ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
THE INTERNET
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
THE INTERNET
 The internet
 A network of networks
 The internet transmits data ...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
INTERNET TODAY
 Large numbers of people use the Internet all over the world. In 1...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
HOW THE INTERNET WORKS
 Transport control protocol (TCP)
 A protocol that operat...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
ACCESS TO THE INTERNET
There are many ways to access the Internet. Most online
ser...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS
 Internet service provider (ISP)
 Any company that pr...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
ISP EXAMPLES
Internet Service Provider Web Address
Airtel www.airtel.in
Vodafone w...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
WAYS TO CONNECT THE INTERNET
 Dial-up
 DSL – Digital Subscriber Line
 ADSL - As...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
WAY TO ACCESS THE INTERNET
ADSL
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
 The most important service provided by Internet.
The Wo...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
WWW TERMINOLOGY
 Web browser
 Software that creates a unique hypermedia-based me...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
WWW TERMINOLOGY
 Web page
 A screen of information sent to a requesting user
and...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
WEBSITE
 A Website is all the pages, images and files contained under
a domain na...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
HYPERLINK
 Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can
directly follow, ...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
TYPES OF HYPERLINKS
 Hyperlinks enable you to quickly move through a
document by ...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL
 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main acces...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL)
 A uniform resource locator, abbreviated URL, also...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
LIST OF ALLOWED URL CHARACTERS
 Unreserved :
May be encoded but it is not necessa...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
DOMAIN NAME
 A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of
ad...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
DOMAIN AFFILIATIONS
Domain Affiliations
arts cultural and entertainment activities...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
SEARCH ENGINES
 Search engines
 A search tool for the Web (like card catalogs in...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
INTERNET SERVICES
 E-mail
 Telnet
 FTP
 Usenet and newsgroups
 Chat rooms
 I...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
INTERNET SERVICES
 Internet telephony
 Also called voice-over-IP (VOIP)
 Techno...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
VOIP ‘DISCUSSION’
Internet telephony is a category of hardware and software that e...
ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
VOIP SOFTWARE EXAMPLES
Skype TeamSpeak

12VoIP Yahoo! Messenger

ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
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Internet.

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Internet.

