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Scientific Method

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    Scientific Method Scientific Method Presentation Transcript

    • Scientific Method How Scientists Do Science
    • Science is
      • A process of Discovery
      • Determining Cause and Effect
    • How does this work?
      • Watch out for BOLD vocabulary words!
    • Scientific Method
      • Observation – uses 5 senses, a fact
      • Inference – Why do I think (what ever I observed) happened?
      • Hypothesis – Statement of reasonable guess what happened
        • “ If….then….”
    • Scientific Method (cont.)
      • Controlled Experiment – way of testing the hypothesis/guess
        • More on this….
      • Conclusion – seeing if the data from the experiment agrees with the hypothesis
        • It’s ok if it doesn’t!
    • Lets put Science into Action
      • Observation
      • Inference
      • Hypothesis
      • Controlled Experiment
      • Conclusion
    • Controlled Experiment
      • The heart of science
      • Eliminates other causes so we can link a single cause with a single event.
    • Controlled Experiment
      • Hypothesis: If the water is polluted , then the fish will die .
        • Cause: Pollution
        • Effect: Death
      • Set up 2 groups to test the hypothesis
        • Control Group : Normal Conditions
          • No pollution in the water
        • Experimental Group : Change one thing
          • Put pollution in the water
    • Controlled Experiment
      • Independent Variable – What have I changed?
        • Presence or absense of pollution
      • Dependent Variable – What will I measure ?
        • Number of dead fish
    • Controlled Experiment Synonyms Ex Fish Deaths Effect Responding Variable Dependent Variable Ex. Pollution Cause Manipulated Variable Independent Variable
    • Other parts of an experiment
      • Controlled Variables – all the other stuff that could effect the experiment.
      • This has to be kept the same between the experimental and control groups.
    • Data – Chart form 20 live fish, 30 dead fish Pollution 43 live fish, 2 dead fish No Pollution Dependent Variable Independent Variable
    • Data – Graph form X axis – Independent Variable – Quantity of Pollution Y axis – Dependent Variable – Number of live fish
      • We will spend more time on graphing as it is ALWAYS on the Regents…and also on your test.
    • Use the Data to draw a Conclusion
      • Hypothesis: If the water is polluted , then the fish will die .
      • Does the data agree (confirm) or disagree (refute) our hypothesis?
      • It is ok to disprove a hypothesis. What else might be going on?
    • Are there any new questions that could be asked? Creative Thinking is Key! Be Curious About the World
    • Science builds on prior knowledge
      • There is always more to learn!
      Experiment Experiment New questions New Questions New Experiment New Experiment More new Questions More New Questions More new questions More new questions
    • A few more terms
      • Theory – an accumulated body of knowledge that is well tested and unifies a broad range of observations
        • Gene-Chromosome Theory of Genetics
        • Cell Theory of Life
        • Evolutionary Theory
      • Law – an accepted fact
        • Law of Gravity