Transactional analysis


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Transaction analysis is about how two people communicate with each other and how they can improve their behavior and overall personality. As a result it helps in improving interpersonal communication

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Transactional analysis

  1. 1. Rohit kumar BBS
  2. 2. Definition :- The theory outlines how we have developed and treat ourselves, how we relate and communicate with others, and offers suggestions and interventions which will enable us to change and grow. Thus, TA is a social psychology and a method to improve communication.
  3. 3. { TA is about how two people communicate with each other and how they can improve their behavior and overall personality. As a result it helps in improving interpersonal communication. Example
  4. 4. TA Outline In the 1950s Eric Berne developed the theory of TA, a theory that sees any conversation verbal or non-verbal communication as a transaction taking place between two people. As a result, any communication includes a transactional stimulus and a transactional response. As a conversation proceeds, this is repeated a number of times between the two individuals. So this analysis could be done by referring to:-  Ego States.  Life Positions  Strokes and games  Uses of TA in organization
  5. 5. Ego states
  6. 6. Ego States  Berne recognized that any individual, whatever their age, does not react in a single definable way at all times; instead he believed that any individual has three ego states, between which they can switch instantaneously and often.  The fact that these different states exist is taken as being responsible for the positive or negative outcomes to conversations. So, all people have, in differing degrees three ego states - Parent , Adult and Child.
  7. 7. Ego states Berne showed the transactional stimulus and response through the use of a simple diagram showing parent (P), adult (A), child and (C), ego states and the transactional links between them. P P A A C C
  8. 8. Explanation  The parent ego state is an emotional state in which people unconsciously mimic the behavior of parents, older siblings, teachers, and persons providing early religious experiences in their formative childhood.  An individual is operating from a parent ego state when that individual plays back “old tapes” that say things such as :- a) It’s right. It’s wrong. b) It’s bad! It’s good  So, it is the evaluative part of all of us.  the two main parts of ego states are nurturing parent and critical parent.
  9. 9. Types of parent ego state
  10. 10. The adult ego state behavior could be described simply as rational decision making or problem solving analysis . People operating from the adult ego state are taking the emotional content of their ego state and the value – laden content of their parent ego state and checking them out in the reality of external world. These people are examining alternatives, probabilities and values prior to emerging in behavior.
  11. 11.  • Our 'Adult' is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves,  based on received data.  – The Adult is the rational, realistic, logical part.  • The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the  means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control.  • If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our  adult.  • Direct responses to the here and now.  • We deal with things that are going on today in ways that are not  unhealthily influenced by our past.  • It is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for  intimacy.  • Able to see people as they are, rather than what we project onto  them.  • We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions
  12. 12. Explanation  The child ego states is a set of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood. A person’s child ego state contains the “natural” impulses and attitudes learned from child experiences. The two kind of ego states are :-  Happy child  Destructive Child
  13. 13.  TA  • Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately  in the present is an integration of the positive aspects of  both our Parent and Child ego states.  • So this can be called the Integrating Adult.  – Integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves  through our every day experiences and using this to inform us.  • In other words:  – Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life  – Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life  – Child is our 'Felt' concept of life  • The process of analysing personality in terms of ego  states is called structural analysis.  • It is important to remember that ego states do not have  an existence of their own, they are concepts to enable understanding
  14. 14.  Ego states  • It is important to say "I want some fun" rather than "My  Child wants some fun".  • We may be in our Child ego state when we say this, but  saying "I" reminds us to take responsibility for our  actions.  • In each person there is a combination of his or her own  parents, themselves as a little child and, finally, the adult  component of their psychological reality (Harris, 1973).  • Integrating Adult ego state circle is placed in the middle  to show how it needs to orchestrate between the Parent  and the Child ego states eg  – the internal Parent ego state may beat up on the internal Child,  saying "You are no good, look at what you did wrong again, you  are useless".  – The Child may then respond with "I am no good, look how useless I am, I never get anything right".
  15. 15.  Ego states  • Many people hardly hear this kind of internal dialogue  as it goes on so much they might just believe life is  this way.  • An effective Integrating Adult ego state can intervene  between the Parent and Child ego states.  • This might be done by stating that this kind of  parenting is not helpful and asking if it is prepared to  learn another way.  • Alternatively, the Integrating Adult ego state can just  stop any negative dialogue and decide to develop  another positive Parent ego state perhaps taken in  from other people they have met over the years.
