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Personality Development Program Personality Development Program Document Transcript

  • Student PDP Guide
  • Student PDP Guide
  • Contents Introduction Personal Development Planning: What’s it all About? How to Use this Guide Why Bother? My Skills Transferable Skills at Cambridge Using PDP to Identify Skills Reflection in Action Goals and Planning Skills Audit Personal Development Plan SWOT STAR Reflective Questions List Learning Styles Skills Feedback Time Line Planner How Do I Know if it’s Working? Job Applications and Interviews Using PDP to Prepare for Job Applications and Interviews About Behavioural Interviewing
  • My Files Opportunities Major Skills Training and Support Organisations within the University Get Involved in Your Community Skills and Personal Development Directory Resource Directory Credits
  • Introduction
  • Intro: Personal Development Planning: What’s it all About? Dear Student, As you read this, in the rush of Michaelmas Term, it is worth bearing in mind that what lies ahead of you will almost certainly prove to be one of the most important experiences of your life. Your academic studies are the primary part of this experience, but they are not the “whole package” of a Cambridge education. Some of the most significant changes that occur over the three or four-year period of your degree will be in the area of personal development. If this is your first time away from home, living and studying in Cambridge should encourage you to be more independent, more self- confident, more resourceful, and probably more assertive, better at managing your time and your money, and better at working with others. In a word, more mature. Your horizons – geographical, cultural and intellectual – will be broadened by the experience of studying in Cambridge’s international environment, and by the extra-curricular activities and opportunities you choose to pursue. No doubt you have already started thinking about how to spend your first few months, and planning is the first step towards making the most of your time here. To get the very best out of your Cambridge experience, there are also another couple of things you might like to consider doing. These are: record your experiences; and reflect on them. This is the essence of Personal Development Planning. The pace of College life can be hectic. You will find it helps to navigate a steady course if you can prioritise and plan effectively. And you will enjoy term-time more if you can train yourself to slow down, once in a while, and take stock of the bigger picture. When the year is over and you are looking to the future, you will find it helpful to have a record, even a basic one, of how you spent your time. Because life goes on after your studies, and in career planning, job-seeking and your professional career in general you should still be able to draw on the experiences gained during your degree for many years to come. Your degree will provide a wealth of material to enrich your CV, as well as a valuable bank of experiences you can refer to when asked by an interviewing panel to demonstrate how you have risen to challenges and dealt with tricky situations. Your University education has intrinsic intellectual value. However, your education will also make you more employable, and will equip you with a wide range of life skills and transferable skills (e.g. communication, working independently, working with others) that will be needed throughout your working and studying life. This guide explains more about Personal development Planning and provides some tools for your own planning. Use it according to your needs and experience. If you are a mature student, you are already likely to have some experience of skills mapping, reflective practice, learning styles, career planning, CV and interview technique. The decision to return to education may have been step one of your career plan. It is still of benefit to reassess your goals from time to time and adapt your plans
  • accordingly. If you are a student with a disability, use this guide to help you to pull together all the experience you have accumulated in one place and set new goals for the future. Taking a fresh look at your skills competencies can only increase your confidence. Some of the examples provided may not seem relevant to your personal circumstances. But in analysing your strengths, think laterally: juggling personal / family life, studies, and extra-curricular activities shows commitment, organisation, time-management and adaptability—all important skills. The University is very aware of the personal development that students undergo during their education, and is equally aware that students do not always articulate and take full advantage of the variety of skills and experiences they have acquired. The University is therefore keen to help students to capitalise on their experience as much as they possibly can. The notes that follow outline the support for PDP that Cambridge offers, what will be expected of you, and what you can expect to gain from taking part. Going through the process of PDP is really what will make a difference to your experience of Cambridge and life in general. Nevertheless it’s also the intention that you will also leave Cambridge with a tangible output of the process – your PDP Portfolio. This can be in whatever form you choose: computer file, loose-leaf folder, notebook, etc. This guide is both a source of information and a place to start to record your experiences, skills, reflections. It can form the basis of your PDP portfolio, which could also contain information like your supervision reports, exam tanscripts, CV, and so on (see ‘My Files’, page 45). It will also contain any PD Plans that you make (see Personal Development Plan, page 17). Reminder! A PDP Portfolio is a folder (hardcopy or electronic) that contains information about you: reports, CV, reflections, PD plans. A PD Plan is a structured plan that you have drawn up to help you to meet objectives, such as development of particular skills.
  • Intro: How to Use this Guide Remember, the point of PDP is to encourage you to identify your experiences, reflect on what you have learned from them, and then record the information so you can plan towards your goals and aspirations. The set of materials included in this Guide includes tools to help you in this process: Skills audit questionnaire Reflective questions list Personal development plan Skills Feedback form SWOT and STAR self-appraisal forms Timeline planner Learning Styles framework The Guide outlines the Cambridge approach to transferable skills training and personal development. It includes key information, reference materials, and self-assessment forms for you to complete in your own time. Personal Development Planning, or PDP, is not assessed by the Colleges or the University as a formal part of your degree. How much you do, and how often, is up to you. As a minimum, you should expect to discuss PDP with your Personal Tutor or Tutor, at least once a year. You will have received this information just before the start of the academic year. The first time you meet with your Tutor, usually during Michaelmas Term, take along these PDP materials and make sure that you understand how the system works. As you begin to build up your portfolio and PD Plans in subsequent terms, be prepared to discuss them with your Tutor. Talk about your plans and goals for the year: academic aims, certainly, but also your personal, career, and life goals. It is a good idea to revise or update your PD Plan after these meetings, or on a regular basis such as once per Term. Remember to keep all your PDP files together in a safe place. It is your responsibility to keep copies of all your PDP files; for example, updates to your Personal Development Plan. Your PDP is private. Any materials that you complete relating to PDP are confidential and you do not have to show them to anyone. No one has the right to view PDP documents that belong to you without your permission. That said, you will find it helps you to stay motivated if you are able to receive regular feedback on your PDP. You may ask your Tutor for feedback, but there are many other people who can offer useful help and advice: other students, parents, family friends, your DOS, supervisors, your College chaplain, or by appointment with Careers Service advisers. 1
