Wellcome Trust and the author pays model


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Wellcome Trust expereince with the open access author pays model

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  • Bioinformatics – cost *&% - without OA would have been £1231
  • Wellcome Trust and the author pays model

    1. 1. Wellcome Trust and open access: experience with author-pays model ASA Conference 21 st February 2011 Robert Kiley, Head Digital Services, Wellcome Library, Wellcome Trust (r.kiley@wellcome.ac.uk)
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Overview of the Trust’s OA policy and how researchers can comply </li></ul><ul><li>Consider levels of compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Changing landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Report on results form a small “author-pays” study </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Wellcome Trust <ul><li>Independent charity; UK’s largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research </li></ul><ul><li>Spends £600 million p.a. in the UK & internationally on our mission; supporting and promoting research to improve human and animal health </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to improve understanding of the ways science & medicine have developed, & how research affects people and society today </li></ul><ul><li>More information at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk </li></ul>
    4. 4. OA at the Wellcome Trust: policy All research papers – funded in whole or in part by the Wellcome Trust – must be made freely accessible from the PubMed Central and UKPMC repositories as soon as possible, and in any event within six months of the journal publisher’s official date of final publication
    5. 5. How to comply with Trust’s OA mandate? <ul><li>Route 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish in a open access/hybrid journal if available – preferred route (and often the only route) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When fee paid, publisher must deposit “Version of record” into PMC at time of publication, and attach a licence allowing re-use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Route 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Route 1 is not available, self-archive the author manuscript (including changes from peer review process) and make that available from PMC & UKPMC within 6 months of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a publisher offers neither route then: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author can suggest revision to the journal’s copyright agreement – boilerplate language provided on our website – and see if the publisher will accept this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for an alternative publisher </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Funding to support mandate <ul><li>Trust believes that dissemination costs are research costs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides funding to cover OA costs when publisher provides the following service: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deposits the final version of article in PMC on behalf of author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>article is made available at the time of publication (no embargo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>article is licensed in ways that allows re-use </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Working with publishers <ul><li>Trust has worked with all the major STM publishers – encouraging them to develop “Wellcome-compliant” OA options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2009, 98% of papers – attributed to the Trust – were published in journals that had a “Wellcome compliant” policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Looking to simplify process for authors to select an OA option </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to make explicit the relationship between subscription costs and uptake of OA option </li></ul>Figure 1: OA integrated into workflow Figure 2: Follow-up campaign
    8. 8. Providing infrastructure to support mandate <ul><li>Established UKPMC – with 7 other UK research funders </li></ul><ul><li>At its core UKPMC provides functionality for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>publishers to deposit papers (via PMC) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authors to self-archive papers </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Fact extraction from text mining Questions generated in response to query
    10. 10. Compliance? – around 50% <ul><li>Significant increase from 2006 – but still a long way to go… </li></ul>Compliance with Wellcome OA mandate
    11. 11. Author pays model & the changing landscape <ul><li>The Trust believes the publisher adds value to the research process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wellcome only meet OA costs if publisher provides the full suite of services (e.g. deposition in PMC, no embargo, full re-use licence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid titles: increasing uptake of this model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OUP: 11.4% uptake in 2009 (up from 11.2%) Source Bioinformatics – 31% (2010); 25% (2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPG’s Nature Communication hybrid option – 40% of articles are published under the OA option </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full OA journals: increasing in number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raft of new OA titles announced including Scientific Reports , Springer Open , SageOpen, BMJOpen , Wiley OA journals…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLoS One published 6749 articles in 2010 making it the largest peer review journal on the planet! </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Author pays model: double payment with hybrid titles? <ul><li>Is there risk of “double payment” – subscriptions and author fees? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes (but is this new? e.g. page charges, colour plates etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are subscription costs sensitive to OA payments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2009 Oxford Journals average journal price increase was by 6.7%; for Oxford Open titles the average increase was 4.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Society : From 2012 we shall implement a new and more transparent pricing policy in which the price of each journal is tied to the number of non-open access articles published in that journal… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPG 2012 site license pricing for hybrid open access journals will be determined by the percentage change in the amount of subscription access articles (2010 versus 2009 content). This means the subscription price will be based on only the amount of subscribed content, independent of the open access content. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Small study of the author pays model: Wellcome experience <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what the total spend might be for Wellcome Trust if all papers were routed through the author pays model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertain the average and median costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check that publishers were making these papers fully OA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked at papers, attributed to Wellcome Trust, and published in the last quarter of 2010, that were already available in UKPMC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By focussing on articles published within last 3 months – the core set should, in the main, be made-up of “author pays” papers (e.g. self archiving typically takes place after 6 months) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Baseline numbers 188 Total number of unique journals 33% “ Immediate compliance” [This is lower than the 50% figure, as this study is looking at papers with a zero month embargo. This figure suggests that about 66% of Wellcome papers that adhere with mandate are made freely available at the time of publication ] 42 Total number of unique publishers 460 Total number of these papers already available in UKPMC (in January 2011) 1413 Total number of papers in PubMed, attributed to Wellcome Trust funding (Oct 1 st 2010 – Dec 31 st 2010)
    15. 15. Where was this research published: full OA journal, hybrid journal or other? N=460
    16. 16. Most used publishers (with OA option ) Top 10 publishers (by volume) constitute 83% of the Wellcome Trust output “ Other” constitutes 32 other publishers
    17. 17. Most used journals (with an OA option) Top 10 journals (by volume) constitute 43% of the Wellcome Trust output Hybrid titles
    18. 18. Author–pays: costs $3,000 Mode (excl. VAT) $2,250 Median (excl. VAT) $2,367 Average cost per paper (excl. VAT) $1,041,645 Total spend of APC’s for these 440 articles (excl. VAT) 440/460 (95%) Total number of articles in cohort that attracted an author-side payment
    19. 19. Distribution of costs
    20. 20. Author–pays costs: extrapolated total costs for Wellcome Trust Note: These figures assumes all journals offer an OA option, that this option is used by the author, and Wellcome picks up 100% of costs, even when other funders support the research. 1.25% % spend on OA costs as ratio of total research spend $945m Trust research spend in 09-10 (£586m) $11.8m Total projected cost to Trust (5000 x $2154) $2,367 Average cost per paper (excl. VAT) 5000 Total number of papers attributed to Trust in typical year
    21. 21. Can the author-pays model apply outside of STM funded research? <ul><li>Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>SageOpen - new open access publication in the social sciences, behavioural sciences, and humanities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APC of $695 (currently discounted to $195), a significantly lower fee that the rates used by STM publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as other STM publishers followed the lead of PLoS and BMC, might other humanities publishers will follow Sage? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing number of institutions setting up “central funds” to cover OA costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard (HOPE) + 13 other members of Compact for OA publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the UK 8 institutions have central fund (Pinfield) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other institutions include Lund, Tromso etc have established OA funds </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Growing momentum for OA publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Growing recognition of the benefits of OA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOAP study showed that over 90% of researchers in the biological sciences believe that research would benefit from OA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More funding available to meet APC’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wellcome model; direct & indirect costs; central funds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>APC fees beginning to fall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New OA titles setting lower APC’s than hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Reports ($1350) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BMJOpen ($1500) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SpringerOpen ($1065-$1730) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a funder like Wellcome, OA fees likely to represent around 1.25% of our research spend </li></ul></ul>