Section b


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Section b

  1. 1. Limitation of Humans in giving Information<br />Selective information is given depending upon the importance he attaches to various parts of his requirements<br />User bias – Users generally have short term memory and tend to give requirement to solve problems faced very recently. <br />Limited capability, training and prejudices of user results in incomplete information.<br />
  2. 2. Difficulties in RequirementAnalysis<br />Inaccurate definition of requirements because of different perceptions of user and analyst.<br />Analyst is generally overwhelmed by business and technical details.<br />Narration in English language can be vague.<br />Existing system flow is physically implemented already without proper analysis.<br />Making a single change in the system generally requires many other related changes<br />Information available from records may be redundant and conflicting (e.g. in judiciary systems)<br />
  3. 3. Strategies for determining Information Requirement<br />Asking<br />Open ended or closed Questions<br />Brain-storming<br />Group consensus – Group is given a questionnaire. Each one fills. It is summarized and replies are shared. A group discussion starts and consensus is reached.<br />From Existing System<br />Forward Analysis - Existing Reports and Forms<br />Backward Analysis (Decision Analysis)<br />Prototyping<br />A working system is developed which covers main features (may have bugs) and I/O.<br />
  4. 4. Observation Methods<br />Obtrusive or Non-Obtrusive<br />Observer is observing directly or behind one-way mirror. Here the observer can change the observation points. <br />Direct or Indirect<br />Observing by sitting personally or through fixed cameras. Fixed cameras can help to observe routine processes for a long time. Generally used to find faults in the existing processes.<br />Structured or Unstructured<br />In structured method, planned measurements or counting of input/output is done whereas in unstructured method, observer records whatever he feels is pertinent.<br />
  5. 5. Types of Questionnaires<br />Fill-in-the-blanks<br />The respondent may write anything in the space provided. This will result in varied responses which need to be examined very closely. May take lot of time for filling.<br />Yes-No type<br />Exact answers are received. Fast response.<br />Ranking scales<br />Generally used for identifying a phenomenon by giving the respondents weighted choices of multiple descriptions.<br />Multiple Choice<br />Multiple options are given to the responder. Exact answers are ticked by respondents which can be analyzed statistically.<br />Rating Scales<br />Respondent is asked to rate the answer on a scale (e.g. 1 to 5)<br />
  6. 6. Questionnaire Construction<br />For each question take the following into account:<br />Content<br />Is the question necessary and covers the information required?<br />Is the respondent likely to have answer?<br />Wording<br />Is it worded properly according to the ability and level of respondent?<br />Is it clear and unambiguous?<br />Is it unbiased<br />Format<br />Is it in the best format (yes/no, multiple-choice etc.) for the purpose?<br />Is the questionnaire easy to read and use? (Not complicated and not congested)<br />
  7. 7. Interviewing<br />Set the stage<br />Establish rapport<br />Frame questions clearly<br />Be a good listener<br />Evaluate outcome<br />
  8. 8. Mock Interviews<br />Six interviews will be conducted by a committee of 3 persons in each group. Interviews will be held for developing a Library Management System. Others will appear in interviews in groups. Interviewed persons will be at the following levels:<br />Librarian<br />Teacher<br />Office Staff<br />Technical Staff<br />PG Students<br />UG Students<br />Interviewing groups and interviewed groups will prepare themselves and discuss it with the teacher in advance.<br />
  9. 9. Fact Finding<br />Review of written documents<br />On-Site Observation<br />Analyst has to be non-obtrusive and inconspicuous<br />He should not point out faults in the existing system<br />He should not give advice or get into controversies<br />On-site observation should be used only to understand the flow of information and to find facts which cannot be done otherwise<br />Interviews and Questionnaires<br />Reliability of Information<br />Validation of Information<br />
  10. 10. Fact Analysis<br />Input and Output Analysis<br />Data Flow Diagrams<br />Decision Tables<br />
  11. 11. Feasibility Study<br />After the user’s requirements have been understood completely, there is need to establish whether the required performance can be achieved within the financial and technical constraints. <br />This is Feasibility Study and entails detailed identification, description and evaluation of proposed system.<br />
  12. 12. Steps in Feasibility Analysis -I<br />Form a project team and appoint a project leader<br />A senior system analyst is appointed as a project leader. He is responsible for guiding his team and completing the project in all respects.<br />Prepare system flow chart<br />Complete flow of system and preparation of DFD.<br />Enumerate potential candidate systems<br />Selection of appropriate equipment and software from those available in the market.<br />Describe and identify characteristics of candidate system<br />Fixing the specifications of the candidate system vis-à-vis the requirement of the project.<br />
