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Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
Chemistry Notes
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Chemistry Notes

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  • 1. Chemistry Fundamentals Life is Chemical
  • 2. Atoms vs Molecules <ul><li>Smallest unit of matter is the Atom or the Molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms have only 1 element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules have more than 1 kind of element joined together chemically </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Periodic Table of the Elements <ul><li>Single type of atom </li></ul><ul><li>92 naturally occurring, humans have made a few more </li></ul>
  • 4. Atomic Symbols <ul><li>1 or 2 letters representing the atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C – Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H – Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O – Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N – Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most commonly occurring elements in Biology! </li></ul>
  • 5. Molecule <ul><li>Various types of atoms joined together to make a substance that does not resemble the two elements </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen – gas </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen – gas </li></ul><ul><li>Water - liquid </li></ul>
  • 6. Representing Molecules <ul><li>Chemical Formula use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a compound </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula uses chemical symbols and lines to represent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a compound </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Ex: Glucose <ul><li>Chemical Formula C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula </li></ul>
  • 8. Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or trading electrons and forming links between them. </li></ul>
  • 9. Bonding <ul><li>Chemical bonds are very stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming a bond stores energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking a bond releases energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KEY IDEA!!! </li></ul>
  • 10. Octet Rule <ul><li>The number of bonds depends on the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell </li></ul><ul><li>Valence Electrons = Those electrons in the outermost shell/ring of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms like to form an octet (exception of Hydrogen,which likes 2) </li></ul>
  • 11. Octet Rule Practice 5 Nitrogen 6 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 4 Carbon # bonds? # needed? # Valence Electrons Element
  • 12. Biochemistry Chemistry of Biology
  • 13. Organic Vs Inorganic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Molecules – occur in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Generally larger and more complicated in shape than inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Always have Carbon & Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes have Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CHON </li></ul>
  • 14. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 15. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 16. Protein
  • 17. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 18. Carbohydrates
  • 19. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 20. Lipid
  • 21. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fatty Acids
  • 22. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fats
  • 23. Four types of Organic Molecules DNA Phosphate, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogen base 3 parts Information Storage “blueprints” Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  • 24. Nucleic Acid
  • 25. DNA
  • 26. Making Chains DNA Nucleic Acid Starch Carbohydrate Protein Amino Acid Chain Single Unit
  • 27. Monomer vs Polymer
  • 28. Monomer vs Polymer Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Polysaccharide or Starch Carbohydrate Polypeptide or Protein Amino Acid Polymer (Long Chain) Monomer (Single Unit)
  • 29. Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
  • 30. <ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove water to form long chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars into starches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add water to break chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides into monosaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 31. Lipids: A Special Case <ul><li>Not a polymer, but still use dehydration synthesis. </li></ul>
  • 32.  

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