  • Your Tutor or DoS will also find the information in your PDP Portfolio very useful when they come to write references for you. So when the need arises you might want to consider whether and how you want to share the information with them. Work through the materials in the Guide at your own pace. The important thing to remember is that personal development planning is a process. You will get the most out of PDP if you do a little bit at a time, a few times during the year. Then you will be able to look back on your responses over time, and see how far you have come. 2
  • Intro: Why Bother? PDP (Personal Development Planning) offers you: A place to record skills, collect evidence, reflect on achievements Opportunities to reflect on your life, activities, and skills Ways to get the most out of regular meetings with your personal Tutor, DOS, supervisor, or mentor Help when you are changing direction, or making future plans Techniques to help you perform well in job applications and interviews Opportunities to develop connections with other students and academic staff Practical Scenarios for PDP A few situations for when PDP could help… Your supervisor gave you a much lower mark than you expected for your essay You’re studying NatSci, and can’t decide whether to focus on biological or physical sciences for Part II/III You’re an Arts student, and you’re trying to put together a job application for a big consulting firm You’re having problems getting your work handed in on time You’d like to do an internship, but you’re not sure which industry to target You’re trying to get your teammates to cooperate on a design project You’re involved in a college play, and you want to capture your role in the experience You’re trying to focus your ideas for your third-year long essay You want to start a CUSU campaign You’ve completed some volunteering or schools outreach work, and you want to record what you’ve achieved We do not learn from experience... we learn from reflecting on experience (Dewey) 3
  • Four contexts for PDP Personal Meetings with your Planning and goal- Time management Personal Development Personal Tutor / Tutor setting; recording milestones Academic Meetings with your Helping with transition Planning longer-term Prioritising work and DOS, supervisor, or within the University projects (long essays, preparing for exams mentor (eg. completing Tripos research projects, Parts, changing from design projects) one Tripos to another) Careers and Job Search Job applications: Help with creative Getting good Writing CVs giving evidence of your thinking or changing references skills direction Informal and Experiential Learning Recording experiences Year Abroad; Volunteering and Extracurricular and reflecting on new exchange schools outreach activities (JCR, music, skills programmes; summer sports, societies…) travel; internships 4
  • My Skills
  • My Skills: Transferable Skills at Cambridge What are Transferable Skills? Transferable Skills are, quite simply, the skills learned in one context that are useful in another. They may be learnt in an academic setting, or outside study, often through informal or experiential learning contexts (like volunteering, student societies, or community participation). Transferable Skills can help you to study more effectively, and may help to promote academic achievement. They are also highly valued by employers. There is no definitive list, but the category can include: Intellectual initiative Critical reflection The ability to gather, organise and deploy evidence, data, and information The ability to identify and solve problems Analytical and evaluative thinking The ability to engage in lateral thinking, openness to creative thinking The ability to present material orally in a clear and effective way The ability to present written material clearly and appropriately Self-direction Self-discipline Management of time and resources Working creatively, flexibly and adaptably with others Formulating and meeting team objectives Interacting successfully on a one-to-one basis Bibliographic skills Observational skills Practical skills 6
  • Which Transferable Skills can I expect to gain from my degree? Skills that could be developed by all students Intellectual Skills (e.g. critical, analytical, synthesising and problem-solving skills) Communication skills (written and oral) Organisational Skills (e.g. working independently, taking initiative, time-management) Interpersonal Skills ( e.g. working with or motivating others, flexibility/adaptability) Skills which are essential for and specifically developed by certain courses, but which remain desirable for all students, and available to them through various routes Research Skills Computer Literacy Numeracy (e.g. statistical skills, data handling) Foreign Language Skills More information The individual perspective… “Transferable Skills: An Interactive Guide” is a website designed to give students access to essential information about transferable skills at Cambridge. The site is designed so that you can search it for information tailored to your needs. The site also gives case study examples of how students from different Triposes have used their skills: http://www.cam.ac.uk/tskills/ The subject perspective… If you are interested in learning more about the skills that are developed specifically through your Tripos studies, ask your DOS, or check your Department website. Many Departments have developed detailed Statements on Transferable Skills, showing exactly how the different activities that make up your course develop skills. Alternatively, see the Senior Tutor’s Committee webpage for information about the University’s perspective on Transferable Skills: http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/education/skills/ 7
  • The vocational/careers perspective… The Cambridge Careers Service has developed a guide to transferable skills, focused on careers and job searching: “What has Cambridge done for me?” It is available on their website: http://www.careers.cam.ac.uk/students/work/cambskills.asp My Skills: Using PDP to Identify Skills 8
  • My Skills: Using PDP to Identify Skills PDP can help you to identify and develop your Transferable Skills. Use PDP techniques such as the Skills Audit (See page 13) to identify the skills that you have already developed, skills that you wish to develop further, and skills that you do not yet possess. Then, use your Personal Development Plan (See page 17), to decide which steps you need to follow in order to acquire them. But before we get to that stage you need to be aware that the link between skills awareness and personal development planning is: reflection. Reflection is itself a kind of transferable skill, but the ability to reflect, honestly and accurately, on your life and work—and especially, to reflect on any particular problems or challenges you may experience—will enhance all the transferable skills you choose to develop. What’s more, reflection, and self-awareness more generally, will help you to identify skills you didn’t even know you possessed. What is reflection? Reflection is the basic concept behind much PDP. The idea, based on well-established educational research, is that reflection promotes learners’ self-awareness and self-motivation. Research also indicates that the incorporation of reflective processes into teaching actively enhances student learning. Reflection is a search for connections (James R. Zull) Reflection is a form of mental processing – like a form of thinking – that we use to fulfil a purpose or to achieve some anticipated outcome. It is applied to relatively complicated or unstructured ideas for which there is not an obvious solution and is largely based on further processing of knowledge and understanding, and possibly emotions, that we already possess. (Helen Barrett, quoting Jennifer Moon) 9
