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“A related observation about the F distribution is that it is positively skewed, not symmetric as are z and t . This is because F is always positive: It is the ratio of variances, both of which are positive, so F itself must be positive. There is no left-hand tail of F because the F distribution ends abruptly at 0.”
Russell T. Hurlburt (2003). Comprehending Behavioral Statistics . Thomson: Australia, p. 336.
Teaching grammar is not the same as acquiring or learning language? ( Krashen, 2003)
Just learning words does not equal comprehension. (Word callers)
Knowing words is a pre-requisite to comprehension.
There are multiple factors for comprehension.
fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a sgtrane mnid too Cna yuo raed tihs? Olny 55 plepoe out of 100 can. i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm.. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! Can You Read This?
The evidence strongly supports a simple hypothesis. We acquire language in only one way: when we understand messages; that is, when we obtain “comprehensible input.” We acquire language, in other words, when we understand what we hear or what we read, when we understand the message. Krashen, 2003 Comprehensible Input
Is Comprehensible Input something done by the teacher to the student or by the student based on the teacher?
The Greater the Comprehensible Input … … the greater the capacity to comprehend.
So which is more desirable? The student who reads every word? Or The student who understands the meaning?
Making Sense of text based on author’s intention and message.
Understanding how the words interplay to relay a message.
To exercise intellectual muscle
To context with a text in a meaningful way
And in the midst of normal conversation regarding comprehension, English Language Learners enter the picture and try to comprehend the input they receive. What must it be like? Perhaps this video will shed some light.
Cummins’ Interdependence Theory : Increasing CI through Transference
To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (either in school or environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly.
--J. Cummins, 1981. “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework . P. 29
The keys to effective reading instruction for ELLs include activating or building background knowledge, helping students use psychological strategies and linguistic cueing systems to construct meaning from English texts, choosing appropriate materials, and organizing curriculum around themes.
How would you explain to students the word comforting?
Comforting - Something or someone that is comforting makes you feel good when you are sad or hurt. Beck & McKeown, Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Steck Vaughn, 2004 Further explain by putting the word in a context. A warm cup of tea is comforting when my throat hurts. My dog feels comforting when I am hurt.
Connecting an image to a vocabulary word is the way in which the brain files information. For ELL students, creating the visual representation is tantamount to creating the file in the permanent memory. See- Building Background Knowledge , Marzano
Graphic organizers take concepts and organize them visually enabling students recall of their comprehensible input.
May be used as part of the games/ practice.
Valuable as a tool for assessment.
EAT ATE Will Eat A Graphic Way of Showing Tense Past Present Future
Use graphic organizers to help students use the words in meaningful contexts Drinking warm tea when my throat hurts Holding my cat in my lap A warm blanket on a cold night Comforting
Using Word Maps Helps Students Integrate New Words
Check the box that matches the meaning of the word at the top comforting Sandpaper A blanket Being hit Versatile Sing and dance Play piano Read a book Companionship A stranger Someone in Another city A Pet Fashionable Hoop Skirt Tailored suit Coveralls
Method presented by Freemans of pre-teaching read aloud text---
Build Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Distribute copies of the Modeled Reading Text Organizer. Ask children to share what they know about bumblebees. Explain that a colony means a group of the same kind of animals living together. Tell children that a bumblebee colony is made up of a queen, the workers, and the drones. Then point to the picture on the organizer and tell children that it shows the inside of a bumblebee queen’s nest. Next say the words bumblebee queen , egg , honey pot , and larvae , and have children say the words with you.
Preview Using Story Mapping Build schema with Visual Anchor Visual Transference
Word Substitution Sometimes Known as Trading Penny Words for $ Words