Material handling leturer

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  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)
  • Material Handling (OPM)

Transcript

  • 1. 1 MATERIAL HANDLING Cervical Thoracic Lumbar
  • 2. 2 Material Handling • Material handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost. OR • Material handling is the art and science involving the movement, handling and storage of materials during different stages of manufacturing.
  • 3. 3 Goals/Objectives of Material Handling • The primary goal is to reduce unit costs of production • Maintain or improve product quality, reduce damage of materials • Promote safety and improve working conditions • Promote productivity – material should flow in a straight line – use gravity! It is free power – move more material at one time – mechanize material handling – automate material handling – Reduce manufacturing cycle time – Reduce work in progress (WIP) – Reduce Labour cost handling – Achieve better control of flow of materials
  • 4. 4 Goals of Material Handling • Promote increased use of facilities • Reduce tare weight (dead weight) • Control inventory • Increase productivity • Better personnel utilization • Improve system control • Improve customer services
  • 5. 5 Significance of Material Handling • It is an essential part of every manufacturing operation • It consumes a major share of the time involved in the operation. • Cost generally accounts for 20-25 % of total cost of conversion process. • It influence the efficiency and cost manufacturing • Increase productivity and improving cash flow • Improvement in handling means faster production, higher plant capacity, lower stock in process, less damage to the product and components in each stage.
  • 6. 6 Overview of Material Handling Equipment • Material handling equipment includes: – Transport Equipment: industrial trucks, Automated Guided vehicles (AGVs), monorails, conveyors, cranes and hoists. – Storage Systems: bulk storage, rack systems, shelving and bins, drawer storage, automated storage systems. – Unitizing Equipment: palletizers – Identification and Tracking systems
  • 7. 7 Considerations in Material Handling System Design 1. Material Characteristics Category Measures Physical state Size Weight Shape Condition Safety risk and risk of damage Solid, liquid, or gas Volume; length, width, height Weight per piece, weight per unit volume Long and flat, round, square, etc. Hot, cold, wet, etc. Explosive, flammable, toxic; fragile, etc.
  • 8. 8 Considerations …cont. 2. Flow rate Manual handling Hand trucks Powered trucks Unit load AGV Conveyors Conveyors AGV trainHigh Low LongShort Move Distance Quantity of material moved
  • 9. 9 Considerations …cont. 3. Plant Layout Layout Type Characteristics Typical MH Equipment Fixed – position Process Product Large product size, low production rate Variation in product and processing, low and medium production rates Limited product variety, high production rate Cranes, hoists, industrial trucks Hand trucks, forklift trucks, AGVs Conveyors for product flow, trucks to deliver components to stations.
  • 10. 10 20 Principles of Material Handling 1. The Planning Principle: – Large-scale material handling projects usually require a team approach. – Material handling planning considers every move, every storage need, and any delay in order to minimize production costs. – The plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization as well as the more immediate needs. – Material should be placed on support and not the floor directly. – Provide sufficient storage space at the work-place. – Plan for scrap removal means – Minimize movement of men and material
  • 11. 11 2. The systems principle: MH and storage activities should be fully integrated to form a coordinated, operational system that spans receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly, …, shipping, and the handling of returns. – Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities. – Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products, for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain. – Integrated activities into the handling system – Material flow between work areas be planned.
  • 12. 12 3. Simplification principle – simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, or combining unnecessary movement and/or equipment. – Reduce variety of equipment – Eliminate rehandling – Four questions to ask to simplify any job: • Can this job be eliminated? • If we can’t eliminate, can we combine movements to reduce cost? (unit load concept) • If we can’t eliminate or combine, can we rearrange the operations to reduce the travel distance? • If we can’t do any of the above, can we simplify?
