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Scientific Method

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  • 1. Scientific Method How Scientists Do Science
  • 2. Science is  A process of Discovery  Determining Cause and Effect
  • 3. How does this work?
  • 4. Watch out for BOLD vocabulary words!
  • 5. Scientific Method 1. Observation – uses 5 senses, a fact 2. Inference – Why do I think (what ever I observed) happened? 3. Hypothesis – Statement of reasonable guess what happened  “If….then….”
  • 6. Scientific Method (cont.) 4. Controlled Experiment – way of testing the hypothesis/guess  More on this…. 4. Conclusion – seeing if the data from the experiment agrees with the hypothesis  It’s ok if it doesn’t!
  • 7. Lets put Science into Action  Observation  Inference  Hypothesis  Controlled Experiment  Conclusion
  • 8. Controlled Experiment  The heart of science  Eliminates other causes so we can link a single cause with a single event.
  • 9. Controlled Experiment  Hypothesis: If the water is polluted, then the fish will die.  Cause: Pollution  Effect: Death  Set up 2 groups to test the hypothesis  Control Group: Normal Conditions  No pollution in the water  Experimental Group: Change one thing  Put pollution in the water
  • 10. Controlled Experiment  Independent Variable – What have I changed?  Presence or absense of pollution  Dependent Variable – What will I measure?  Number of dead fish
  • 11. Controlled Experiment Synonyms Independent Variable Manipulated Variable Cause Ex. Pollution Dependent Variable Responding Variable Effect Ex Fish Deaths
  • 12. Other parts of an experiment  Controlled Variables – all the other stuff that could effect the experiment.  This has to be kept the same between the experimental and control groups.
  • 13. Data – Chart form Independent Variable Dependent Variable No Pollution 43 live fish, 2 dead fish Pollution 20 live fish, 30 dead fish
  • 14. Data – Graph form X axis – Independent Variable – Quantity of Pollution Yaxis–DependentVariable– Numberoflivefish
  • 15. We will spend more time on graphing as it is ALWAYS on the Regents…and also on your test.
  • 16. Use the Data to draw a Conclusion  Hypothesis: If the water is polluted, then the fish will die.  Does the data agree (confirm) or disagree (refute) our hypothesis?  It is ok to disprove a hypothesis. What else might be going on?
  • 17. Are there any new questions that could be asked? Creative Thinking is Key! Be Curious About the World
  • 18. Science builds on prior knowledge There is always more to learn! Experiment Experiment New questions New Questions New Experiment New Experiment More new Questions More New Questions More new questions More new questions
  • 19. A few more terms  Theory – an accumulated body of knowledge that is well tested and unifies a broad range of observations  Gene-Chromosome Theory of Genetics  Cell Theory of Life  Evolutionary Theory  Law – an accepted fact  Law of Gravity