  • Reflection is the basic concept behind much PDP. The idea, based on well-established educational research, is that reflection promotes learners’ self-awareness and self-motivation. Research also indicates that the incorporation of reflective processes into teaching actively enhances student learning. Reflection involves “metacognition”, or the awareness individuals have of their own mental processes. Undertaking reflective activities helps you to move from the activity of learning, to a deeper understanding of how you learn. It also helps to integrate learning, by enabling you to group together a set of experiences and identify the common elements they share. The best way to get to grips with reflection is to start using the record of activities and reflective questions contained in your PDP portfolio. As you become more experienced, you may wish to add other, less structured, approaches (weblog or “blog”, journal, informal discussions with friends, or your Tutor). Some observations about reflection: Some students find reflection comes naturally, others do not The potential personal ‘exposure’ of reflection can be uncomfortable and, particularly for international students, contrary to cultural norms There is no “one right way” to reflect You will never be evaluated or judged on your reflections; they are private and personal to you, unless you choose to share them with others Reflection is a process, not a single event For a busy student, the discipline of writing on a regular basis can be difficult to establish Sharing reflections can help with motivation concrete experience application of observations the concepts in a and new situation reflections formation of concepts and generalisations Kolb’s Learning Cycle 10
  • My Skills: Reflection in Action Start with one special or significant thing: an experience, an action, a person, a memory, a feeling, an observation. “Significant” in this context just means that your object of reflection has a personal meaning: it is significant to you. Your experience does not have to be a clear-cut thing; in fact, it is often more valuable to reflect on experiences or situations that are unstructured, messy, and closer to “real life”. There may be emotions attached to the experience, positive or negative, but there do not have to be. Use one or more of the following techniques to reflect on your experience. Use SWOT or STAR techniques to analyse the components of the experience Brainstorm the most important things about that experience or thing Talk to your Tutor, DOS, Chaplain, family, mentor, College parent, or friend about the experience Question yourself about the experience (there are no “right” answers – the benefit lies in the process) Use the Timeline planner and locate your experience upon it Write a trial job application and refer to your experience, stating what you learnt from it Write down your thoughts and feelings about the experience Make a map, concept map, or drawing that expresses your experience Take action: do something about it! Build on your reflections by seeking feedback from others. Update your Personal Development Plan. Ask yourself: do your reflections contribute any knowledge or information that changes your plan or makes it redundant? Do your reflections alter your plans in any way? What do you need to do now? 11
  • Goals and Planning
  • Goals and Planning: Skills Audit There are seven categories of skill in the Skills Audit. Rate yourself according to the scale shown for all the statements in each skills category. The skills listed here are based on the University’s policy statement on Transferable Skills for Undergraduate Students. This list is not exhaustive and there are certain transferable skills that are not included here, but which you may acquire through study or your extra-curricular activities and life experiences. If you feel that you possess a particular skill that is not listed here, you should feel free to include it in your Audit. The evidence you provide to support your ratings is very important. Participation in an activity or event generally involves multiple skills, so it is likely that you may use one piece of evidence to support more than one skills statement. You may wish to show a copy of your Skills Audit to a potential referee. The details included here will help to flesh out any other information you provide, for example, a CV. Don’t forget to give him or her a copy of your Skills Feedback Form, too. Both of these forms can be downloaded from the tskills website. Use the following to rate yourself against each of the skills in the Skills Audit: Ability Ratings A I can use this skill very well B I can use this skill well but some improvements could be made C I need to improve this skill D I need to put in considerable work to develop this skill E I have not had the opportunity to develop this skill 13
  • Name: Date: Skill: Communication Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Organisation Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Interpersonal Rating: A B C D E Evidence: 14
  • Skill: Research Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Numeracy Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Computer Literacy Rating: A B C D E Evidence: 15
  • Skill: Foreign Languages Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Organisation Rating: A B C D E Evidence: Skill: Fill in as appropriate Rating: A B C D E Evidence: 16
  • Goals and Planning: Personal Development Plan Use this plan to review your progress to date and to help you to identify any skills gaps or areas that you need to develop further. When you meet with your Personal Tutor or Tutor, have your plan ready in advance to show him or her, and be prepared to discuss it and to receive feedback. How to Use the Personal Development Plan 1. Reflect on your work and progress. Ask yourself: Have I progressed as well as I would have hoped? What problems or difficulties have I experienced? Use tools like the Skills Audit (page 13) in this guide to help you get started. It is important to think about how things are going in general, as well as for each subject or paper you are taking. 2. If the answer is yes—great! If not – start having some ideas of your own for improvement and be prepared to discuss these with your Tutor. 3. Fill in the Personal Development Plan. 4. Show your Personal Development Plan to your Tutor from time to time, and seek feedback from him or her. If you would like further feedback on your Plan, there are others you can call on: including close friends / family, your College Dean or Chaplain, and the advisors at the Disability Resource Centre. 5. Keep track of your progress. Refer to your Plan so you can build on what you’ve accomplished. Using your Personal Development Plan should have the following outcomes: - Greater understanding of how much progress you’ve made in all areas of your course - Better understanding of any strengths and weaknesses by both you and your Tutor - Clearer understanding of what you need to do next 17
  • - Agreement on setting goals and targets - An Action Plan that summarises all this 18
  • Personal Development Plan Name: Tripos Subject: General Direction: You will learn best if your course, subjects or programme fit into the general direction of where you want to go in future. Write down a list of your subjects, papers or courses and whether you think they fit in with your study and/or future plans. Check with your Tutor about any of which you are unsure. Subject / Paper / Course Enjoying it? Fits in? 19
  • Achievements: Think of a piece of work or an activity that you feel particularly pleased and proud of. Make a note of this here. Areas for Improvement: Write down any areas in which you are experiencing difficulties or any skills that you would like to develop, eg. “Meet all my deadlines”, “Set some career goals by Easter”, “Learn to use Powerpoint.” Action Plan: These are the concrete steps you are going to take in order to reach your goals. Break your plan down into concrete steps and make sure each step is realistic. Set yourself a deadline, to motivate yourself to get started. Step 1: Date: Step 2: Date: Step 3: Date: 20
