Railway Reservation Documentation


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Railway Reservation Documentation

  1. 1. Made By:- Rakesh Kunwar MCA 3rd Year Group no-4 Institute of management Education Sahibabad(GZB) E-mail: rakeshkunwar87@gmail.com ONLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM This system is basically concerned with the reservation and cancellation of railway tickets to the passengers. The need of this system arose because as is the known fact that India has the largest railway network in the whole of the world and to handle it manually is quite a tough job. By computerizing it, we will be able to overcome many of its limitations and will be able to make it more efficient. The handling of data and records for such a vast system is a very complex task if done manually but it can be made much easier if the system is computerized. To be more specific, our system is limited in such a way that a train starting from a particular source will have a single destination. The basic functions being performed by our system are reservation and cancellation. These functions will be handled with the help of following sub functions: - It reserves and cancels seats for the passenger. It contains information about the trains. It contains information about the passenger. It contains the details of reservation fees, any concessions etc. It makes entries for reservation, waiting, cancelled tickets. It will update for uptime and downtime trains. 1
  2. 2. Index:- • System Specification  Security  Limitation of Executing System • Data Flow Diagrams • Description of Flow Chart • Entity Relationship Diagrams • Feasibility Study • Introduction of Feasibility study • Summary • Testing • Debugging • Conclusion • Reference SYSTEM SPECIFICATION The railway network is a very vast system to be handled manually and its computerization will prove to be of great help to both the employees and the passengers. SECURITY:- From security point of view, authentication will be done by password checking. If correct password has been entered by the user, the user will get further access to the system, otherwise he will have to re-enter the password. The facility to change the password has also been provided but for that the user will have to first enter the old password. The password can be four characters long. LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING SYSTEM: - Data redundancy: It means that same data fields appear in many different
  3. 3. AdminPassenger files and often in different formats. In manual system, it poses quite a big problem because the data has to be maintained in large volumes but in our system, this problem can be overcome by providing the condition that if the data entered is duplicate, it will not be entered, otherwise, updating will take place.  Difficulty in accessing the data: In manual system, searching information is time consuming but in our system, any information can be accessed by providing the primary key.  Unsatisfactory security measures: In manual system, no security measures were provided but in this system, password security has been provided. The person can access the system by providing the correct password otherwise he is denied the access. DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS The data flow diagram is a graphical representation that depicts information flow and the transforms that are applied as data moves from input to output. The DFD may be used to represent a system or software at any level of abstraction. In fact DFD may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail. The level 0 DFD or a context model represents the entire software element as a single bubble with input and output data indicated by incoming and outgoing arrows, respectively. In level 0 diagram shown below, the passenger fills either the reservation or cancellation form as input. He gets the ticket as the output and the report is sent to the administration. Up/down train info Fill cancellation form Fill reservation form resva/cancle info Ticket info passenger info 3
  4. 4. Passenger Down Storage Reservation storage file Up Storage Level 0 DFD Or Context Free Diagram Waiting info Level – 1 data flow diagram A level 1 DFD is the furthur refinement of level 0 DFD showing greater
  5. 5. Level 2 DFDdetails and functionalities. In this, the single bubble of level 0 DFD is refinedfurthur . Each of the processes depicted at level 1 is a subfunction of theoverall system depicted in the context model.As shown in the DFD above, the passenger either enquires about the trains orgoes directly for the reservation or the cancellation processes as a result ofwhich he gets the ticket generated. The reports are then sent to theadministration. 5
  6. 6. Reservation Report Reservation ReservationPassenger Waiting Table Generate Ticket Generate report Cancel table Reservation table Waiting table The level 2 DFD is the further refinement of the level 1 DFD. As shown in the DFD above the passenger has many options like he can directly go to the reservation counter or can first inquire and then go to the reservation counter or he can just inquire and return back. If the passenger wants reservation then the seats are checked for availability
