What are Fallacies?
Kelly Perez
Humanities - Philosophy
Essential to the Thinking
Process
The goal is not to
teach you how to label
arguments as
fallacious, but to help
you look ...
What's Your Point?????
 Thinking process
 Recognizing errors in
arguments
 Remove an argument from the
debate entirely!
Structure of the Argument
Philosophy structures argument in a logical fashion as
a way to identify premises and conclusion...
Validity in your Argument
 In order for an argument to be considered
valid the conclusion must be supported by its
premis...
Premise Just Plain Wrong
Argument Example:
Dinosaurs did not exist
That argument is unsound
The Premise: Dinosaurs did
not...
Premise is an Assumption
Argument Example:
Dinosaurs died because
of an alien attack
That argument is unsound

The Premise...
Means to an End
A sound argument (one with true premises
and valid logic) cannot lead to a false
conclusion.
So in order t...
Everyday Examples
You can find dozens of examples of
fallacious reasoning in newspapers,
advertisements, and other sources...
Ad Hominem
Against the person; focus our attention
on people rather than on arguments or
evidence
Ad Ignorantiam
States a specific belief is true because
we don’t know that it isn’t true
Argument from Authority

Emphasizing the many
years of experience
Ad Populum
The arguer takes advantage of the
desire most people have to be liked
or to fit in with others

Uses that desir...
Appeal to Pity
get people to accept a conclusion by
making them feel sorry for
someone.
Appeal to Tradition
Just because it
always
was…doesn’t
mean it
always is
Begging the Question
An argument that begs the question
asks the reader to simply accept the
conclusion without providing ...
Confusing Association with
Causation

It assumes cause and effect for
two variables simply because
they occur together
False Dichotomy
sets up the situation so it looks like
there are only two choices.
Hasty Generalization
Assumptions
about a whole
based on a sample
that is inadequate

Stereotypes
about people.
Non-Sequitur
In Latin this term translates
to “doesn’t follow”.
An argument where the
conclusion does not
necessarily foll...
Red Herring
Partway through an
argument, the arguer
goes off on a tangent,
raising a side issue
that distracts the
audienc...
Slippery Slope
Sort of chain reaction, usually ending in
some dire consequence, will take place, but
there’s really not en...
Straw Man
sets up a weak version of the
opponent’s position and tries to score
points by knocking it down.
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Logical fallacies

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Discuss the fallacies to an argument; with examples

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Logical fallacies

  1. 1. What are Fallacies? Kelly Perez Humanities - Philosophy
  2. 2. Essential to the Thinking Process The goal is not to teach you how to label arguments as fallacious, but to help you look critically at your own arguments and move them away from the “weak” and more towards the “strong”.
  3. 3. What's Your Point?????  Thinking process  Recognizing errors in arguments  Remove an argument from the debate entirely!
  4. 4. Structure of the Argument Philosophy structures argument in a logical fashion as a way to identify premises and conclusions.  Premise 1: If A = B  Premise 2: B = C  Conclusion: A = C
  5. 5. Validity in your Argument  In order for an argument to be considered valid the conclusion must be supported by its premise. If at any time the premise is false, then the conclusion will be invalid.  Logical Fallacies occur with false information is used in an argument to support a conclusion.
  6. 6. Premise Just Plain Wrong Argument Example: Dinosaurs did not exist That argument is unsound The Premise: Dinosaurs did not exist; is false. In fact there are many fossils that say otherwise.
  7. 7. Premise is an Assumption Argument Example: Dinosaurs died because of an alien attack That argument is unsound The Premise: Dinosaurs died because of an alien attack; is false.
  8. 8. Means to an End A sound argument (one with true premises and valid logic) cannot lead to a false conclusion. So in order to avoid using logical fallacies to construct invalid arguments, we need to understand how to identify fallacious logic.
  9. 9. Everyday Examples You can find dozens of examples of fallacious reasoning in newspapers, advertisements, and other sources.
  10. 10. Ad Hominem Against the person; focus our attention on people rather than on arguments or evidence
  11. 11. Ad Ignorantiam States a specific belief is true because we don’t know that it isn’t true
  12. 12. Argument from Authority Emphasizing the many years of experience
  13. 13. Ad Populum The arguer takes advantage of the desire most people have to be liked or to fit in with others Uses that desire to try to get the audience to accept his or her argument.
  14. 14. Appeal to Pity get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
  15. 15. Appeal to Tradition Just because it always was…doesn’t mean it always is
  16. 16. Begging the Question An argument that begs the question asks the reader to simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence
  17. 17. Confusing Association with Causation It assumes cause and effect for two variables simply because they occur together
  18. 18. False Dichotomy sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices.
  19. 19. Hasty Generalization Assumptions about a whole based on a sample that is inadequate Stereotypes about people.
  20. 20. Non-Sequitur In Latin this term translates to “doesn’t follow”. An argument where the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. In other words, a logical connection is implied where none exists.
  21. 21. Red Herring Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what’s really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue.
  22. 22. Slippery Slope Sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but there’s really not enough evidence for that assumption.
  23. 23. Straw Man sets up a weak version of the opponent’s position and tries to score points by knocking it down.
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