Response to Intervention: Instruction That Is More Than Just Testing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Response to Intervention: Instruction That Is More Than Just Testing

on

  • 3,661 views

We have perfected the art of testing; now let's look at best practices. What can we do in the Tier 1 instruction to make a difference in the classroom for all students? Here are multiple ideas ...

We have perfected the art of testing; now let's look at best practices. What can we do in the Tier 1 instruction to make a difference in the classroom for all students? Here are multiple ideas including my "explode the vocabulary" model.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,661
Views on SlideShare
3,642
Embed Views
19

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
62
Comments
0

2 Embeds 19

http://www.slideshare.net 18
http://www.docshut.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Remind participants that during Read and Comprehend, students will be using this path of connected comprehension through the modes of instruction detailed in the gradual release of responsibility ACTIVITY: Tell participants that you will now model a think aloud, think along, and think together. YOU WILL NEED PREPARE THE DEMO BASED ON YOUR GRADE LEVEL!!! USE THE THEME FROM THE COMMITTEE SAMPLER (THIS IS THE THEME FROM THE PREVIEW BOOK). GRADES K-2 ONLY Think Aloud and Think Along Use the Shared Reading Book to model both the Think Aloud and Think Along. Explain that you will be modeling both a think aloud and think along from this one selection; but in the real sequence of instruction, the students will have already been exposed to the strategy with the modeled reading by receiving a think aloud in the modeled reading. During the modeled reading the teacher is simply “modeling” and exposing the students to the strategy during the think aloud. When moving in to Shared Reading the strategy is explicitly introduced through a Think Aloud and then Students are invited to “Think Along” with the Teacher. Use the teachers notes from the shared reading (Lesson 4) to model the Think Aloud and Think Along. Think Together Next, discuss the think together portion. This happens during interactive reading. The teacher first engages the class in a “think along” on portions of the selection and then asks the students to read parts of the story together while participating in a “think together”. Do NOT model this, simple explain what would happen. Use Lesson 9 to support you in your planning for this. GRADES 3-5 ONLY Think Aloud and Think Along Use the Shared Reading Story to model both the Think Aloud and Think Along. Explain that you will be modeling both a think aloud and think along from this one selection; but in the real sequence of instruction, the students will have already been exposed to the strategy with the modeled reading by receiving a think aloud in the modeled reading. During the modeled reading the teacher is simply “modeling” and exposing the students to the strategy during the think aloud. When moving in to Shared Reading the strategy is explicitly introduced through a Think Aloud and then Students are invited to “Think Along” with the Teacher. Use the teachers notes from the shared reading (Lesson 3) to model the Think Aloud and Think Along. Think Together Next discuss the think together portion. This happens during interactive reading. The teacher first engages the class in a “think along” on portions of the selection (Lesson 4) and then asks the students to read parts of the story together while participating in a “think together” ( Lesson 5). Do NOT model this part, use both Lesson 4 and 5 to help you explain.
  • Explain that during Interactive Reading these are the techniques students will use. (This is in their Learning log on page 4) Briefly share what each of these techniques entail using the notes below. 1. Read, Cover, Remember, Retell Technique: Partners alternate reading only as much text as their hand can cover, covering the text with their hand, and then retelling the contents of the text to their partner. 2. Say Something Technique: Students are asked to take turns reading a section of text, covering it up, and then saying something about it to their partner. This differs from Read, Cover, Remember, Retell in that what the student says to their partner can be more than a straight retell of the contents – it can be any thought or idea they have in response to the text. 3. Partner Jigsaw Technique: This technique is particularly applicable to nonfiction selections such as articles that can be easily divided into sections. Partners are each assigned a specific section of text to read. Then partners debrief with another set of partners in order to learn about the parts of the selection they did not read. 4. Two-Word Technique: Partners read a selection together. Then they both use a sticky note to write only two words that reflect their thinking about the text. Children then take turns reading their words to their partner, explaining why they chose the words they did and how the words relate to the selection or to their own lives. 5. Reverse Think-Aloud Technique: One partner follows along silently while the other partner reads aloud. The student following along selects a point in the text to stop the other student and ask a question about what he or she is thinking about the text at that moment. Partners then reverse roles.
  • Ask participants to read the quote to themselves. Explain that a test does not tell us anything. It is the evaluation of that test that tells us what a student can and can not do If needed: Give example of “A” or “B” – on a report card. A “B” tells us only that a student did well. It does not tell us what things the student is doing well and what things the student still needs to work on in order to get an “A”. Only the evaluation of the assessments that the student took and looking at what they did well and what they need to work on will tell use what this student needs to move to an A. Assessment drives our instruction to save us time. If we look at exactly what the student’s need we can pinpoint our instruction (tailor it). If we don’t we “spin our wheels” all year “guessing” what they might need and then usually finding out they didn’t need it or they weren’t ready for it so we have to keep teaching it over and over again, which takes time Again -Spend time to save time – spend time giving the assessments in the beginning to save time the rest of the year. Literacy by Design has several assessments that are easy to assess and provide valuable information that allows you to evaluate how your students are doing and were they need to continue to work.
  • Skills by Student – This section allows the teacher to see individual students and how they are progressing with the skills tested. Explain that this is a useful tool for grouping students for guided reading. Point out the Instructional Reading Level column. Explain that READS records the level by READS level. To correlate this level to your level of choice you can use the Rigby READS Reading Level Correlation chart. Activity: Using the Correlation Chart Have participants pull out the Small Group Reading Appendix. Have participants turn to page A19 Explain that this is the correlation chart that helps them correlate the READS level to the Literacy by Design level. Tell participants we will practice using the chart. Ask them to find Elizabeth Allison. What is her Instructional Reading Level? (Kindergarten) What level would that be equivalent to a Literacy by Design? (B) Try the next child, Meg Andrews. What is her Instructional Reading Level? (3-2) What level would this be equivalent to Literacy by Design? (O). Explain that what is probably the easiest to do is to first convert the instructional level to Literacy by Design level. Tell them that they will try that now. We have done the first two together, have them get into partners and convert the rest of the classroom by writing the letter out to the side of the sheet. Allow about 5 min. When they are done, have them now use the grouping sheet in the Learning Log on page 1 to group the students by level. (use the next slides to show them an example)

