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Academic Staff College
107th 4-week Orientation Programme
from 13 January to 10 February 2014
Prof (Col) Rajive Kohli, Ph.D.
30 Jan’14 from 12.45 to 2.15 p.m.
functioning of a
causing widespread human,
material, or environmental
which exceed the ability of the
affected society to
its own resources.
– Disruption to normal pattern of life, usually
severe and may also be sudden, unexpected
– Human effects like loss of life, injury, hardship
and adverse effect on health
– Effect on social infrastructure such as
destruction of or damage to government
systems, buildings, communications and
– Community needs such shelter, food,
clothing, medical assistance and social care.
Disasters occur in varied forms
•Some are predictable in advance
•Some are annual or seasonal
•Some are sudden and unpredictable
Days and weeks
GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER
LOSS OF LIFE.
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION.
DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE.
LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD.
DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES.
DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE.
DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS.
NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS.
SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER
TYPES OF DISASTER
• A natural disaster is a consequence when a
natural calamity affects humans and/or the
• Various disasters like earthquake, landslides,
volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are
MAN MADE DISASTER
• Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are
examples of man-made disasters.
• they cause pollution, kill people, and damage
Hazard and Disaster :
“A hazard is a natural event while the disaster
is its consequence. A hazard is a perceived
natural event which threatens both life and
property….a disaster is a realization of this
– John Whittow, Disaster. 1980
Water and Climate related disasters
Floods and Drainage Management
Tornadoes and Hurricanes
Heat Wave and Cold Wave
Thunder & Lightning
Geologically related disasters
• Landslides and Mudflows
• Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts.
• Mine Fires
Biologically related disasters
Biological Disasters and Epidemics
Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear
• Chemical and Industrial
• Nuclear Disasters
Accident related disasters
Major Building Collapse
Serial Bomb Blasts
Festival related disasters
Electrical Disasters & Fires
Air, Road and Rail Accidents.
Air, road and rail accidents
Chemical and industrial
Major building collapse
Serial bomb blasts
Festival related disasters
rapid or slow onset types
urbanisation chaotic growth
war and civil strife
The Myths about Disasters
• It Can’t Happen to Us.
• The Nature’s forces are so Deadly the
Victims will Die anyway.
• There is Nothing We Can Do.
THESE ARE THE TIMES WHEN
EVERYONE HAS TO HELP OUT
• Disaster management is the discipline that
involves preparing, warning, supporting and
rebuilding societies when natural or manmade disasters occur.
• It is the continuous process in an effort to
avoid or minimize the impact of disasters
resulting from hazards.
The body of policy and administration decisions and
operational activities that pertain to various stages
of a disaster at all levels.
An applied science which seek, by systematic
observation and analysis of disasters, to improve
measures relating to prevention, mitigation,
preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
Encompass all aspects of planning for and
responding to disasters, including both pre and post
AIMS/ GOALS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
• Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the
potential losses (lives &
infrastructure) from hazards.
• Reduce the risks by timely measures,
short-term and long-term policies
• Assure prompt and appropriate
assistance to victims of disaster
• Achieve rapid, effective, sustained
& durable recovery & rehabilitation.
Stages of Disaster Management Cycle
The cycle generally comprises four major stages:
1. Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation
2. Disaster Response and Immediate Relief
3. Disaster Rehabilitation, Reconstruction and
4. Long-term Development
Six elements that defines the complete approach to
Disaster Preparedness Framework
COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS
Typical Post Disaster Needs
The Initial Response
• Search, Rescue and Evacuation
• Medical Assistance
• Disaster Assessment
• Short term food and water
• Water purification
• Epidemiological Surveillance
• Temporary shelter
The Secondary Response
• Repair or reconstruction
• Reestablish or create employment
• Assist with recovery of agriculture
through loans, distribution of farm
equipment and tools
• Assist with recovery of small
businesses and fisheries
WORKING TOGETHER WE CAN REDUCE
Scale of Disaster
Is Dependent on :
Lead Time Available.
Intensity of Hazard.
Density of Population & Assets.
Time of Occurrence.
• Vulnerabilities existing in the
Elements at Risk.