  7. 7. and if the seats are available the confirmation ticket is generated otherwise heis asked for waiting and waiting ticket is generated if he wants. If the userwants tickets to be cancelled he is given the cancellation ticket and thereports of all the transactions are sent to the administrator.DESCRIPTION OF FLOW CHARTThe program flowchart shows how the system proceeds from the input formto the output form of the system. It explains how the system is actuallyprocessed step by step .It represents the flow of control as the system isprocessed. There are three types of program flow chart: 1. Input flow chart: This flowchart depicts the basic input operations inthe system. In railway reservation system, first of all the password is checkedthen if the password is valid then we process the input form if the data isvalid then the entries are updated in the data base otherwise the form isrefilled. 2. Output flow chart: This flowchart depicts the basic outputoperations in the system. The user is required to enter the criteria for output. If it is for the reservation then the availability if seats ischecked. If the seats are available then the confirmed ticket is generatedotherwise the user is asked for waiting and if he wants then waiting ticket isgenerated. If the user wants the seat to be cancelled it is done and thecancelled ticket is generated for the user. The information about all the abovetransactions is then transferred to the related databases. 3. Report flow chart: This flowchart depicts the basic operationsfor the generation of reports. If the entries from the processed database arevalid the concerned reports are generated otherwise the process will have tobe repeated. 7
  8. 8. YesReservation database is updated No INPUT FLOW CHART
  9. 9. Yes No WaitingSend Generate ticket to related database Cancel 9
  11. 11. ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMEntity relationship diagram expresses the overall logical structure of adatabase graphically. It shows the relationship between different entities. Theentities can have composite, multivolume or derived attributes. The entitiesand their attributes are: -1 Passenger #. Name *. First name *. Middle name *. Last name #. Gender #. Address *. House no. *. Street *. City #. Age #. Phone no.2 Form #. Form no.3 Ticket #. Ticket no. *. Waiting *. Confirmed *. Cancelled4 Reservation counter5 Administrator 11
  12. 12. 6 Train #. Train no #. Train name #. Source #. Destination7 Seat #. Seat no. #. Compartment no.The relationships between different entities are: - 1. Fill: The passenger fills the form. 2. Submit: The form is submitted to the reservation counter. 3. Check: The reservation counter checks the seats. 4. Generate: Reservation counter generates the ticket. 5. Issue: Reservation counter issues ticket to the passenger. 6. Send info: The reservation counter sends information to the administrator. 7. Allotted: The seat is allotted in the train. Symbols Meanings 0100090000032a0200000200a2 Data flow 0100000000a201000026060f00 3a03574d464301000000000001 00fb8b00000000010000001803 00000000000018030000010000 006c0000000000000000000000 1a000000370000000000000000 000000f50700004f0300002045 4d460000010018030000120000 00020000000000000000000000 00000000f6090000e40c0000d8 00000017010000000000000000 0000000000005c4b0300684304 00160000000c00000018000000 0a000000100000000000000000 0000000900000010000000f000
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 0100090000032a0200000200 Processa20100000000a201000026060f003a03574d46430100000000000100fb8b00000000010000001803000000000000180300000100
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 0100090000032a0200000200a Data 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 17
  17. 17. 0100090000032a0200000200a2 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 19
  18. 18. 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
  19. 19. 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 21
  20. 20. Form AdministratorPassenger Ticket R.C. Train Seat ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
  21. 21. FEASIBILITY STUDYAn initial investigation in a proposal that determines whether an alternativesystem is feasible. A proposal summarizing the thinking of the analyst ispresented to the user for review. When approved, the proposal initiatesfeasibility study that describes and evaluates candidate systems and providesfor the selection of best system that meets system performance requirements. 23
  22. 22. To do a feasibility study, we need to consider the economic, technicalfactors in system development. First a project team is formed. The teamdevelops system flowcharts that identify the characteristics of candidatesystems, evaluate the performance of each system, weigh systemperformance and cost data and select the best candidate system for the job.The study culminates in a final report to the management.By the end of this chapter you should know: 1. The steps in defining system performance. 2. What key considerations are involved in feasibility analysis? 3. How to conduct a feasibility study?INTRODUCTION 1. Describe and identify characteristics of candidate systems. 2. Determine and evaluate performance and cost effectiveness of eachcandidate system. 4. Weigh system performance and cost data. 5. Select the best candidate system.SUMMARY1. A feasibility study is conducted to select the best system that meets
