Cummins’ Interdependence Hypothesis


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This is the updated version of the Cummins\' Interdependence Theory Presentation to be given at MABE.

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Cummins’ Interdependence Hypothesis

  1. 1. Cummins’ Interdependence Hypothesis Teaching Words To Students Keith Pruitt, Ed.S. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting Doctoral Candidate
  2. 2. Are They Smarter Than A 5 th Grader? <ul><li>Just what is it like to be an ELL student and be without context, vocabulary…comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps this short video illustrates the frustration. But notice the way Pickler tries to use strategies to answer the questions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining The Hypothesis <ul><li>To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly (either in school or environment) and adequate motivation to learn Ly. </li></ul><ul><li>--J. Cummins, 1981. “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework . P. 29 </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Principles <ul><li>Common Underlying Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive and linguistic abilities </li></ul><ul><li>L1 background serves as the basis for schemata of L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Using commonality of language, transfer of linguistic features and skills across languages </li></ul>Friendship = amistad
  5. 5. What Do ELL Students Need? <ul><li>The keys to effective reading instruction for ELLs include activating or building background knowledge, helping students use psychological strategies and linguistic cueing systems to construct meaning from English texts, choosing appropriate materials, and organizing curriculum around themes. </li></ul><ul><li>--David and Yvonne Freeman </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theoretical Reasons It Works <ul><li>Brain works to tap prior knowledge (Anderson) </li></ul><ul><li>“What do I already know about rocks?” </li></ul><ul><li>“In my language we call this…” </li></ul><ul><li>This strongly supports the success of bilingual education, but is it practical? New York City has 175 different languages. We must rely on transference. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  8. 8. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK 叉 ; 耙 Eat 杯子 Drink coffee 时钟  Tell Time Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  9. 9. Background Transfer Chart CLOCK CUP FORK tenedor Food copa Coca reloj Time Is This In My Language? What I Know About Word English Word
  10. 10. <ul><li>Knowledge is based upon schema created in permanent memory. (Piaget, Anderson) </li></ul><ul><li>What happens in your mind when I say… </li></ul><ul><li>DOG </li></ul><ul><li>STATUE </li></ul><ul><li>MAN </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Work of J R Anderson Sensory Memory Working Memory Discards OR Permanent Memory Files Anderson, J.R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons
  12. 12. <ul><li>Learn new vocabulary by creating schema that connects with what is already known. (Beck, McKeown, Kucan and Marzano) </li></ul>What words come to your mind as you look at this picture? Turn and Talk
  13. 13. How About Now? What Schema Do You Have For This Picture? Can you transfer your learning? Can you adopt new schemes for this if I give you information?
  14. 14. How Can We Use Cummin’s Theory? <ul><li>Transfer of concept. If student knows concept in native language, it will be easier to transfer it to English. </li></ul>Teacher = Maestro Backpack = Mochila Hat = Sombrero
  15. 15. Now Let’s Look At Harder Concepts <ul><li>Find a partner: Discuss how you would go about explaining to students the following concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERTY </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fact Monster/Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Is This Liberty?
  18. 18. Is This A Dilemma? Cell Sale Sail Ware Where Wear They’re There Their
  19. 19. Creating New Schema <ul><li>Virtual Learning (Marzano) </li></ul>Visit For a list of virtual tour sites.
  20. 20. Creating New Schema <ul><li>Read Alouds (Linda Hoyt, Freemans) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Preview, View, Review <ul><li>Method presented by Freemans of pre-teaching read aloud text--- </li></ul>Build Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Distribute copies of the Modeled Reading Text Organizer. Ask children to share what they know about bumblebees. Explain that a colony means a group of the same kind of animals living together. Tell children that a bumblebee colony is made up of a queen, the workers, and the drones. Then point to the picture on the organizer and tell children that it shows the inside of a bumblebee queen’s nest. Next say the words bumblebee queen , egg , honey pot , and larvae , and have children say the words with you.
  22. 22. Preview Using Story Mapping Build schema with Visual Anchor Visual Transference
  23. 23. Creating New Schema <ul><li>Teaching By Theme (Freemans) </li></ul>My Family Suitcase My Family Mi Familia أسرتي --Dr. Stephen White
  24. 24. Using Word Maps Helps Students Integrate New Words
  25. 25. So work becomes Works Worker Worked Working Will Work Labor Job Employment Exert Lazy A Word Tree Starts with Base Word
  26. 26. EAT ATE Will Eat A Graphic Way of Showing Tense Past Present Future
  27. 27. Creating New Schema <ul><li>Using Spanish Cognates </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of words in Spanish and English have common roots in Latin. Many of the these words are the same except for one letter. These serve as good basis of conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn and Talk: Tell me what the English word is for these Spanish cognates. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Spanish Cognates <ul><li>Ocurrir </li></ul><ul><li>Reptil </li></ul><ul><li>Ciclo </li></ul><ul><li>Paciente </li></ul><ul><li>Invitar </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperar </li></ul><ul><li>Educacion </li></ul><ul><li>Sociedad </li></ul><ul><li>Presente </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Bottom Line <ul><li>ELL students need vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>We can leverage their prior knowledge to create new learning </li></ul><ul><li>New Schema can help create new concepts </li></ul>
  30. 30. Words of Wisdom Educational Consulting Keith Pruitt