  • Goals and Targets: Complete the questions on this chart. This will give you something to measure your progress against at your next tutorial meeting. Your aim is to be able to tick all the “Yes” boxes. Statement Yes I have set myself some goals that say what I want to achieve by my next tutorial meeting  I have a plan to help me improve on my learning and personal development  I have identified action points to help me reach my targets  Student Signature: Tutor’s Signature: Date: 21
  • Goals and Planning: SWOT SWOT analysis is a useful method to aid understanding and decision-making in any situation. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. SWOT analysis has its origins in research on corporate planning, conducted at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s and 1970s. SWOT analysis is widely used today in business and management, but it is also useful as a tool for learning and personal development. A SWOT analysis is a personal, subjective assessment of information that is organized by the SWOT format into a logical order that helps understanding, presentation, discussion and decision-making. The SWOT analysis template is normally presented as a grid, comprising four sections, one for each of the SWOT headings: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. When you do a SWOT analysis, begin by clearly identifying the situation to which the SWOT analysis relates. Then fill in each of the SWOT grid areas, according to the details of that situation. How to do SWOT: On a post-it note (which you can attach to an object or item) On a piece of scrap paper With colour highlighters or pencils On the computer / laptop Using the SWOT template in this guide Voice recording (using a Dictaphone, voicemail, mp3 recorder, etc.) In a journal, learning log, or diary While chatting with a friend When to do SWOT: Straight after a supervision, lab session, lecture, group meeting At the start of a study or revision session At the end of the day / when you finish studying First thing in the morning In a break between lectures Before you fill in a job application 22
  • Translating SWOT analysis into action SWOT analysis provides a framework by which relevant issues can be identified, classified, and understood. Moving from SWOT analysis to action, however, can be something of a leap! As far as identifying actions from SWOT issues goes, it all very much depends on your reasons and aims for using SWOT, and also your position with respect to others who may be implicated in the issues you identify—you can make decisions for yourself, but not necessarily for others. The other pivotal part in the process is finding the motivation to follow through. The key point is to translate the items you place in each SWOT category into decisions or actions that you are prepared to take on board: Strengths (maintain and extend) Weaknesses (address and / or seek advice) Opportunities (prioritise and optimise) Threats (counter and / or seek help) SWOT Form Situation to which this SWOT analysis relates: Date: Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats 23
  • Goals and Planning: STAR STAR (the acronym for Situation, Task, Action, Response), is a method to help you analyse and reflect on your role in a given situation. Use the form below to help you to unpack the ways in which you contributed to a situation, action, or event. The STAR method works best when you use it to focus on active participation—the concrete things you did in order to make something happen. Those “concrete things” could mean strategic planning: taking a decision, changing direction, or creating a plan. Or it could mean problem solving or creative thinking: coming up with a solution to a particular problem, or trying a new way of doing things. Or it could mean following a method: going through a process, step-by-step, in order to complete a task. Or it could mean working with people: organising others, motivating peers, working in a group or team. Identifying the actions you took, and showing how they contributed to a result or outcome, offers a powerful demonstration of your skills. STAR is therefore an excellent technique to use when preparing for job interviews. STAR will also help you to prepare for any kind of application or interview (formal or informal) where you have to give examples from your experience, in order to substantiate any claims you make about your skills and abilities. Situation: Task: Action: Response: 24
  • Goals and Planning: Reflective Questions Use this list of questions to kick-start the reflective process. Try picking two or three questions at random, and then just jot down your thoughts as they occur to you. Think laterally, and don’t censor yourself. There are no “right answers”. Thinking creatively is itself a useful skill to develop. Edward de Bono’s “Thinking Hats” is a well known approach to creative reflection and problem solving. The basic premise is that you try thinking about an issue, problem, or situation from different perspectives, as if you were wearing different “hats” (e.g. the social perspective, the “big-picture” perspective, the detail oriented perspective). Try it out. 25
  • What specific goals, not related to your study, have you established for the next year? What do you see yourself doing five years from now? What do you really want to do in life? What are your long-range career objectives? How would you describe yourself? How has your University experience prepared you for a career? What two or three accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? Why? Describe your most rewarding experience. What academic subjects do you like best? Why? What academic subjects do you like least? Why? Do you have plans for continued study? An advanced degree? What have you learned from participation in extracurricular activities? In what kind of environment are you most comfortable? Can you give an example of where you had to influence someone to take action? What major problem have you encountered and how did you deal with it? What are your strengths and weaknesses? Why did you decide to apply to Cambridge? Do you prefer working alone or with others? Why? If you could start your University studies again what would you do differently? 26
  • Goals and Planning: Learning Styles Educational psychologists and researchers in the fields of human cognition and student learning have developed various schemes to classify and characterise learners’ educational preferences. These are usually known as “learning styles”. This section of your Guide gives you an overview of three key Learning Styles theories and explains why they might be useful for personal development. What are Learning Styles? The concept of Learning Styles is intended to explain observable differences in learners’ methods (“how” we learn), as well as differences in motivations or choices (“why” we learn). Sometimes, advocates of learning styles connect learning preferences to learner identities, arguing that the learning methods people use, together with the learning choices they make, are bound up with “who” they are. The identity-centred versions of Learning Styles can be similar to systems that claim to reveal psychological “personality types” (such as Myers-Briggs). Personality type profiles are widely used by businesses and corporate recruiters, so it is useful for you to know about this variation. The most significant theorists of Learning Styles are: Allinson & Hayes, Entwistle, Herrmann, Honey & Mumford, Kolb, Kolody, and Vermunt. How can I use Learning Styles? Advocates of Learning Styles believe that, by analysing your personal learning modes and preferences, you can start to learn more effectively and get more from your education. The idea is that, if you understand the circumstances in which you are most productive, you can begin consciously to seek out opportunities in your environment and study sessions that suit you best. The most familiar Learning Styles technique is probably the questionnaire. Learning Styles theorists have designed various questionnaires to enhance self-management and “personal productivity”. If you are interested in finding out more about Learning Styles and psychological profiling, the University Careers Service offers a wide variety of questionnaires and self-testing instruments for you to try. 27
