Dm jamia asc 30 jan14


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Disaster Management

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Dm jamia asc 30 jan14

  1. 1. Academic Staff College 107th 4-week Orientation Programme from 13 January to 10 February 2014 Prof (Col) Rajive Kohli, Ph.D. Director 30 Jan’14 from 12.45 to 2.15 p.m. 9910744340
  2. 2. Disaster: A serious of the functioning of a , causing widespread human, material, or environmental which exceed the ability of the affected society to using only its own resources.
  3. 3. DISASTER dimensions – Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually severe and may also be sudden, unexpected and widespread – Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship and adverse effect on health – Effect on social infrastructure such as destruction of or damage to government systems, buildings, communications and essential services – Community needs such shelter, food, clothing, medical assistance and social care.
  4. 4. Disasters occur in varied forms •Some are predictable in advance •Some are annual or seasonal •Some are sudden and unpredictable Floods Days and weeks Earthquakes Seconds/minutes Cyclones Days Droughts Months
  6. 6. TYPES OF DISASTER Natural Disasters Man-made Disasters Meteorological Technological Topographical Industrial accidents Environmental Security related
  7. 7. NATURAL DISASTER • A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural calamity affects humans and/or the built environment. • Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are natural hazards
  8. 8. MAN MADE DISASTER • Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made disasters. • they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
  9. 9. Distinction between Hazard and Disaster : “A hazard is a natural event while the disaster is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived natural event which threatens both life and property….a disaster is a realization of this hazard…” – John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
  10. 10. Water and Climate related disasters • • • • • • • • • • Floods and Drainage Management Cyclones Tornadoes and Hurricanes Hailstorm Cloud Burst Heat Wave and Cold Wave Snow Avalanches Droughts Sea Erosion Thunder & Lightning
  11. 11. Geologically related disasters Earthquake • Landslides and Mudflows • Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts. • Mine Fires
  12. 12. Biologically related disasters • • • • Biological Disasters and Epidemics Pest Attacks Cattle Epidemics Food Poisoning
  13. 13. Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear related disasters • Chemical and Industrial Disasters • Nuclear Disasters
  14. 14. Accident related disasters • • • • • • • • • • • Forest Fires Urban Fires Mine Flooding Oil Spill Major Building Collapse Serial Bomb Blasts Festival related disasters Electrical Disasters & Fires Air, Road and Rail Accidents. Boat Capsizing. Village Fire
  15. 15. WHY? And WHAT about Man made Disasters?
  16. 16. Manmade Disasters • • • • • • • • • • • • • Urban fires Village fire Mine fires Air, road and rail accidents Boat capsizing Electrical disasters Chemical and industrial disasters Nuclear disasters Mine flooding Oil spill Major building collapse Serial bomb blasts Festival related disasters      civil strife communal violence internal conflict, “complex emergencies” rapid or slow onset types COMPLEX DISASTERS urbanisation chaotic growth policy disasters war and civil strife Social violence
  17. 17. The Myths about Disasters • It Can’t Happen to Us. • The Nature’s forces are so Deadly the Victims will Die anyway. • There is Nothing We Can Do.
  19. 19. Disaster Management • Disaster management is the discipline that involves preparing, warning, supporting and rebuilding societies when natural or manmade disasters occur. • It is the continuous process in an effort to avoid or minimize the impact of disasters resulting from hazards.
  20. 20. DISASTER MANAGEMENT The body of policy and administration decisions and operational activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. An applied science which seek, by systematic observation and analysis of disasters, to improve measures relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery. Encompass all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre and post disaster activities.
  21. 21. AIMS/ GOALS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT • Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the potential losses (lives & infrastructure) from hazards. • Reduce the risks by timely measures, short-term and long-term policies • Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims of disaster when necessary. • Achieve rapid, effective, sustained & durable recovery & rehabilitation.
  22. 22. What is Disaster Management
  23. 23. Disaster Management Cycle
  24. 24. Stages of Disaster Management Cycle The cycle generally comprises four major stages: 1. Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation 2. Disaster Response and Immediate Relief 3. Disaster Rehabilitation, Reconstruction and Recovery 4. Long-term Development
  25. 25. • Prevention • Mitigation • Preparedness • Response • Rehabilitation • Reconstruction Six elements that defines the complete approach to Disaster Management.
  26. 26. Disaster Preparedness Framework COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS Vulnerability Assessment Planning Institutional Framework Information System Resource Base Warning Systems Response Mechanisms Public Education and Training Rehearsals
  27. 27. Typical Post Disaster Needs The Initial Response • Search, Rescue and Evacuation • Medical Assistance • Disaster Assessment
  28. 28. • Short term food and water provision • Water purification • Epidemiological Surveillance • Temporary shelter
  29. 29. The Secondary Response • Repair or reconstruction • Reestablish or create employment • Assist with recovery of agriculture through loans, distribution of farm equipment and tools • Assist with recovery of small businesses and fisheries
  31. 31. Scale of Disaster Is Dependent on : • • • • • • Lead Time Available. Intensity of Hazard. Duration. Spatial Extent. Density of Population & Assets. Time of Occurrence. • Vulnerabilities existing in the Elements at Risk. • Hazard X Vulnerability = Disaster
  32. 32. Role Players in Disasters • • • • People : Individuals, House -Holds, Volunteers Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati Secretary, Panchayat Members Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Retired Army & Police Personnel Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical, Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings, Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public Health, Police, Defence, NGOs
  33. 33. Hazard Vulnerability in India drought 70% Earthquakes 57% Floods 12% Landslides 3% One million houses get damaged annually, in addition to human, economic, social, and other losses Cyclones 8%