Response to Intervention: Instruction That Is More Than Just Testing Response to Intervention: Instruction That Is More Than Just Testing Presentation Transcript

  • Response to Intervention: Instruction That’s More Than Just Testing Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting www.woweducationalconsulting.com www.myspace.com/wowedu
  • Today’s Task
    • What is comprehensible input?
    • What does it mean to understand?
    • How to teach comprehension
    • Vocabulary Instruction- How to Explode a child’s vocabulary
    • Response to Intervention- Teaching Not Testing
    • Tier 1 VS Tier 3 Intervention
  • Just Because We Have A Plan Doesn’t Mean That The Plan Will Work--- But the absence of A Plan Can Bring a shutdown of the system as this video demonstrates.
  • Today-
    • I’m going to ask you to think outside the box.
    • I’m going to ask you to talk to each other.
    • I’m going to ask you to stop doing what doesn’t work.
    • I’m going to ask you to put more tools in your belt.
    • I’m going to show you how you can make a dramatic difference in the lives of every student.
    • Are You Ready To Make A Difference?
  • What is Comprehensible Input?
  • What Level of Comprehension is Active in This?
    • Martin dining room front door over main entrance partook ignited flames sanguine faces rebel Dean.
    • You have understanding of each word.
    • Perhaps background knowledge creates schema connections.
    • But is this comprehensible input at the sentence level? Word level?
  • What is the level of Understanding Here?
    • “A related observation about the F distribution is that it is positively skewed, not symmetric as are z and t . This is because F is always positive: It is the ratio of variances, both of which are positive, so F itself must be positive. There is no left-hand tail of F because the F distribution ends abruptly at 0.”
    • Russell T. Hurlburt (2003). Comprehending Behavioral Statistics . Thomson: Australia, p. 336.
  • Observations
    • In the first example, there was no syntax . So there was no comprehensible input at the sentence level even though there was understanding of every word .
    • In the second example, syntax was present but a void developed of word level meaning not allowing contextual understanding of the paragraph. “It had something to do with…”
  • Could We Conclude…
    • Teaching grammar is not the same as acquiring or learning language? ( Krashen, 2003)
    • Just learning words does not equal comprehension. (Word callers)
    • Knowing words is a pre-requisite to comprehension.
    • There are multiple factors for comprehension.
  • fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid too Cna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can. i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! Can You Read This?
  • The Greater the Comprehensible Input … … the greater the capacity to comprehend.
  • So which is more desirable? The student who reads every word? Or The student who understands the meaning?
    • What is Involved In Comprehension?
    • What Does it Mean to Understand?
    • Making Sense of text based on author’s intention and message.
    • Understanding how the words interplay to relay a message.
    • To exercise intellectual muscle
    • To connect with a text in a meaningful way
    Jamika’s Story
  • Building Comprehension Strategies
    • Make Connections
    • Determine Importance
    • Infer
    • Use Fix-Up Strategies
    • Synthesize
    • Create Sensory and Emotional Images
    • Ask questions
  • Why is it important to teach and use comprehension strategies? Perhaps this video will give you some ideas.
  • The Road On The Left By Keith Pruitt On my Tuesday drive through the country side, I happened on a road I had not previously seen. It was on my left just past Conner’s store. Even though I had been here many times, I had never noticed this road before and it seemed seldom driven as grass was grown waist high on the edges. The treads of tires previously venturing down the lane were the only signs the path had been driven. ∞ That reminds me of a poem written by Robert Frost. Does anyone recall the title of the poem by Robert Frost that we have read that is like this story? Turning down the road the grass between the tire ruts seemed short for a distance but soon became taller hitting the grill on my car. It was obvious I had turned down a road where few had driven in recent days. Over in the field was a house that appeared to be vacant. ∞ If the house is vacant it means that no one is living there. A smile crossed my face as memories from the past came rushing through my mind. ∞ I think that this person has been to this house before. I know this because the author says memories came rushing through my mind . A memory is based on something that has happened before to a person. What do you think the author means by that? Turn and Talk.