• Hazard X Vulnerability =
Role Players in Disasters
People : Individuals, House -Holds,
Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati
Secretary, Panchayat Members
Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious
Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers,
Retired Army & Police Personnel
Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical,
Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings,
Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public
Health, Police, Defence, NGOs
Hazard Vulnerability in India
One million houses get damaged annually, in addition to human,
economic, social, and other losses
SEISMIC ZONING MAP
Very High Risk
Magnitude 8 and
Source: IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 (BIS)
Major Disasters in India
1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy
2001 Gujarat earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
2008 Mumbai attacks
MAJOR DISASTERS IN INDIA (1980-2011)
Uttarkashi, Oct 1991
Bhuj Jan 2001
& Bihar 2004
Latur Sept 1993
Disaster, Dec 1982
FLOODING IN UTTRAKHAND…
From 15 to 18 June 2013,
of Uttrakhand and
adjoining area received
heavy rainfall, which was
about 375 percent more
than the benchmark
rainfall during a normal
16th and 17th June,2013
The Day of Destruction
happened in history of
According to the official records 400 houses were destroyed and 265
4,200 villages effected
6,000 people were dead,10,000 injured and 1,00,000 stranded
20,000 crores loss
Major roads, telephone towers
destroyed due, communication lost
RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATION
The Army, Air Force, Navy, Indo-Tibetan
Border Police (ITBP), Border Security Force,
National Disaster Response
Force (NDRF), Public Works Department and
local administrations worked together for
quick rescue operations.
Several thousand soldiers were deployed for
the rescue missions.
Activists of political and social organizations
are also involved in the rescue and
management of relief centres.
Helicopters were used to rescue people, but
due to the rough terrain, heavy fog and
rainfall, maneuvering them was a challenge.
Even the Corporates joined hand to help the people..
•Struck the Odisha coast, off
Gopalpur 9.15 pm 12 October
•Winds raging at 200km an hour,
storm surge of a over 3 meters
and inundating areas up to half a
•873,000 people moved before
the cyclone made landfall
•100,000 were evacuated
Some 600,000 people were left
homeless after the storm swept
through 14,000 villages mainly in
DEAD: Confirmed dead – 27
Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management
Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC
Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department
Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department
Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry
of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
6. Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests
7. Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour
8. Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways
9. Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation
10. Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs
11. Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy
12. Mine Disasters : Department of Mines
Natural Disasters Management
(other than Drought)
Ministry of Home
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Civil
Ministry of Railways
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Health
Department of Atomic
NATIONAL LANDMARKS IN
• 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution
• Eleventh Schedule and Twelfth Schedule
• High Powered Committee (HPC)
• Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth Finance Commissions
• Tenth and Eleventh Five Year Plans
• Disaster Management Act 2005
• National Policy on Disaster Management
• National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
Management of Disaster in India
Paradigm shift in approach.
a) From Response and Relief Centre to:i) Prevention & restoration
ii) Mitigation and Preparedness
b) From Ministry of Agriculture to Ministry of
Home in 2002.
High power Committee under J C Pant-1999.
i) Culture of preparedness
ii) Culture of quick response
iii) Culture of strategic thinking
iv) Culture of Mitigation.
All party National Committee under chairmanship of P.M.-2001
DM Act - 2005
i) Constitution of NDMA, SDMA, DDMA
ii) Constitution of NDRF/SDRF
iii) Provision of Mitigation/Legal Actions
iv) Responsibility to each department
Inclusion in Five year plan
Development can not be sustainable unless D.M is built
into development process
Recommendations by 13th Finance Commission
Inclusion of curriculum in Education system
NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE FORCE (NDRF)
10 NDRF Bns
A Specialist Response Force with :
-High skill training
-State of the art equipments
A Multi Disciplinary, multi skilled and high
-for all types of disasters capable of insertion by
Air, Sea & Land
All NDRF Bns to be equipped and trained for
all natural disasters including NBC.
Dedicated exclusively for Disaster Response
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTH
AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY OF NDRF BNS
Area of Responsibility will
be relocated once NDRF
Bns at Patna and Guntur
Composition of NDRF Bns
Each Bn have 1149 personnel
Each Bn have 18 specialist teams of 44
Members to handle natural & NBC
Each team have Engineers, Paramedics,
Technician, Electrician, Communication
personnel & Dog squad.
Organized, equipped and trained for all
type of disasters.
Role of education and schools
• Promoting and enabling Disaster Risk Reduction
• focus on disaster risk education in primary and
• to raise awareness and provide understanding of
disaster management for children, teachers and
• structural changes to improve safety in building schools
to protect children and their access to education, but
also minimise long term costs.
• students of all ages can actively study and participate in
school safety measures
Role of education and schools
• Students can work with teachers and other adults in the
community towards minimising risk before, during and
after disaster events.
• Methods of participatory vulnerability assessment,
capacity assessment and hazard mapping have been be
used with broader communities, schools and other
• Government can effectively reach out to communities
and protect them by focusing on schools in DRR
initiatives to achieve greater resilience to disasters.
Negative and Positive Aspects