  • Three Learning Styles Frameworks Style Focus Pragmatist Concrete experience Reflector Observing and reflecting Theorist Abstract conceptualisation Activist Active experimentation Honey and Mumford Style Focus Diverging These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and using imagination to solve problems. Assimilating The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and abstract concepts are more important than people. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. Converging A Converging style enables specialist and technology abilities. They are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. People with this style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. Accommodating The Accommodating learning style is ‘hands-on’, and relies on intuition rather than logic. These people rely on others’ analysis, and prefer to work in teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field. Kolb 28
  • Style Focus Navigators Locating, structuring, and using information Monitors Organisation; making learning plans; studying at fixed times Critical thinkers Individual and creative thinking; open-ended questions and problem-solving Engagers Group dynamics; work that is based on personal interests Networkers Discussion and debate with peers and lecturers; brainstorming and teamwork Kolody et. al. 29
  • Goals and Planning: Skills Feedback Present this feedback form to a suitable person(s) with a copy of your Skills Audit. They do not have to fill in every section; indeed, you may find it useful to ask for feedback from a range of people. They should state their relationship to you (i.e. personal tutor, project supervisor, fellow student etc.) in the space provided. Name: Date: Skill: Communication Relationship: Date: Feedback: Skill: Organisation Relationship: Date: Feedback: 30
  • Skill: Interpersonal Relationship: Date: Feedback: Skill: Research Relationship: Date: Feedback: Skill: Numeracy Relationship: Date: Feedback: 31
  • Skill: Communication Relationship: Date: Feedback: Skill: Computer Literacy Relationship: Date: Feedback: Skill: Foreign Languages Relationship: Date: Feedback: 32
  • Skill: Fill in as appropriate Relationship: Date: Feedback: 33
  • Goals and Planning: Time Line Planner Time Line Planning is a powerful way to identify the most significant events in your life. The context does not matter: whether they are personal, study-related, family-related, work-related, or connected to your social life, the events you choose to include will be the ones that stand out for you. The proforma below gives one example of a time line planner. It covers a single year, and the section labels are focused on the academic year. Your version might be much broader and more detailed in scope. Try drawing a bigger version on a piece of graph paper, extending the line to include your past and future (before you came to Cambridge, and after you graduate). Failures are important, as well as successes. This is a private plan and you are not competing against anyone when you fill it in. The point is to reflect on the most important and striking events that have affected your life. We all fail at things from time to time and there is no shame in this, the point is to understand the implications and learn from the experience. 34
  • Date you completed this Plan: Year this Plan relates to: Michaelmas Term: (Possible events: Date of matriculation? Joined college parent scheme? Survived first supervision? Lost first football match? Elected to JCR committee?) Lent Term: (Possible events: Got first low mark on essay? Spoke at a Union debate? Organised Society dinner? Experienced Sixth Week Blues? First article published in Varsity?) Easter Term: (Possible events: Panicked about exams? Rowed in Bumps? Made the May Ball Survivors Photo? Created first job CV?) Long Vacation: (Possible events: First company internship? Trekking in Morocco? Volunteered on an environmental project? Worked for a local business?) 35
  • Goals and Planning: How do I Know if it’s Working? Checklist for reflection PDP will only be effective if it works for you. Every person is different and not everyone will do PDP at the same times or in the same way. You can use this checklist to measure the usefulness of your approach to reflection in PDP. 1. Am I clear what my role is? Think about the different roles you occupy: e.g. peer interactions with supervision partners / lab partners / study group; leader or participant in a sports team / choral society / environmental campaign; future employee or worker for employers / internship programmes / volunteering opportunities etc. 2. Have I considered the wider context? Identify the context for your actions. University? College? Church group? Volunteer organization? Company? Who are you responsible to: friends? family? Other students? An organization? Your DOS? 3. Have I identified my contribution? In what way or ways did you participate? Is there a purpose—where is it leading? 4. Have I identified and reflected upon positive developments? What have you achieved? What are you most proud of? 5. Have I identified and reflected upon any difficulties and issues? What stumbling blocks are there? What gets in the way? 6. Have I identified key learning points? What moments were most significant to you? When did you learn most? 7. Have I got a clear action plan for the future? What is your strategy? What are you going to do now? 36
  • Job Applications and Interviews
  • Job Applications and Interviews PDP can help you to develop useful skills for tackling job applications, and, in particular, job interviews. If you can learn to articulate your skills and abilities effectively, giving examples that show how you use them in a range of contexts (inside and outside your study environment), then you will be well-prepared to answer questions such as how your study relates to your career plans, or what expertise you can bring to a company or employer. Using PDP to Prepare for Job Applications and Interviews PDP techniques such as the Skills Appraisal, STAR, or SWOT can help you to prepare effectively for job applications and interviews. All of these techniques are designed to get you to think creatively, honestly, and reflectively about your experience and skills. They are especially suited to eliciting those elusive or “invisible” skills that you have gained informally from your participation in different activities outside formal study. Use the Skills Appraisal form to identify the skills that you have developed most fully. During a job application or interview, these will be the skills that you can most usefully highlight in order to “sell” yourself to an employer. Use STAR to help you select the life experiences or work-related experiences that will be your touchstone during the job interview. Your choice of examples should be designed to showcase your main skills and achievements. If you can, try to choose examples that demonstrate how you behaved in a range of contexts. Use SWOT to prepare your personal “vision statement”. Where are you now, and where do you want to be in 2, 5, or 10 years’ time? SWOT analysis is also a good way to identify the areas that you want to develop further (or skills that you find difficult to practise). It is perfectly acceptable to mention to an employer that there are areas you want to work on and improve; as this shows personal self-awareness and self-direction, two qualities that employers value highly. It will be obvious to employers that you are at the beginning of your career, and they will not expect you to be an expert at everything. That said, a little humility goes a long way in job interviews. Remember to focus on your strengths. 38
