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Scientific Method

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  • 1. Scientific Method How Scientists Do Science
  • 2. Science is
    • A process of Discovery
    • Determining Cause and Effect
  • 3. How does this work?
  • 4.
    • Watch out for BOLD vocabulary words!
  • 5. Scientific Method
    • Observation – uses 5 senses, a fact
    • Inference – Why do I think (what ever I observed) happened?
    • Hypothesis – Statement of reasonable guess what happened
      • “ If….then….”
  • 6. Scientific Method (cont.)
    • Controlled Experiment – way of testing the hypothesis/guess
      • More on this….
    • Conclusion – seeing if the data from the experiment agrees with the hypothesis
      • It’s ok if it doesn’t!
  • 7. Lets put Science into Action
    • Observation
    • Inference
    • Hypothesis
    • Controlled Experiment
    • Conclusion
  • 8. Controlled Experiment
    • The heart of science
    • Eliminates other causes so we can link a single cause with a single event.
  • 9. Controlled Experiment
    • Hypothesis: If the water is polluted , then the fish will die .
      • Cause: Pollution
      • Effect: Death
    • Set up 2 groups to test the hypothesis
      • Control Group : Normal Conditions
        • No pollution in the water
      • Experimental Group : Change one thing
        • Put pollution in the water
  • 10. Controlled Experiment
    • Independent Variable – What have I changed?
      • Presence or absense of pollution
    • Dependent Variable – What will I measure ?
      • Number of dead fish
  • 11. Controlled Experiment Synonyms Ex Fish Deaths Effect Responding Variable Dependent Variable Ex. Pollution Cause Manipulated Variable Independent Variable
  • 12. Other parts of an experiment
    • Controlled Variables – all the other stuff that could effect the experiment.
    • This has to be kept the same between the experimental and control groups.
  • 13. Data – Chart form 20 live fish, 30 dead fish Pollution 43 live fish, 2 dead fish No Pollution Dependent Variable Independent Variable
  • 14. Data – Graph form X axis – Independent Variable – Quantity of Pollution Y axis – Dependent Variable – Number of live fish
  • 15.
    • We will spend more time on graphing as it is ALWAYS on the Regents…and also on your test.
  • 16. Use the Data to draw a Conclusion
    • Hypothesis: If the water is polluted , then the fish will die .
    • Does the data agree (confirm) or disagree (refute) our hypothesis?
    • It is ok to disprove a hypothesis. What else might be going on?
  • 17. Are there any new questions that could be asked? Creative Thinking is Key! Be Curious About the World
  • 18. Science builds on prior knowledge
    • There is always more to learn!
    Experiment Experiment New questions New Questions New Experiment New Experiment More new Questions More New Questions More new questions More new questions
  • 19. A few more terms
    • Theory – an accumulated body of knowledge that is well tested and unifies a broad range of observations
      • Gene-Chromosome Theory of Genetics
      • Cell Theory of Life
      • Evolutionary Theory
    • Law – an accepted fact
      • Law of Gravity