  • My mother had moved here as a child of five years old from their old house in Chicago. She loved living here in the country. She use to tell me of swinging on an old tire hung by a rope from a tree. Well, I wonder if that is the tree over yonder. “Look the old rope is still there,” I called to the air. When I was but five years old, I remember coming to visit grandmother. She would be sitting on the porch in her rocker just knitting and singing. “I’ll fly away, oh glory, I’ll fly away,” I mumbled the words still remembering the old hymn she loved so much. My face lit up with the warmth of these remembrances. Fifty years had gone by, but it was as though it were yesterday. ∞ Do you ever remember things that happened a while ago and feel like it was just yesterday? The house looked to be in fairly good shape. It needed a coat of paint and a few boards had come loose. Otherwise, it had survived the years rather well. Mr. Corbin told me the last people to live at Shiloh Valley were the Hendricks. They had both been dead now only a couple of years. I guess they did right well by the place. It looked better than I had supposed. I opened the door and grabbed my box of supplies and began up the steps. The movers would be here in a week. There was a lot to be done in such a short time. I had come home. What do you think the person is going to do with the house?
  • Important Factors
    • Comprehension has to be taught.
    • Strategies are an important aspect of comprehension.
    • Modeling in a read aloud is the most effective means of teaching comprehension strategies.
    • Students should also practice in shared readings and interactive readings.
    • Increase stamina= increase reading time
  • Preview, View, Review
    • Method presented by Freemans of pre-teaching read aloud text---
    Build Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Distribute copies of the Modeled Reading Text Organizer. Ask children to share what they know about bumblebees. Explain that a colony means a group of the same kind of animals living together. Tell children that a bumblebee colony is made up of a queen, the workers, and the drones. Then point to the picture on the organizer and tell children that it shows the inside of a bumblebee queen’s nest. Next say the words bumblebee queen , egg , honey pot , and larvae , and have children say the words with you.
  • Preview Using Story Mapping Build schema with Visual Anchor Visual Transference
  • Connected Comprehension Instruction The Keys to Comprehension Instruction is getting students to THINK! Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008
  • 1. Read, Cover, Remember, Retell 2. Say Something 3. Partner Jigsaw 4. Two-Word 5. Reverse Think-Aloud Interactive Reading Techniques The Power of Peer Learning Literacy by Design, Rigby, Linda Hoyt, 2008
  • The Power of Questions
    • Have each student submit one question about a reading.
    • Use the questions as a means of reviewing the reading.
    • Use the questions for assessment.
    • Helps students to look for main idea, important VS unimportant concepts and gives opportunity to direct to higher level questions.
  • Using Questions with Informational Text
    • Introduce text in pre-teaching.
    • Have students write questions that they think may be answered by the text.
    • As part of post-teaching, have students find the answers to their questions.
  • How Does The Brain Work?
  • How Is Schema Created?
    • What Comes to Your Mind When You Think of…
    • Dog
    • Bridge
    • Statue
    • Man
    • How about when I spell this word?
  • The Work of J R Anderson Sensory Memory Working Memory Discards OR Permanent Memory Files Anderson, J.R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons How Does The Brain Work?
    • Learn new vocabulary by creating schema that connects with what is already known. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan and Marzano)
    What words come to your mind as you look at this picture? Turn and Talk
  • How About Now? What Schema Do You Have For This Picture? Can you transfer your learning? Can you adopt new schemes for this if I give you information?
  • At the very heart of comprehension is vocabulary- Discussion Question: Is it possible to be a good reader and have a poor vocabulary? Why? Turn and Talk