  • STAR Analysis Example #1. May Week Stage Production: Creative Thinking Situation or “I worked backstage for a student Shakespeare production in May Week. The production was set in the 1920s “Jazz Age”. With a limited Task budget, we had to create a period ‘look’ for the cast but leave enough money over to promote the event.” Action you took “I approached local charity stores and offered to donate a proportion of our profits from the play if they would in return set aside for us any donated clothes that were appropriate for the image we were trying to create.” Results you achieved “The response from the charities was positive and we got three hats, two tuxes and enough feather boas to supply an ostrich farm… Our play was well-reviewed by the student newspapers and the costumes received a special mention. The downside was that our play just broke even, and we didn’t make any profit. But we were able to square that with the charities by giving them lots of free publicity.” STAR Analysis Example #2. Engineering Design Project: Problem Solving Situation or “A major part of the final year assessment for my degree is the Fourth Year Project. I chose to look at the issue of computer-based facial Task recognition. Developing a better technology for this process has many commercial applications. The challenge was to choose a technical solution with potential but to design a project that was feasible to complete given the short timescale involved.” Action you took “I decided to look at an image compression technology called complex wavelets. I wrote a computer programme that uses wavelets to synthesise image texture.” Results you achieved “I discovered that there are technical limitations to the computer algorithm I was using. Computer processing times were also very long, so it was difficult to collect enough data. However, I raised these problems in my project milestone report and received useful feedback from my lecturers. And the work I achieved can form the basis for further research in this area.” 39
  • STAR Analysis Example #3. Boat Club Cox: Persistence and Teamwork Situation or “I’d never tried coxing before or even been on a boat. So when I came to Cambridge, rowing was the last thing I thought I’d do. But then I Task was approached by some people from the college boat club and they encouraged me to get involved. Our boat was bottom of the division and the aim was to move up three or four places by the end of Bumps.” Action you took “We started training every morning at the crack of dawn, five or six days a week. It was tough, demanded a lot of concentration, and at first I had to nap in the afternoons to catch up on sleep … and once I coxed the boat straight into the bank! But I kept at it and made it to Bumps.” Results you achieved “We managed to move up two places. So we didn’t quite make our original goal, but we saved our pride. I learnt how to avoid hitting the bank. And I learnt a lot about teamwork.” About Behavioural Interviewing Many if not most formal job interviews these days rely on a technique known as “behavioural interviewing”. The basis for behavioural interviews is that past behaviour is a more accurate way of predicting future behaviour; far more accurate than simply asking interviewees to make general statements about their main achievements or their perceptions of what is required. In behavioural interviews, general statements are not enough to answer a question. Interviewees are expected to give specific examples of when they demonstrated a particular behaviour or skill. For example, a typical behavioural interviewing question is: “Tell me about a time where you experienced conflict in your job.” This question is designed to elicit information about how an interviewee actually handles workplace stress. Phrased differently, as “What is the best way to deal with conflict in the workplace?”, an answer would probably reveal an interviewee’s perceptions of ideal behaviour, but not his or her actual tendencies or attitude. Employers are not stupid: they know that interviewees are out to impress them. Interviewees will be on their best behaviour, and they are looking to give an employer the answers they think the employer wants to hear. The questions that behavioural interviewers ask are much more difficult to fudge or gloss over. 40
  • Some typical behavioural interviewing questions: Give me an example of a time when you set a goal and were able to meet or achieve it. Give me a specific example of a time when you had to conform to a policy with which you did not agree. Please discuss an important written document you were required to complete. Tell me about a time when you had to go above and beyond the call of duty in order to get a job done. Tell me about a time when you had too many things to do and you were required to prioritize your tasks. Tell me about a difficult decision you’ve made in the last year. Give me an example of a time when something you tried to accomplish and failed. Give me an example of when you showed initiative and took the lead. Tell me about a recent situation in which you had to deal with a very upset customer or co- worker. The good news is that it is perfectly possible to prepare for behavioural interviews. There are techniques that you can use to improve your ability to cope with the types of questions that behavioural interviewers ask—and what’s more, these will have benefits for all stages of a job application. PDP has specific methods to help you develop these skills. Participating in PDP, even at the level of once-a-year discussions with your Tutor, will develop your general self-awareness and your ability to reflect on your experience. This will in turn help you to write convincing application letters and to perform well in job interview situations. Or you can try using more formal PDP activities. For example, you might try to complete a self-appraisal, SWOT or STAR analysis when you start to work on a new job application (or set of applications), or before you attend an interview. This will help you to clarify your plans and expectations, and will show you which skill areas really stand out for you. You can also use the reflective questions list as a way to help you think about your overall perspective on careers. Whichever approach you choose to follow, is important to note that PDP is NOT about training you to rehearse a series of “set-piece” answers to be rattled off at interview. There is a high risk that you could appear fake and over-rehearsed if you were to do this. Moreover, this approach is ultimately counter-productive. It may sound cheesy, but employers really do want you to be honest about your skills and ambitions. It is in the interests of employers to ensure that their new recruits are a good match for their organisation. To be blunt, unhappy employees result in absenteeism 41
  • and low productivity, and this costs companies money. Many employers, particularly corporate recruiters, now rely on not one but a series of interviews. Frequently, this will include participation in work-based scenarios, where employers have the opportunity to see you put your words into practice. It is much harder to sustain an illusion over several interviews. Be honest, and save yourself the trouble. Tips for Dealing With Behavioural Interviews Think carefully before responding to a question. It is acceptable to ask for a few moments to collect your thoughts, so long as this does not result in lengthy silences. Be specific, not general or vague. Give examples of how you actually behaved in a given situation, not how you think you would behave. It’s a good idea to go into an interview, having prepared 6-8 examples of situations that you think demonstrate your skills. That will help you to avoid repeating yourself. Be honest. If you have no experience in a particular situation, say so. An effective follow-up would be to suggest that the skills you have acquired in a different area (returning to a specific experience, or experiences, and giving examples) may be relevant to dealing with that situation. This shows that you are flexible, and can think creatively. But keep it realistic. Recognise the conventions. Understand that questions in behavioural interviews are often phrased as statements, or leading questions. This does not mean that you are being asked to agree with the statement concerned. For example, your interviewees would be surprised to hear you agree with a statement such as “Managers tend to abuse their position of power, wouldn’t you agree?” Don’t get personal. If you are asked a “negative” question about former colleagues—for example, about communication problems and difficult colleagues—never get personal. Describe the person’s behaviour, but don’t label it. And don’t over-emphasise it. The recruiter is looking for examples of how you handle setbacks, not how “bad” that person was. Always talk about the efforts you made to overcome the negative situation. 42