  16. 16. Transactions Transactions refer to the communication exchanges between people. Transactional analysts are trained to recognize which ego states people are transacting from and to follow the transactional sequences so they can intervene and improve the quality and effectiveness of communication.
  17. 17. Kinds of transaction Reciprocal or Complementary Transactions A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions.
  18. 18.  Example 1  A: "Have you been able to write the report?" (Adult to Adult)  B: "Yes - I'm about to email it to you." (Adult to Adult)  Example 2  A: "Would you like to come and watch a film with me?" (Child to Child)  B: "I'd love to - what shall we go and see?" (Child to Child)  Example 3  A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child)  B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent)
  19. 19.  Communication like this can continue indefinitely. (Clearly it will stop at some stage - but this psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time).
  20. 20.  Crossed Transactions  Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. Consider the above examples jumbled up a bit.
  21. 21.  Example 1a:  A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult)  B: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent)  is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace. "A" may respond with a Parent to Child transaction. For instance:  A: "If you don't change your attitude you'll get fired"  Example 2a:  A: "Is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child)  B: "I'm just going to do it, actually." (Adult to Adult)  is a more positive crossed transaction. However there is the risk that "A" will feel aggrieved that "B" is acting responsibly and not playing his role, and the conversation will develop into:  A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child)  B: "Why don't you believe anything I say?" (Adult to Adult)  which can continue indefinitely.
  22. 22.  Another class of transaction is the 'duplex' or 'covert' transactions, where the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction. For instance,  A: "I need you to stay late at the office with me." (adult words)  body language indicates flirting intent (flirtatious child)  B: "Of course." (adult response to adult statement).  winking or grinning (child accepts the hidden motive).
  23. 23. What are life positions? Life positions are basic beliefs about self and others, which are used to justify decisions and behavior. The concept of life positions was explored by Thomas Harris(1969) as a way of understanding behavior. This concept provide a conceptual framework for understanding people in terms of whether they see themselves and others as “OK” or “not OK”.
  24. 24. OK Feeling Not OK Feeling “OK” or “not OK”  They are the feelings of power, capabilities, well- being, and personal worth. They are the opposite feelings of weakness, incompetence, helpl essness, insignificance, anxiety, worthlessness.
  25. 25. Answer Q. How are life positions different from ego states? The life positions tend to be more permanent than the ego states.
  26. 26. Life Positions I’m Not OK, You're OK I’m Not OK, You’re Not OK I’m OK, You’re Not OK I’m OK, You’re OK
  27. 27. GET AWAY FROM ME Leading to a feeling of: •Dependency •Inadequacy •Avoidance You are OK I’m not OK GET NOWHERE WITH Leading to a feeling of: •Self-distrust •Distrust for others •Inability to cope up •Needing external help You are not OK I’m not OK
  28. 28. I am OK GET RID OF Leading to a feeling of: •Controlling others •Discounting others You are not OK GET ALONG WITH Leading to a feeling of: •High Trust •Interdependence •Self-confidence •Resourcefulness You are OK I am OK
  29. 29. STROKES
  30. 30. What are strokes? Stroke is a form of recognition(social, physical or emotional) that we receive from people around us. Strokes are of following types: Positive - When the other person is viewed positively and appreciated in different ways. Negative - The other person is viewed negatively and reprimanded for his behavior.  Indifference - No attention is paid to the person either
  31. 31. Cont….. Strokes can also be classified as: Conditional Unconditional
  32. 32. EXAMPLES POSITIVE CONDITIO NAL "I like you when you smile" POSITIVE UNCONDITIO NAL "I like you" NEGATIVE CONDITIONA L "I don't like you when you're sarcastic" NEGATIVE UNCONDITION AL "I don't like you"
  33. 33. At least the teacher has told us our mistake…..
  34. 34. Philosophy of TA  People are OK; thus each person has validity, importance, equality of respect.  Everyone (with only few exceptions) has full adult capability to think.  People decide their story and destiny, and this is a decision that can be changed.  Freedom from historical maladaptations embedded in the childhood script is required in order to become free of inappropriate inauthentic and displaced emotion which are not a fair and honest reflection of here-and-now life (such as echoes of childhood suffering, pity-me and other mind games, compulsive behaviour, and repetitive dysfunctional life patterns).  TA is goal-oriented, not merely problem-oriented.  The aims of change under TA are autonomy (freedom from childhood script), spontaneity, intimacy, problem solving as opposed to avoidance or passivity, cure as an ideal rather than merely 'making progress', learning new choices
  35. 35.  In the organizations , TA is referred to as an alternative approach to behavior management. This is a useful underpinning framework which can help a manager understand better how she can interact with her colleagues , and which can act as the basis for further interactions .  So , TA have a general applicability in development of interpersonal skills, which helps in improving employee relations in an organization.  Also, TA is very effective in team building and is one of the most effective approaches to developing organizations and has become a major change strategy.