  • Beck, McKeown, Kucan
    • Vocabulary must first be orally introduced.
    • Vocabulary is not grade specific.
    • Words must be explained, not defined.
    • Must be contextualized.
    • Multiple usages in a meaningful context (8-10).
    • Create Schema (visual representation)
    • Students reflect with each other
    • Three Tiers of Vocabulary
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • Explain
    • Putting words in terms students already know.
    • How would you explain to students the word comforting?
  • Comforting - Something or someone that is comforting makes you feel good when you are sad or hurt. Beck & McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004 Further explain by putting the word in a context. A warm cup of tea is comforting when my throat hurts. My dog feels comforting when I am hurt.
  • Your Turn
    • With a partner, come up with an explanation and a context for each of the following words.
    • Versatile
    • Serenade
    • Glimpse
    • Skyscraper
    • Enhance
  • Your Turn
    • Versatile If someone is versatile, they can do many different things.
    • Serenade To serenade someone you would sing or play a song on a musical instrument.
    • Glimpse If I get a glimpse of something I look at it quickly.
    • Skyscraper A skyscraper is a very tall building in a city.
    • Enhance To enhance something means to make it better.
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • Using Vocabulary Journals
    • Have students create journals
    • Words
    • Schema
    • Explanations
    • Reflections
    • Consultations
  •  
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • By creating the visual representation, they are making the learning concrete by making permanent memory files. Why is this important?
  • Hooking The Learning
    • Have you ever met someone and then five minutes later…you couldn’t remember their name?
    • Have you ever met someone for the first time that you had talked with on the phone for a long time only to think,… they don’t look like what I thought?
    • Do you think in images?
    • Think about your husband or wife.
    • Do you just dream in words, or do you create images?
  • Do Not Under-estimate the power of a picture. The Heart of the Tulip By Keith Pruitt
    • Exaggerate
    Beck and McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  • scheming The cats were scheming against the birds.
  • Invisible Beck and McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004
  • Fatigue The bear was very fatigued from walking so far.
  • Icon Michael Phelps is an Icon of Olympic swimming.
  • Spider Would this be helpful in a Science lesson? ©Keith Pruitt, Art by Keith
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • Open For Discussion
    • What are the possible advantages of students discussing with each other their concepts of a word (context, visual representation, etc.)?
    • Ability to transfer from L1 to L2 using peer tutoring.
    • Sharing personal understanding broadens each understanding.
    • Creates multiple contexts for usage.
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • Reflection allows a refinement of understanding. It permits the memory file to be adjusted to incorporate new understandings.
  • Working With Vocabulary
    • Explain
    • Restate
    • Show
    • Discuss
    • Refine and Reflect
    • Apply and Learning Games
    • Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge
  • http://www.gamequarium.com/evocabulary.html http://eslbears.homestead.com/Contact_Info.html http://www.manythings.org/lulu/
  • Games on Facebook
  •  
  • Using Graphic Organizers
    • Graphic organizers take concepts and organize them visually enabling students recall of their comprehensible input.
    • May be used as part of the games/ practice.
    • Valuable as a tool for assessment.
  • EAT ATE Will Eat A Graphic Way of Showing Tense Past Present Future
  • Use graphic organizers to help students use the words in meaningful contexts Drinking warm tea when my throat hurts Holding my cat in my lap A warm blanket on a cold night Comforting
  • Using Word Maps Helps Students Integrate New Words
  • Check the box that matches the meaning of the word at the top comforting Sandpaper A blanket Being hit Versatile Sing and dance Play piano Read a book Companionship A stranger Someone in Another city A Pet Fashionable Hoop Skirt Tailored suit Coveralls
  • The Flow Chart
  • Exploding The Vocabulary
    • Through direct instruction, 5-8 words/week
    • Adds approximately 160 words to reading/writing vocabularies.
