Mutations

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Mutations

  1. 1. 13.3 Mutations
  2. 2. Gene Mutations • Mutation – change in the genetic material of a cell • Point mutations – Changes in one or a few nucleotides – Insertions, deletions, substitutions • Frameshift mutations – Reading frame of the genetic code is shifted – Insertions and deletions are examples
  3. 3. Chromosomal Mutations • Change in the number or structure of chromosomes • Can change location of genes on chromosomes, or the number of copies of some genes • Four types are: deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation (see page 318)
  4. 4. Effects of Mutations • Chemical or physical agents in the environment that can alter genetic material • Can help or harm organisms, although most have little or no effect • Chemical mutagens can include: pesticides, tobacco smoke, and pollutants • Physical mutagens can include: x-rays and ultraviolet light
  5. 5. Example • Sickle cell anemia (see page 318) –Caused by point mutation –Causes red blood cells to change shape –Sickle-shaped cells interfere with blood flow and can cause severe problems in bloodstream

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