  • 13. 13 4. Material Flow Principle: Material flow pattern must be determined be operation sequence and pattern of equipment arrangement. Implementation activities: • Avoid overcrowding • Eliminate obstacle in the flow • Move in the direct path and avoid backtracking • Minimize movements between floors and buildings • Plan proper location of sub-assemblies • Plan related work areas close together
  • 14. 14 5. Gravity principle: Utilize gravity to move material whenever practical. –Use slides, hoppers etc. 6. Use Size Principle: Increase size, quantity, weights of the load handled. Since larger the load, lesser will be the cost per unit handled. Implementation activities: Handle unit loads Use containers Use standardized containers and pallets
  • 15. 15 7. Space utilization principle: – The better we use our building cube, the less space we need to buy or rent. – Racks, mezzanines, and overhead conveyors are a few examples that promote this goal. – Equipment for work area may be kept in reasonably close position. – Inventory at temporary stores must not kept too much. – Dispose obsolete or scrape items in time. – Utilise height of building and use rack to permit higher stocking.
  • 16. 16 8. Safety principle:  Provide adequate guards and other safety devices  Handling equipment should be kept in good operating condition  Highlight danger areas  Emergencies switches or controls be provided  Keep floor clean  Provide good housekeeping 9. Mechanization Principle  Replace access manual handling  Moving heavy containers  Design containers suitable for mechanical handling
  • 17. 17 10. Flexibility Principle: Buy versatile and flexible equipment Cost per unit to be handled should be compared Utilise accessories and attachments 11. Equipment Selection Principle: Why? What? Where? When? How? Who? Select Equipment very carefully considering all aspects of materials, movements and the methods Implementation activities: •Select versatile equipment •Cost per unit to be handled should be compared •Equipment should be economical on long term basis
  • 18. 18 12. Standardization Principle: Equipments and methods should be standardized Implementation activities: • Standardize the equipment, containers etc. • Standardized methods • Trained employees 13. Light Weight Principle: Reduce Weight of equipment: • Equipment should have less dead weight to pay load ratio • Use light weights pallets skids and containers.
  • 19. 19 14. Motion Principle: The handling principle should be kept in motion i.e minimum period of loading and unloading. Implementation: • Reduce loading/unloading time • Use mechanical means of loading/unloading 15. Idle-time Principle: Reduce idle and unproductive time. • To avoid idle manpower, deliver material at a desired rate. • Do not use productive labour for handling • Equipment should be fully utilised.
  • 20. 20 16. Obsolescence principle (Out of date): Obsolete methods and equipments be replaced by efficient methods and equipment. 17. The maintenance principle: – Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment. – Pallets and storage facilities need repair too. – Regular maintenance schedule – Trained operator for proper operation and maintenance
  • 21. 21 18. Control Principle: Control production and inventory materials handling equipment • Provide direct mechanical paths for material movement • Materials should be moved in predetermined quantity and size. • Material should be moved as per schedule. 19. The capacity principle: – use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity i.e. material handling equipment can help to maximize production equipment utilization. – Ensure uniform desire rate of flow
  • 22. 22 • Equipment be operated at optimum rate. • Utilise overhead space • Store items not affected by weather 20. Performance Principle: Performance of handling be measured in terms of cost per unit handled, safe working condition, increase in production rate or reduce manpower for handling.
  • 23. 23 Basis of Selection of Material Handling Equipments: 1. Material to be Handled 2. Nature of Operations 3. Equipment Reliability 4. Distance over which the material is to be moved 5. Installation and operating costs 6. Engineering Factors 7. Plant Facility 8. Safety Consideration
  • 24. 24 Types of Material Handling Equipment: Material handling equipments are classified under the following headings: a) Manual b) Powered Another classification is based on the paths followed by material. They may be A) Fixed path equipments: elevators, conveyors, wire-guided AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle) etc. B) Variable path equipments: Trolley, trucks, free-ranging AGV etc.
  • 25. 25 Material Handling Equipment Material handling equipment (MHE) is used for the movement and storage of material within a facility or at a site. MHE can be classified into the following five major categories: •Transport Equipment. Equipment used to move material from one location to another (e.g., between workplaces, between a loading dock and a storage area, etc.). The major subcategories of transport equipment are conveyors, cranes, and industrial trucks. Material can also be transported manually using no equipment. •Positioning Equipment. Equipment used to handle material at a single location so that it is in the correct position for subsequent handling, machining, transport, or storage. Unlike transport equipment, positioning equipment is usually used for handling at a single workplace. Material can also be positioned manually using no equipment. •Unit Load Formation Equipment. Equipment used to restrict materials so that they maintain their integrity when handled a single load during transport and for storage. If materials are self-restraining (e.g., a single part or interlocking parts), then they can be formed into a unit load with no equipment.