    • If we take the connective words for those five… look what happens.
  • So work becomes Works Worker Worked Working Will Work Labor Job Employment Exert Lazy A Word Tree Starts with Base Word
  • Using Word Tree
    • Those five words have become @50 words.
    • Now in 32 weeks we have instructed 1600 words.
    • Students may gain another 320-600 words via reading.
    • Now we have exploded the vocabulary by a maximum of 2200 words in 32 weeks.
    • In the traditional program 640 words are instructed, but only 64-120 of them are learned. And emphasis is on spelling.
  • You Try It
    • Here are some common words taught. What other words may we teach in conjunction with these:
    • Glimmer
    • Vast
    • Artistic
    • Disturb
  • Using Word Sorts
    • Morris suggests that using the tactile experience of word sorts provides mental stimulus for students and creates schema files.
    • How might word sorts look in your classroom?
    • Here are a couple of examples.
    • Using children, create a photo collection of these words and have students match pictures to words.
    • Have students act out the action words using the nouns (TPR). Which part of my body can I raise?
    • Have set of words and then other words with which I can make compound words.
  • Word Substitution Sometimes Known as Trading Penny Words for $ Words
    • Make= Create, Build, Construct, Craft
    • Went= traveled, drove, walked
    • Like- admire, enjoy, ?, ?, ?
    • Fast- ?, ?, ?, ?
  • Creating New Schema
    • Virtual Learning (Marzano)
    Visit www.woweducationalconsulting.com For a list of virtual tour sites.
  • Creating New Schema
    • Read Alouds (Linda Hoyt, Freemans)
  •  
  •  
  • 3-Tier Reading Model I II III Core classroom instruction Intervention Intensive Intervention All Students Approximately 20-30% of Students Approximately 5-10% of Students (may include special education students)
  • 3-Tier Instruction = Differentiated Instruction
    • Differentiated instruction IS:
      • Using assessment data to plan instruction and group students
      • Teaching targeted small groups (1:3,1:5)
      • Using flexible grouping (changing group membership based on student progress, interests, and needs)
      • Matching instructional materials to student ability
      • Tailoring instruction to address student needs
    • Differentiated instruction IS NOT:
      • Using only whole class instruction
      • Using small groups that never change
      • Using the same reading text with all students
      • Using the same independent seatwork assignments for the entire class
  • Tier 3 Intervention: Questions
    • Who is experiencing a problem and what specifically is the problem?
    • What intervention strategies can be used to solve the problem or reduce its severity?
    • Did the problem (or problems) go away or decline in severity as a result of the intervention?
    Considering Tier 3 Within a Response-to-Intervention Model, Ruth A. Ervin, Ph.D ., RTI Action Network, 2009
  • Assessment You can’t make a value judgment about test scores; they are merely raw data. It’s the interpretation of that data which brings one to the evaluation level. Regie Routman, Invitations: Changing as Teachers and Learners K-12
  • Assessment and Discrepancies
  • From Rigby READS reports, @2004, Rigby, Roger Farr
  •  
  • What Intervention to Use?
    • Standard Protocol Method- A Fixed Program administered to everyone.
    • Problem Solving Method- Tailored specifically to the needs of the students.
    • Vocabulary- Use the methodology that works regardless of the program selected.
    • Comprehension- Focusing on the strategies and applying them in instructional level materials.
  • My Story with Andy
    • Had student read to me every day.
    • Used word cards for Dolch words.
    • Had him write other unfamiliar words.
    • I asked him questions.
    • He asked me questions.
    • Repetition
    • 3 rd grade reading level to 5 th grade reading level in 1 year.
  • Summary: The Greatest Gift
    • Give them words
    • Give them meaningful new experiences
    • Pack their tool belts with strategies
    • Read to them every day
    • Have them read to you
    • Let them read and talk with each other
    • Model for them
  • The Teacher I taught a child to read today, Aren’t I a lucky soul; And now a world has opened up, The child can now be whole. He’ll run and play as others do, But more will be his call; By opening up a book at play, He’ll stand so sure and tall. A preacher, teacher, scientist perhaps, Someday his task will be; But it all began one simple day, When I taught Joe how to read . Keith Pruitt ©2009