  • Address the key issues. Before you leave the interview room, make sure that you have addressed the things that really matter to the employer. Almost all employers are looking to hire someone who possesses skills in the following five areas: Teamwork Leadership Adaptability Decision making Attention to detail If you reach the end of the interview, and you don’t think you’ve covered the key areas, use the question time to make sure that you have stated your main skills clearly and succinctly. Do your research. How do you know which skills are most important to the employer? Careful preparation before the interview. Look at the company website; read their literature; go to careers talks or fairs and talk to representatives; ask friends and family; use any contacts you may have; investigate similar companies. Further Resources on Careers, Job Applications, Interviews The Cambridge Careers Service has an extensive range of resources on careers, job applications, and interview preparation. In addition to careers fairs, job announcement lists and employer talks, they offer CV workshops, a professional network of Cambridge graduates, a mock interview service, and the opportunity to speak to qualified careers advisers. www.careers.cam.ac.uk/ The Quintessential Careers website has a series of excellent resources on Behavioural Interviewing, including this article by Katherine Hansen: www.quintcareers.com/behavioral_interviewing.html The University of Melbourne, Australia, has developed a helpful guide to preparing for behavioural interviews: www.services.unimelb.edu.au/careers/pdf/employment/behav.pdf 43
  • My Files
  • My Files Use your Personal Development Planner to keep files, notes and clippings relating to your personal development and skills development. The files you keep here will help to create a unique, personal record of your University experience. They will also help you to tailor your CV when it comes to making applications for jobs or further studies. It is up to you what you choose to include in this section. You may wish to consider: An up-to-date version of your CV Supervision Reports (printed from CamCORS) Copy of Student Transcript Sample of Work (e.g.: an essay, problem set, fieldwork writeup, design project etc.) Relevant photos Computer-based files (e.g. webpages you authored, extracts from your weblog, URLs, video, powerpoint presentations, computer scripts or programmes etc.) Training Record (a note of any courses, talks, and seminars you attended: e.g. languages, IT, exam skills etc.) Careers File (interesting job advertisements, employer info, application forms etc.) 45
  • Opportunities
  • Opportunities Cambridge is outstandingly rich in opportunities to help you build your skills and personal development. A host of organisations and programs are available to you within the Colleges and the broader University. Many, if not most, services are available free, or low-cost, to Cambridge students. It is important to take the broadest possible view of opportunities for skills development. Apart from the specific opportunities listed below, many Tripos courses contain skills development programmes that are built-in to the course structure. These programmes (often in the form of short courses, seminars, or workshops) are usually focused on helping you with your academic studies (e.g. technical or lab skills, report writing skills), but many will also be of relevance to your broader personal development. Major Skills Training and Support Organisations within the University: Careers Service www.careers.cam.ac.uk/ Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning www.entrepreneurs.jims.cam.ac.uk/ CMI – Cambridge-MIT Institute www.cambridge-mit.org/ Community Liaison Office www.clo.cam.ac.uk/community/ Computing Service www.cam.ac.uk/cs/ Counselling Service www.counselling.cam.ac.uk/ CUSU cususite.headporter.com/ Disability Resource Centre www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/disability/ Individual Cambridge Colleges www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/colleges.html Language Centre www.langcen.cam.ac.uk/ Volunteering at Cambridge www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/volunteering/info.html 47
  • Get Involved in Your Community Student outreach and volunteering programmes have an important role to play in bringing students’ valuable skills and experience to the wider community. Student volunteers at Cambridge have been involved in projects as diverse as: Training excluded young people in ice hockey skills Going to local schools to talk about geology or first aid Developing emergency shelters for disaster relief situations Helping out at a Saturday school for black and minority ethnic young people The skills acquired by recent student volunteers have included: media skills, first aid and health and safety, communication, project planning, practical engineering skills, language skills, financial planning, teamwork, and management skills! Student volunteers made the following comments about their experiences: “The tour was physically hard work and finding different ways of explaining the experiments to fit different groups of children was an ongoing challenge, but at the end of a fortnight I really felt we’d made a difference. There were whole families, often with parents who had not enjoyed science at school whose attitudes I think we significantly affected. All our volunteers do this because they enjoy it and think it is important. Several members of the society are looking to go into science communication as a career following on from experiences with CHAOS” (Cambridge Hands On Science) “They have learnt some of the barriers people with disabilities face” (Turning the Red Lights Green) 48
  • “All 6 students gained enormously. Obviously they gained in terms of the specific technical and managerial skills which were the focus of each project, but all of them emphasised how much they had gained in terms of personal self-confidence in managing to complete very demanding projects in cultural contexts which were completely new to them. All had a huge sense of achievement from their projects” (Institute for Manufacturing) “Taking part in Cambridge Science Festival is challenging to each individual who volunteers, as well as being extremely hard work. However, all volunteers reported finding the experience enjoyable and rewarding” (Botanic Gardens) 49
  • Opportunities: Skills and Personal Developement Directory Personal Development Skillls Skills for Personal and Professional Development SpringBoard - women’s development programme www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/personnel/staffdev/springboard/ MentorNet University reference page: www.bio.cam.ac.uk/women/biology.html MentorNet site (external to ucam): www.mentornet.net/ “Insight into Management”, the Careers Service/CRAC (Careers Research and Advisory Centre) residential course: www.careers.cam.ac.uk/Events/insight2004.asp Counselling Service “Learning to Be More Assertive” workshop: www.counselling.cam.ac.uk/groups.html Internship or Vacation Placements (educational / not-for-profit) – available through many student societies or charitable organisations, e.g. with Engineers Without Borders, www.ewb-uk.org/cambridge/ Academic Related Skillls Study Skills, Computing, Languages Training A.J. Pressland Fund language courses: www.langcen.cam.ac.uk/courses/courses.php Counselling Service “Can’t Work” Group: www.counselling.cam.ac.uk/groups.html Counselling Service Exam Stress workshop: www.counselling.cam.ac.uk/groups.html 50
