . contend earnestly for the Sola Ecclesia faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.‖ —Jude 1:3 Catholic Church Unwritten Infallible Tradition Responsible for interpretation defining and Deposit of Faith Scripture Written Infallible Tradition 400 AD 1000 ADAge of the Apostles Age of the Church
AuthorityCatechism of the Catholic Church81 ―Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is putdown in writing under the breath of the HolySpirit. And [Holy] Tradition transmits in its entiretythe Word of God which has been entrusted to theapostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit. Ittransmits it to the successors of the apostles so that,enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they mayfaithfully preserve, expound and spread it abroadby their preaching.
AuthorityCatechism of the Catholic Church82 As a result, the Church, to whom thetransmission and interpretation ofRevelation is entrusted, ―does not derive hercertainty about all revealed truths from theholy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture andTradition must be accepted and honored withequal sentiments of devotion and reverence‖(emphasis added).
Authority BackExperience Emotions General Revelation Reason Tradition Scripture Front
Authority What makes a teaching infallible?1. Pope speaking alone concerning matters of faith or morals (ex cathedra): e.g., papal bulls, encyclicals2. When the pope and bishops speaking together concerning matters of faith or morals: e.g., ecumenical councils and creeds
AuthorityPrima Scriptura: Belief that the Body of Christ has two separate sources of authority for faith and practice: 1) the Scriptures and 2) Tradition. Scripture is the primary source for authority, but by itself it is insufficient for all matters of faith and practice. Tradition also contains essential elements needed for the productive Christian life.Adherents: Some Roman Catholics, some Eastern Orthodox, some Protestants.Tradition: Tradition 2
―. . . contend earnestly for thePrima Scriptura faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.‖ —Jude 1:3 Church Unwritten Tradition (paradosis). Interprets Scripture and contains doctrine and morals that are extrabiblical. Tradition can never Deposit contradict Scripture. of Faith Scripture Written Infallible Tradition 400 AD 1000 ADAge of the Apostles Age of the Church
Authority BackExperience Emotions General Revelation Reason Tradition Scripture Front
AuthorityRegula fidei: Lit. ―Rule of faith.‖ Belief that tradition is an infallible ―summary‖ of Scripture passed on through apostolic succession. Ultimately, there is only one source of revelation, but two sources of authority. In other words, Tradition is Scripture.Adherents: Eastern Orthodoxy, early Church, some evangelicals.Tradition: Tradition 1
―. . . contend earnestly for the Regula Fidei faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.‖ —Jude 1:3 Church Unwritten Tradition (paradosis)/ summary of the Gospel message. Deposit of Faith Scripture Written Infallible Tradition 400 AD 1000 ADAge of the Apostles Age of the Church
Authority―Any disjunction between Scripture and Traditionsuch as would treat them as two separate ‗sources ofrevelation‘ must be rejected. The two are correlative. Weaffirm (1) that Scripture is the main criterionwhereby the church tests traditions to determinewhether they are truly part of the Holy Tradition ornot; (2) that Holy Tradition completes HolyScriptures in the sense that it safeguards theintegrity of the biblical message.‖ —Anglican-Orthodox Dialogue: The Dublin Agreed Statement 1984 (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1985), 50–51
Authority―Regarding the relation of Scripture and Tradition, forcenturies there seemed to have been a deep differencebetween Orthodox and Lutheran teaching. Orthodoxhear with satisfaction the affirmation of the Lutherantheologians that the formula sola Scriptura was alwaysintended to point to God‘s revelation, God‘s saving actthrough Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit, andtherefore to the holy Tradition of the Church . . . againsthuman traditions that darken the authentic teachingin the Church.‖ —Lutheran-Orthodox Dialogue: The Agreed Statements 1985–1989 (Geneva: Lutheran World Federation, 1992), 11
Authority BackExperience Emotions General Revelation Reason Tradition= Scripture Front
AuthoritySola Scriptura: Belief that Scripture is the final and only infallible authority for the Christian in all matters of faith and practice.Adherents: Evangelicals, ReformersTradition: Tradition 1
―. . . contend earnestly for theSola Scriptura faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.‖ —Jude 1:3 Church Unwritten tradition (paradosis)/ summary of the Gospel message Deposit of Faith Scripture Written Infallible Tradition 400 AD 1000 ADAge of the Apostles Age of the Church
Authority BackExperience Emotions General Revelation Tradition Reason Scripture Front
AuthoritySolo Scriptura: Belief that Scripture is the sole basis and authority in the life of the Christian. Tradition is useless and misleading, and creeds and confessions are the result of man-made traditions.Adherents: Fundamentalism, Restoration ChurchesTradition: None (or Tradition 0)
―. . . contend earnestly for theSolo Scriptura faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.‖ —Jude 1:3 Deposit Scripture of Faith Written Infallible Tradition 400 AD 1000 ADAge of the Apostles Age of the Church
Authority―I have endeavored to read the Scripturesas though no one has read them before me,and I am as much on my guard againstreading them today, through the mediumof my own views yesterday, or a week ago,as I am against being influenced by anyforeign name, authority systemwhatever.‖ –Alexander Campbell Founder of the Disciples of Christ
Individualistic Respect for Authority Absolute Absolute Authoritarianism Individualism Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola SoloEcclesia Scriptura Scriptura Scriptura Dual-source view of Single-source view of authority and revelation authority and revelation
Roman Eastern Reformed Radical Catholicism Orthodoxy (Protestants) (Protestants) Individualistic Respect for Authority Absolute Absolute Authoritarianism Individualism Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola SoloEcclesia Scriptura Scriptura Scriptura Dual- source view of Single-source view of authority and revelation authority and revelation
High View of Supreme View Scripture of Scripture Supreme View Low View of of Tradition Tradition Individualistic Respect for Authority Absolute Absolute Authoritarianism Individualism Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola Solo Ecclesia Scriptura Scriptura Scriptura Tradition, represented by the Scripture is the primary and only infallible Scripture is the sole basismagisterial authority of the Roman and authority in the life of Catholic Church, is infallible and authority for the Christian in all matters of faith the Christian; Tradition is equal to Scripture as a basis for and practice. Tradition, as represented by thedoctrine; it is the final authority in useless and misleading. Church, is important and useful, but not Creeds and confessions all matters of faith and practicesince it must define and interpret paramount and infallible. Tradition is true to the are the result of man-made Scripture. degree that it agrees with Scripture. traditions.
Roman Eastern Reformed Radical Catholicism Orthodoxy (Protestants) (Protestants) Individualistic Respect for Authority Absolute Absolute Authoritarianism Individualism Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola Solo Ecclesia Scriptura Scriptura ScripturaCatholic Counter- Radical Early Church Through Reformation Reformation Reformation
Anglicans Bible Churches Reformed Independent Churches Roman Catholic Lutherans Eastern Orthodox Disciples of Christ Methodists Baptists Presbyterians Church of Christ Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola SoloEcclesia Scriptura Scriptura Scriptura
Moral certainty found in Absolute certainty community and Spirit-led Absolute certaintyfound in institutions individual found in individual Sola Prima Regula fidei Sola Solo Ecclesia Scriptura Scriptura Scriptura Dual-source view of Single-source view of authority authority and revelation and revelation