Chemistry Notes
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Transcript

  • 1. Chemistry Fundamentals Life is Chemical
  • 2. Atoms vs Molecules
    • Smallest unit of matter is the Atom or the Molecule
      • Atoms have only 1 element
      • Molecules have more than 1 kind of element joined together chemically
  • 3. Periodic Table of the Elements
    • Single type of atom
    • 92 naturally occurring, humans have made a few more
  • 4. Atomic Symbols
    • 1 or 2 letters representing the atom
      • C – Carbon
      • H – Hydrogen
      • O – Oxygen
      • N – Nitrogen
    • Most commonly occurring elements in Biology!
  • 5. Molecule
    • Various types of atoms joined together to make a substance that does not resemble the two elements
    • Hydrogen – gas
    • Oxygen – gas
    • Water - liquid
  • 6. Representing Molecules
    • Chemical Formula use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a compound
    • H 2 O
    • Structural Formula uses chemical symbols and lines to represent
      • a compound
  • 7. Ex: Glucose
    • Chemical Formula C 6 H 12 O 6
    • Structural Formula
  • 8. Chemical Bonds
    • Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or trading electrons and forming links between them.
  • 9. Bonding
    • Chemical bonds are very stable
      • Forming a bond stores energy
      • Breaking a bond releases energy
    • KEY IDEA!!!
  • 10. Octet Rule
    • The number of bonds depends on the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell
    • Valence Electrons = Those electrons in the outermost shell/ring of the atom
    • All atoms like to form an octet (exception of Hydrogen,which likes 2)
  • 11. Octet Rule Practice 5 Nitrogen 6 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 4 Carbon # bonds? # needed? # Valence Electrons Element
  • 12. Biochemistry Chemistry of Biology
  • 13. Organic Vs Inorganic Molecules
    • Organic Molecules – occur in living things
    • Generally larger and more complicated in shape than inorganic molecules
    • Always have Carbon & Hydrogen
    • Usually have Oxygen
    • Sometimes have Nitrogen
    • CHON
  • 14. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 15. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 16. Protein
  • 17. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 18. Carbohydrates
  • 19. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 20. Lipid
  • 21. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fatty Acids
  • 22. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fats
  • 23. Four types of Organic Molecules DNA Phosphate, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogen base 3 parts Information Storage “blueprints” Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 24. Nucleic Acid
  • 25. DNA
  • 26. Making Chains DNA Nucleic Acid Starch Carbohydrate Protein Amino Acid Chain Single Unit
  • 27. Monomer vs Polymer
  • 28. Monomer vs Polymer Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Polysaccharide or Starch Carbohydrate Polypeptide or Protein Amino Acid Polymer (Long Chain) Monomer (Single Unit)
  • 29. Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
  • 30.
    • Dehydration Synthesis
      • Remove water to form long chains
        • Simple sugars into starches
    • Hydrolysis
      • Add water to break chains
        • Polysaccharides into monosaccharides
  • 31. Lipids: A Special Case
    • Not a polymer, but still use dehydration synthesis.
  • 32.