  • Academic Related Skillls Study Skills, Computing, Languages Training (continued) CULP – Cambridge University Languages Programme: www.langcen.cam.ac.uk/courses/courses.php?c=1 CUSU Study Skills and Exam Skills workshops: http://cususite.headporter.com/cmsv1/index.php?section=cms&module=index&uni=1&page=312 English for Academic Purposes language course: www.langcen.cam.ac.uk/courses/courses.php?c=3 University Computing Service training courses: www.cam.ac.uk/cs/courses/ University Language Centre Conversation Exchange: www.langcen.cam.ac.uk/support/support.php?c=3 Academic Related Skillls Competitions, Debating, Research and Entrepreneurial Training UROP (Undergraduate Research Opportunities) Programme, Cambridge-MIT Institute: www.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/urop/ CMI Enterprisers, Cambridge-MIT Institute: www.cambridge-mit.org/cgi-bin/default.pl?SID=2&SSID=181 Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning (CfEL) Summer School: www.entrepreneurs.jims.cam.ac.uk/programmes/programmes.htm SET Awards (Science, Engineering and Technology Student of the Year): www.setawards.org/ 51
  • Academic Related Skillls (continued) Competitions, Debating, Research and Entrepreneurial Training Law Mooting: www.cambridgemooting.com/ Union Society Debating: www.cambridge-union.org/index.php?c=deb Extra-curricular and Experiential Learning Skills Development through Participation and Community Engagement Cambridge Student Societies CUSU: http://cususite.headporter.com/socs Student-Run Computing Facility (large–but partial—list of student societies websites): www.srcf.ucam.org/socs/ Community-based Learning and Volunteering Please note the following list is not comprehensive. Cambridge offers outstanding opportunities for volunteering and community participation. For further information please visit: http://www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/volunteering/info.html Non-Medical Assistants Scheme, Disability Resource Centre: www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/disability/about/nonmed.html CUED Outreach Volunteers (Engineering Dept): www.eng.cam.ac.uk/outreach/volunteers/index.html CUSU Community Development Campaign (“Get Involved in Your Community”): http://cususite.headporter.com/cmsv1/index.php?section=cms&module=index&uni=1&page=266 52
  • Extra-curricular and Experiential Learning Skills Development through Participation and Community Engagement (continued) CU Environmental Consulting Society Projects: www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cuecs/ Design Club, Faculty of Engineering: www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/designclub/ CONTACT – visiting service connecting students and older residents: www.srcf.ucam.org/contact/CONTACT/home.htm Linkline – student-run volunteer counselling service: www.linkline.org.uk/ ChaOS – Cambridge Hands-On Science: www.chaosscience.org.uk/pub/public_html/index.php CU First Aid Society (St John’s Ambulance LINKS group): www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cufas/ Millenium Maths Project (inc. AskNRICH, Stimulus, Hands-On Maths Roadshow): www.mmp.maths.org.uk/index.html Student-Run Computing Facility volunteers: www.srcf.ucam.org/ Exchange Programmes, Travel and Study Abroad - University exchange schemes Cambridge – MIT Exchange: web.mit.edu/cmi/ue/ Socrates-Erasmus Exchange: www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/ieo/intro.html 53
  • Exchange Programmes, Travel and Study Abroad - College exchange scheme Please note, this list is not comprehensive. Many other Colleges also run exchange programmes. If you are interested in going on a College-based exchange, please speak to your Tutor. Clare College: www.clare.cam.ac.uk/academic/handbook/links.html Emmanuel College: www.emma.cam.ac.uk/teaching/jobs/harvard/ New Hall: www.newhall.cam.ac.uk/Admissions/travel.htm Selwyn: www.admin.cam.ac.uk/univ/gsprospectus/colleges/selwyn.html Trinity College: www.trin.cam.ac.uk/index.php?pageid=136 Exchange Programmes, Travel and Study Abroad - Subject-specific exchanges Law Cambridge-Harvard Exchange scheme for Law students: www.law.cam.ac.uk/news/news.php?news_cat=1&article=121 Double Maîtrise course (Law): www.law.cam.ac.uk/courses/view_index.php?course=2&tripos=0&subjects=1 Manufacturing Engineering ESTIEM (European Students of Industrial Engineering and Management) summer placement: www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/estiem/frames.html 54
  • University funds for travel and study abroad Please note, in addition to the following organisations, the Colleges generally offer student travel funds. If you are interested in obtaining funding for European or overseas travel and / or study abroad, please speak to your Tutor. Cambridge European Trust: www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/ieo/intro.html Cambridge Philosophical Society Travel Awards: www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cps/studentship.htm#travel Charlie Bayne Travel Fund for disabled students: www.cam.ac.uk/cambuniv/disability/students/funds.html#cbtg Gladstone Memorial Trust: www.amtp.cam.ac.uk/user/mrep/gladstone/glad2003.html Kurt Hahn Trust: www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/ieo/intro.html Special issue of the Cambridge University Reporter, “Awards, Funds, Studentships and Prizes” – the weblink gives an example of what was available in 2004-2005: www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/2004-05/special/06/ 55
  • Resource directory
  • Resource Directory The Guide has drawn on the following resources: Books Jennifer Moon, 1999, Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: Theory and Practice (London: Kogan Page). Donald Schön, 1991. The Reflective Turn: Case Studies In and On Educational Practice (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University). James R. Zull, 2002, The Art of Changing the Brain (Sterling, VA: Stylus). Publications and Reports “Careers, Transferable Skills, Progress Files: Guidance for Tutors”, 2003, Senior Tutors’ Committee, University of Cambridge. “Community Engagement Report, 2003-2004”, 2004, University of Cambridge. David Gough et. al, 2003, “A Systematic Map and Synthesis Review of the Effectiveness of Personal Development Planning for Improving Student Learning.” The EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Funded by the Generic Centre of the LTSN. The Keynote Project 2002, The Nottingham Trent University, The London Institute and The University of Leeds. Funded under the Fund for the Development of Teaching and Learning by the Higher Education Funding Council for England and the Department for Employment and Learning. “Making the Most of your Year Abroad: The Personal Development Portfolio”, 2003, French Department, University of Liverpool. “Undergraduate Skills Record,” 2002, ed. by Kristy MacDonald, Royal Society of Chemistry. “Widening Horizons: Progress File Achievement Planner”, 2002, DfES. 57
  • Websites Helen Barrett, electronicportfolios.org. http://electronicportfolios.org/ Centre for Recording Achievement. www.recordingachievement.org/ Careers Service, University of Cambridge. www.careers.cam.ac.uk/ Careers Services at Virginia Polytechnic and State University. www.career.vt.edu/JOBSEARC/interview/Behavioral.htm Nottingham Law School, The University of Nottingham. www.ukcle.ac.uk/resources/reflection/ching.html “Questions to Think About”, Career Center, Tennessee State University: www.tnstate.edu/careers/info7.htm Quintessential Careers: www.quintcareers.com/ 58
  • Credits The Personal Development Planning (PDP) Project is sponsored by the Senior Tutors’ Education Standing Committee, and was managed by the Education Section of the Academic Division, University of Cambridge. The PDP Project was funded under the Teaching Quality Enhancement Fund by the Higher Educational Funding Council for England. For more information, contact: Catherine Howell Centre for Applied Research in Educational Technologies (CARET) 16 Mill Lane Cambridge CB2 1SB Telephone: 01223 765040 Email: info@caret.cam.ac.uk Web: www.caret.cam.ac.uk/ © University of Cambridge 2005