  • 26. 26 • Storage Equipment. Equipment used for holding or buffering materials over a period of time. Some storage equipment may include the transport of materials (e.g., the S/R machines of an AS/RS, or storage carousels). If materials are block stacked directly on the floor, then no storage equipment is required. • Identification and Control Equipment. Equipment used to collect and communicate the information that is used to coordinate the flow of materials within a facility and between a facility and its suppliers and customers. The identification of materials and associated control can be performed manually with no specialized equipment.
  • 27. 27 I. Transport Equipment A. Conveyors 1. Wheel conveyor 2. Roller conveyor 3. Chain conveyor 4. Slat conveyor 5. Flat belt conveyor 6. Magnetic belt conveyor 7. Troughed belt conveyor 8. Bucket conveyor 9. Vibrating conveyor 1. Screw conveyor 2. Pneumatic conveyor 3. Vertical conveyor 4. Cart-on-track conveyor 5. Tow conveyor 6. Trolley conveyor 7. Power-and-free conveyor 8. Monorail 9. Sortation conveyor
  • 28. 28 B. Cranes 1. Jib crane 2. Bridge crane 3. Gantry crane 4. Stacker crane C. Industrial Trucks 1.Hand truck 2.Pallet jack 3.Walkie stacker 4.Pallet truck 5.Platform truck 6.Counterbalanced lift truck 7.Narrow-aisle straddle truck 1.Narrow-aisle reach truck 2.Turret truck 3.Order picker 4.Sideloader 5.Tractor-trailer 6.Personnel and burden carrier 7.Automatic guided vehicle (AGV)
  • 29. 29 II. Positioning Equipment 1.Manual (no equipment) 2.Lift/tilt/turn table 3.Dock leveler 4.Ball transfer table 5.Rotary index table 6.Parts feeder 1.Air film device 2.Hoist 3.Balancer 4.Manipulator 5.Industrial robot III. Unit Load Formation Equipment 1.Self-restraining (no equipment) 2.Pallets 3.Skids 4.Slipsheets 5.Tote pans 6.Pallet boxes/skid boxes 7.Bins/baskets/racks 8.Cartons 1.Bags 2.Bulk load containers 3.Crates 4.Intermodal containers 5.Strapping/tape/glue 6.Shrink-wrap/stretch-wrap 7.Palletizers
  • 30. 30 IV. Storage Equipment 1.Block stacking (no equipment) 2.Selective pallet rack 3.Drive-through rack 4.Drive-in rack 5.Flow-through rack 6.Push-back rack 7.Sliding rack 1.Cantilever rack 2.Stacking frame 3.Shelves/bins/drawers 4.Storage carousel 5.Automatic storage/ retrieval systems 6.Split case order picking system 7.Mezzanine V. Identification and Communication Equipment 1.Manual (no equipment) 2.Bar codes 3.Radio frequency (RF) tag 4.Magnetic stripe 1.Machine vision 2.Portable data terminal 3.Electronic data interchange (EDI)/Internet
  • 31. 31 Wheel Conveyor Gravity Roller Conveyor Live (Powered) Roller Conveyor
  • 32. 32 Chain Conveyor Flat Belt Conveyor Magnetic Belt Conveyor
  • 33. 33 Screw Conveyor Vertical Lift Conveyor
  • 34. 34 Reciprocating Vertical Conveyor Trolley Conveyor
  • 35. 35 Two-Wheeled Hand Truck Dolly Floor Hand Truck
  • 36. 36 Pallet Jack Powered Pallet Jack Sit-Down Counterbalanced Lift Truck
  • 37. 37 Mini Lift
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 41 Intermodal Containers
  • 42. 42 Q1. Define the term Material Handling and state its objective. Q2. What factor must be taken into consideration in the selection of material handling equipment? Q.3. Define material handling and also state its various principles? Q4. Material handling and plant layout are complementary to each other? Discuss the statement.