  13. 13. Steps in Feasibility Analysis -II<br />Determine and evaluate performance and cost effectiveness of each system<br />Performance of the system in terms of speed, efficiency, reliability and seamless integration with the existing system<br />Cost/Benefit Analysis<br />Select best candidate system<br />The above evaluation is done for all candidate systems and the best one meeting all requirements is selected.<br />Weigh System Performance and Cost data<br />If candidate systems cannot be compared straight-away, then weight should be attached to each performance criteria and then the comparison made. <br />Prepare and submit project report<br />
  14. 14. Feasibility Considerations<br />Economic Feasibility. This a very important consideration and has to be done in depth. This is generally done through a detailed Cost and Benefit Analysis.<br />Technical Feasibility: The feasibility from technical angle requires study, whether the existing technology and know-how can support the proposed system. <br />Behavioral Feasibility: There is general resistance for the new systems. The feasibility study from this angle requires whether the proposed system will be accepted by the staff. Sometimes people have resistance to proposed system when they fear that the new system will affect their retention and/or growth and importance in the organization.<br />
  15. 15. Classifications of Costs & Benefits<br />Tangible Costs and Benefits<br />Costs which can be directly calculated in terms of money<br />Example: Costs like Machines, Salaries, Building Etc.<br />Benefits like Reduced staff, Increase in Income<br />Intangible Costs and Benefits<br />Costs and benefits which cannot be directly calculated in terms of money<br />Example: Morale of Staff<br />Efficiency<br />Company Image<br />Customer Satisfaction<br />
  16. 16. Cost Benefit AnalysisCost Categories<br />Hardware Costs<br />Personnel Costs<br />Facilities Costs<br />Lighting/Air conditioning<br />Furniture & flooring<br />Operating Costs<br />Electrical consumption<br />Security<br />Supplies Costs<br />Paper, Ink etc<br />
  17. 17. Cost Benefit Analysis<br />Benefits<br />Improved Efficiency<br />Reduction in staff<br />Improved Corporate Image<br />Reliability of Outputs<br />Improved customer relationship<br />Proper maintenance of Accounts resulting in less losses and better revenue collection<br />In-time payment of Creditors and Govt. levies<br />Costs<br />Hardware<br />Computers, Network Hardware, Peripherals etc<br />Software<br />System Software, Application Software<br />Staff<br />Salaries<br />Other Benefits<br />Facilities<br />Building<br />Operating Costs<br />Electricity<br />Security<br />Petrol <br />Office Expenses (Paper etc)<br />
  18. 18. Procedure for Cost/Benefit Determination<br />Identify Costs/Benefits<br />Categorize costs and benefits for analysis<br />Select method for evaluation<br />Interpret results<br />Take action<br />
  19. 19. Classification of Costsand Benefits<br />Tangibles/Intangible Costs<br />Tangible/Intangible Benefits<br />Direct Costs/Benefits<br />Indirect Costs/Benefits<br />Fixed Costs/Benefits<br />Variable Costs/Benefits<br />One-time Costs<br />
  20. 20. Classification<br />Of Costs & Benefits<br />In-tangible<br />Costs<br />Tangible<br />Benefits<br />Probability<br />Tangible<br />Costs<br />In-tangible<br />Benefits<br />Various Types of Costs & Benefits<br />
  21. 21. Evaluation Methods -I<br />Net Benefit Analysis<br />Benefits - cost = Net Benefit<br />Must consider time value of money because the money invested now will incur interest and future value will be more<br />Present Value Analysis<br />Based on present value (Discounted) of Benefits in comparison with investments on other projects (including bank deposits)<br />
  22. 22. Evaluation Methods -II<br />Net Present Value<br />Net present value is the accumulated discounted value of benefits minus the investment.<br />Payback Analysis<br />Evaluation based on calculating the time by which the money invested will be recovered. Costs will include Fixed and all running costs. Return will include all Tangible Benefits.<br />Break-Even Analysis: <br />May be defined as Time by which the returns from proposed project are equal to returns from the existing project.<br />Break-Even Point is defined to be the point (in terms of time) at which the costs and benefits are equal.<br />Cash Flow Analysis<br />Accumulated costs and benefits calculated on regular intervals<br />
  23. 23. Break-Even Chart<br />Variable<br />Costs<br />Return<br />Range<br />Costs<br />Investment<br />Range<br />Break Even<br />Point<br />Fixed<br />Costs<br />Volume<br />Or Time<br />
  24. 24. Interpretation of Analysis<br />Different methods of analysis (described earlier) will give results in various forms. The analyst has to interpret each result and decide which method is best suited for the project under evaluation. Generally methods which see the project more comprehensively and consider all types of costs and methods are more likely to give results which are more convincing.<br />Intangible costs and benefits are difficult to quantify.<br />Analysis may not give proper results if the data is incomplete or faulty.<br />
  25. 25. Outline of Feasibility Report<br />Title Page<br />Table of contents<br />Scope/Boundaries<br />Statement of problem<br />Abstract<br />Cost/Benefit statement<br />Implementation Schedule<br />Appendix <br />
  26. 26. Mini Project- Office Automation<br />Class is divided into 5 groups<br />Group-1 studies what areas of office automation can be undertaken. <br />Group-2 studies the financial feasibility under the constraint of Rs. 25,000/-<br />Group-3 analyses the reports and prepares analysis report.<br />Group -4 studies the analysis reports and makes recommendations<br />Final discussion with the teacher of all the groups<br />