  23. 23. performance requirements. This entails an identification description, anevaluation of candidate systems, and the selection of the best system for thejob.2. A statement of constraints, the identification of specific system objectivesand a description of outputs define a system’s required performance. Theanalyst is then ready to evaluate the feasibility of candidate systems toproduce these outputs.3. Three key considerations are involved in feasibility analysis: economic,technical and behavioral.4. There are eight steps in feasibility study: a. STATEMENT OF CONSTRAINTS Constraints are factors that limit the solution of a problem. Someconstraints are identified during the initial investigation b. IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM OBJECTIVES Once the constraints are spelled out, the analyst proceeds to identify the system’s specific performance objectives. They are derived from the general objectives specified in the project directive at the end of the initial investigation. The steps are to state the system’s benefits and then translate them into measurable objectives. c. DESCRIPTION OF OUTPUTS A final step in system performance definition is describing the output required by the user. An actual sketch of the format and contents of the reports as well as a specification of the media used, their frequency, size and numbers of copies required are prepared at this point. d. FEASIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS Three key considerations are involved in the feasibility analysis: 1. Economic feasibility 2. Technical feasibility 3. Behavioral feasibility 25
  24. 24. Testing and DebuggingTesting:Testing is the process of exercising software with the intent of finding errorsand ultimately correcting them. The following testing techniques have beenused to make this project free of errors.Content ReviewThe whole content of the project has been reviewed thoroughly to uncovertypographical errors, grammatical error and ambiguous sentences.Navigation ErrorsDifferent users were allowed to navigate through the project to uncover thenavigation errors. The views of the user regarding the navigation flexibilityand user friendliness were taken into account and implemented in the project.Unit TestingFocuses on individual software units, groups of related units.• Unit – smallest testable piece of software.• A unit can be compiled /assembled / linked/loaded; and put under a test harness.• Unit testing done to show that the unit does not satisfy the application and /or its implemented software does not match the intended designed
  25. 25. structure.Integration TestingFocuses on combining units to evaluate the interaction among them• Integration is the process of aggregating components to create larger components.• Integration testing done to show that even though components were individually satisfactory, the combination is incorrect and inconsistent. 27
  26. 26. System TestingFocuses on a complete integrated system to evaluate compliance withspecified requirements (test characteristics that are only present when entiresystem is run)• A system is a big component.• System testing is aimed at revealing bugs that cannot be attributed to a component as such, to inconsistencies between components or planned interactions between components.• Concern: issues, behaviors that can only be exposed by testing the entire integrated system (e.g., performance, security, recovery)Each form encapsulates (labels, texts, grid etc.). Hence in case of project inV.B. form are the basic units. Each form is tested thoroughly in term ofcalculation, display etc.Regression TestingEach time a new form is added to the project the whole project is tested
  27. 27. thoroughly to rectify any side effects. That might have occurred due to theaddition of the new form. Thus regression testing has been performed.Debugging:Debugging is a consequence of successful testing. That is when a test careuncovers an error, debugging is the process that results in the removal oferrors. There are mainly two types of debugging.BacktrackingBacktracking is a fairly common debugging approach that can be usedsuccessfully in small programs. Beginning at the site where a symptom hasbeen uncovered, the source code is traced backward until the site of the causeis found.Brute ForcingThis is the most common category of debugging which involves loading thesource code with write statements and tracking line by line execution toisolate possible errors.ConclusionPractical Training is a very important part of the curriculum as it strengthensthe concepts and enhances knowledge about the practical implementation ofall the theory concepts, we have learnt so far in different subjects. 29
  28. 28. This summer training helped us learn a lot. In this training we did the projecton railway reservation system. This project is used to keep a track onreserving the seat to the passenger. It helps managing the system veryefficiently and conveniently.Finally, this gives us a lot of mental satisfaction that the project we haveworked upon is a real time project, which will be installed at the customersite after some more session of regress testing.Although the project work has been done in a complete and detailed mannerbut due to the constraint of time, we could not include some more features wewanted to. We left these features as a part of the future development. As soonas we’ll get time we’ll try to add them to my project.Reference:-  Henry F Korth, Abraham Silberschatz, ‘’Database system concepts’’, McGrsw-Hill Internation editions, Computer Science Series (1991). Second Ed.  Software Engineering ,McGrsw-Hill Internation editions Made By:- Rakesh Kunwar
  29. 29. MCA 3rd Year Group no-4Institute of management Education Sahibabad(GZB)E-mail: rakeshkunwar87@gmail.com 31