  34. 34. SEISMIC ZONING MAP Zone Zone V Very High Risk Quakes of Magnitude 8 and greater Zone IV High Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 7.9 Zone III Moderate Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 6.9 Zone II Source: IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 (BIS) Magnitude Seismic Disturbances upto Magnitude 4.9
  35. 35. Major Disasters in India 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy 2001 Gujarat earthquake 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami 2008 Mumbai attacks  2013Uttrakhand floods
  36. 36. Earthquake, Oct 2005 Avalanche , Feb 2005 MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA (1980-2011) Earthquake Uttarkashi, Oct 1991 Earthquake Chamoli, April 1999 Kosi Floods, Aug, 2008 Earthquake, Bhuj Jan 2001 Flood, Assam & Bihar 2004 Earthquake, Latur Sept 1993 Floods July 2005 Bhopal Gas Disaster, Dec 1982 Super Cyclone Oct 1999 Tsunami Dec 2004 Tsunami Dec 2004 Cyclone Aila, West Bengal, 2009
  37. 37. FLOODING IN UTTRAKHAND… From 15 to 18 June 2013, Indian state of Uttrakhand and adjoining area received heavy rainfall, which was about 375 percent more than the benchmark rainfall during a normal monsoon. 16th and 17th June,2013 The Day of Destruction happened in history of UTTRAKHAND
  38. 38. HUMAN LOSS  According to the official records 400 houses were destroyed and 265 were damaged  4,200 villages effected  6,000 people were dead,10,000 injured and 1,00,000 stranded ECONOMIC LOSS  20,000 crores loss  Major roads, telephone towers destroyed due, communication lost  Tourism loss
  39. 39. RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATION  The Army, Air Force, Navy, Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Border Security Force, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Public Works Department and local administrations worked together for quick rescue operations.  Several thousand soldiers were deployed for the rescue missions.  Activists of political and social organizations are also involved in the rescue and management of relief centres.  Helicopters were used to rescue people, but due to the rough terrain, heavy fog and rainfall, maneuvering them was a challenge. Even the Corporates joined hand to help the people..
  40. 40. •Struck the Odisha coast, off Gopalpur 9.15 pm 12 October 2013 •Winds raging at 200km an hour, storm surge of a over 3 meters and inundating areas up to half a kilometer inland •873,000 people moved before the cyclone made landfall •100,000 were evacuated Some 600,000 people were left homeless after the storm swept through 14,000 villages mainly in coastal districts. DEAD: Confirmed dead – 27
  41. 41. Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 6. Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests 7. Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour 8. Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways 9. Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation 10. Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs 11. Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy 12. Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
  42. 42. National Level Disaster Nodal Ministry Natural Disasters Management (other than Drought) Ministry of Home Affairs Drought Relief Ministry of Agriculture Air Accidents Ministry of Civil Aviation Railway Accidents Ministry of Railways Chemical Disasters Ministry of Environment & Forests Biological Disasters Ministry of Health Nuclear Disasters Department of Atomic Energy
  43. 43. NATIONAL LANDMARKS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT • 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution • Eleventh Schedule and Twelfth Schedule • High Powered Committee (HPC) • Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth Finance Commissions • Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans • Disaster Management Act 2005 • National Policy on Disaster Management • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
  44. 44. Management of Disaster in India  Paradigm shift in approach. a) From Response and Relief Centre to:i) Prevention & restoration ii) Mitigation and Preparedness b) From Ministry of Agriculture to Ministry of Home in 2002.  High power Committee under J C Pant-1999. i) Culture of preparedness ii) Culture of quick response iii) Culture of strategic thinking iv) Culture of Mitigation.  All party National Committee under chairmanship of P.M.-2001 51
  45. 45. Disaster Management……contd.  DM Act - 2005 i) Constitution of NDMA, SDMA, DDMA ii) Constitution of NDRF/SDRF iii) Provision of Mitigation/Legal Actions iv) Responsibility to each department  Inclusion in Five year plan Development can not be sustainable unless D.M is built into development process  Recommendations by 13th Finance Commission  Inclusion of curriculum in Education system  Community Preparedness/Awareness. 52
  46. 46. NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE (NDRF) 10 NDRF Bns  A Specialist Response Force with : -High skill training -State of the art equipments  A Multi Disciplinary, multi skilled and high tech Force -for all types of disasters capable of insertion by Air, Sea & Land All NDRF Bns to be equipped and trained for all natural disasters including NBC. Dedicated exclusively for Disaster Response 54
  47. 47. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTH AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY OF NDRF BNS Area of Responsibility will be relocated once NDRF Bns at Patna and Guntur get operational
  48. 48. Composition of NDRF Bns  Each Bn have 1149 personnel  Each Bn have 18 specialist teams of 44 Members to handle natural & NBC disasters. Each team have Engineers, Paramedics, Technician, Electrician, Communication personnel & Dog squad.  Organized, equipped and trained for all type of disasters. 56
  49. 49. Role of education and schools • Promoting and enabling Disaster Risk Reduction • focus on disaster risk education in primary and secondary schools • to raise awareness and provide understanding of disaster management for children, teachers and communities. • structural changes to improve safety in building schools to protect children and their access to education, but also minimise long term costs. • students of all ages can actively study and participate in school safety measures
  50. 50. Role of education and schools • Students can work with teachers and other adults in the community towards minimising risk before, during and after disaster events. • Methods of participatory vulnerability assessment, capacity assessment and hazard mapping have been be used with broader communities, schools and other institutions. • Government can effectively reach out to communities and protect them by focusing on schools in DRR initiatives to achieve greater resilience to disasters.
  51. 51. Aspects Disasters: Negative and Positive Aspects Negative Aspects Positive aspects D Damage Development I Interruption Innovation S Severe Sharing A Antagonistic Awareness S Scourge Self sufficiency T Traumatic Transformation E Emergency Education R Risk Resilience