  1. 1. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations THE INTERNET
  2. 2. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations THE INTERNET  The internet  A network of networks  The internet transmits data from one computer (called a host) to another  Internet networks  Linked networks that work much the same way -- they pass data around in packets, each of which carries the addresses of its sender and receiver
  3. 3. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations INTERNET TODAY  Large numbers of people use the Internet all over the world. In 1995 only 16 million people accessed the Internet. But only 10 years later, more than 1 billion people had signed on as regular users. And in the next 8 years another one and half billion people were added to the ranks.The Internet became popular rapidly and now it is nearly impossible to imagine life without the convenience of the Internet. There are even people who rely so heavily on communication via the Internet that they panic when they experience a blip in service.
  4. 4. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations HOW THE INTERNET WORKS  Transport control protocol (TCP)  A protocol that operates at the transport layer and is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications  Backbone  An Internet high-speed, long distance communications links (like a bus; wire that connects nodes)  Uniform resource locator (URL)  An assigned address on the Internet for each computer  E.g., http://www.facebook.com/
  5. 5. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations ACCESS TO THE INTERNET There are many ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).
  6. 6. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS  Internet service provider (ISP)  Any company that provides individuals or companies with access to the Internet  Thousands of providers including large communications companies  Need an account with the ISP and software that links with TCP/IP
  7. 7. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations ISP EXAMPLES Internet Service Provider Web Address Airtel www.airtel.in Vodafone www.vodafone.in Reliance www.rcom.co.in Tikona www.tikona.in IBM Internet Connection www.ibm.net AT&T WorldNet Service www.att.com Sharq Telecom www.st.uz MTS www.mts.ru AWCC www.afghanwireless.com
  8. 8. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations WAYS TO CONNECT THE INTERNET  Dial-up  DSL – Digital Subscriber Line  ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line  Cable -  Broadband Internet Connection  Wireless Internet Connections
  9. 9. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations WAY TO ACCESS THE INTERNET ADSL
  10. 10. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)  The most important service provided by Internet. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents, images and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). URIs symbolically identify services, and servers, other databases, the documents and resources that they can provide. Its developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee an European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland.
  11. 11. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations WWW TERMINOLOGY  Web browser  Software that creates a unique hypermedia-based menu on your computer screen and provides a graphical interface to theWeb
  12. 12. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations WWW TERMINOLOGY  Web page  A screen of information sent to a requesting user and presented through a browser
  13. 13. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations WEBSITE  A Website is all the pages, images and files contained under a domain name.A website is a collection of web pages belonging to a particular person of organization .Typically the URLs of web pages share a common prefix, which is the address of the home page of the site.The home page in the “Front page” of the site and is set up to help viewers find whatever is of interest to them on that site.
  14. 14. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations HYPERLINK  Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow, or that is followed automatically. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext.
  15. 15. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations TYPES OF HYPERLINKS  Hyperlinks enable you to quickly move through a document by clicking on a hot spot or a hyperlink or connect from one web page to another.There are three types of hyperlinks used for this purpose: Text, Graphic and Affiliate.The text hyper link is usually displayed in another color and underlined.The text link can allow you to jump around on the page or to another page in the document or on a website.The Graphic link does the same as the text link, except there is only a picture or graphic image. For example you might click on a image of a cheetah and you are taking to a page which talks about the cheetah.Affiliate links performs the same, but instead of taking you directly to the page, it accesses a database where the pages are stored and loads the page. Quality wise, text links are the best because they provide information about the link.
  16. 16. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the World Wide Web, but it is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet.Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.
  17. 17. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL)  A uniform resource locator, abbreviated URL, also known as web address, is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside an address bar. An example of a typical URL would be "http://en.example.org/wiki/Main_Page"  Every URL consists of some of the following: the scheme name (commonly called protocol), followed by a colon, two slashes, then, depending on scheme, a server name (exp. ftp., www., smtp., etc.) followed by a dot (.) then a domain name (alternatively, IP address), a port number, the path of the resource to be fetched or the program to be run, then, for programs such as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts, a query string, and an optional fragment identifier.  The syntax is: scheme://domain:port/path?query_string#fragment_id
  18. 18. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations LIST OF ALLOWED URL CHARACTERS  Unreserved : May be encoded but it is not necessary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - _ . ~  Reserved: Have to be encoded sometimes ! * ' ( ) ; : @ & = + $ , / ? % # [ ]
  19. 19. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations DOMAIN NAME  A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control on the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS).Technically, any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Sometimes, the term ADministrative Management Domain (ADMD) is used to refer to the realm of administrative autonomy.The term Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) denotes a domain name with no omitted parts.
  20. 20. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations DOMAIN AFFILIATIONS Domain Affiliations arts cultural and entertainment activities com business organizations edu educational sites firm businesses and firms gov government sites info information service providers mil military sites nom individuals net networking organizations org organizations rec recreational activities store businesses offering goods for purchase web entities related to World Wide Web activities net networking organizations
  21. 21. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations SEARCH ENGINES  Search engines  A search tool for the Web (like card catalogs in libraries)  E.g., Google http://www.google.com Bing http://www.bing.com Yandex http://www.yandex.com Yahoo! http://www.yahoo.com Hotbot http://www.hotbot.com Infoseek http://www.infoseek.com Lycos http://www.lycos.com Webcrawler http://www.webcrawler.com
  22. 22. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations INTERNET SERVICES  E-mail  Telnet  FTP  Usenet and newsgroups  Chat rooms  Internet phone  Internet videoconferencing  Content streaming
  23. 23. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations INTERNET SERVICES  Internet telephony  Also called voice-over-IP (VOIP)  Technology that enables network managers to route phone calls and fax transmissions over the same network they use for data
  24. 24. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  25. 25. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations VOIP ‘DISCUSSION’ Internet telephony is a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls. For users who have free, or fixed-price, Internet access, Internet telephony software essentially provides free telephone calls anywhere in the world. To date, however, Internet telephony does not offer the same quality of telephone service as direct telephone connections. There are many Internet telephony applications available. Some, like CoolTalk and NetMeeting, come bundled with popular Web browsers. Others are stand-alone products. Internet telephony products are sometimes called IP telephony, Voice over the Internet (VOI) or Voice over IP (VOIP) products.
  26. 26. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations VOIP SOFTWARE EXAMPLES Skype TeamSpeak  12VoIP Yahoo! Messenger 
  27. 27. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations

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