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Chemistry Fundamentals Life is Chemical
Atoms vs Molecules <ul><li>Smallest unit of matter is the Atom or the Molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms have only 1 ele...
Periodic Table of the Elements <ul><li>Single type of atom </li></ul><ul><li>92 naturally occurring, humans have made a fe...
Atomic Symbols <ul><li>1 or 2 letters representing the atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C – Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H ...
Molecule <ul><li>Various types of atoms joined together to make a substance that does not resemble the two elements </li><...
Representing Molecules <ul><li>Chemical Formula  use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a compound </li></ul><ul><l...
Ex:  Glucose <ul><li>Chemical Formula  C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula </li></ul>
Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or trading electrons and forming links between them. </l...
Bonding <ul><li>Chemical bonds are very stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming a bond  stores  energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Octet Rule <ul><li>The number of bonds depends on the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell </li></ul><ul><...
Octet Rule Practice 5 Nitrogen 6 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 4 Carbon # bonds? # needed? # Valence Electrons Element
Biochemistry Chemistry of Biology
Organic Vs Inorganic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Molecules – occur in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Generally larger and m...
Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Par...
Protein
Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino a...
Carbohydrates
Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protecti...
Lipid
Unsaturated vs Saturated  Fatty Acids
Unsaturated vs Saturated Fats
Four types of Organic Molecules DNA Phosphate, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogen base 3 parts Information Storage “blueprints” N...
Nucleic Acid
DNA
Making Chains DNA Nucleic Acid Starch Carbohydrate Protein Amino Acid Chain Single Unit
Monomer vs Polymer
Monomer vs Polymer Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Polysaccharide or Starch Carbohydrate Polypeptide or Protein Amino Acid Po...
Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
<ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove water to form long chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple...
Lipids: A Special Case <ul><li>Not a polymer, but still use dehydration synthesis. </li></ul>
 
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Chemistry Notes

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Transcript of "Chemistry Notes"

  1. 1. Chemistry Fundamentals Life is Chemical
  2. 2. Atoms vs Molecules <ul><li>Smallest unit of matter is the Atom or the Molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms have only 1 element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules have more than 1 kind of element joined together chemically </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Periodic Table of the Elements <ul><li>Single type of atom </li></ul><ul><li>92 naturally occurring, humans have made a few more </li></ul>
  4. 4. Atomic Symbols <ul><li>1 or 2 letters representing the atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C – Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H – Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O – Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N – Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most commonly occurring elements in Biology! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Molecule <ul><li>Various types of atoms joined together to make a substance that does not resemble the two elements </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen – gas </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen – gas </li></ul><ul><li>Water - liquid </li></ul>
  6. 6. Representing Molecules <ul><li>Chemical Formula use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a compound </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula uses chemical symbols and lines to represent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a compound </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ex: Glucose <ul><li>Chemical Formula C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Formula </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chemical Bonds <ul><li>Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or trading electrons and forming links between them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bonding <ul><li>Chemical bonds are very stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming a bond stores energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking a bond releases energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KEY IDEA!!! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Octet Rule <ul><li>The number of bonds depends on the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell </li></ul><ul><li>Valence Electrons = Those electrons in the outermost shell/ring of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms like to form an octet (exception of Hydrogen,which likes 2) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Octet Rule Practice 5 Nitrogen 6 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 4 Carbon # bonds? # needed? # Valence Electrons Element
  12. 12. Biochemistry Chemistry of Biology
  13. 13. Organic Vs Inorganic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Molecules – occur in living things </li></ul><ul><li>Generally larger and more complicated in shape than inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Always have Carbon & Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually have Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes have Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>CHON </li></ul>
  14. 14. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  15. 15. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  16. 16. Protein
  17. 17. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  18. 18. Carbohydrates
  19. 19. Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  20. 20. Lipid
  21. 21. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fatty Acids
  22. 22. Unsaturated vs Saturated Fats
  23. 23. Four types of Organic Molecules DNA Phosphate, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogen base 3 parts Information Storage “blueprints” Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
  24. 24. Nucleic Acid
  25. 25. DNA
  26. 26. Making Chains DNA Nucleic Acid Starch Carbohydrate Protein Amino Acid Chain Single Unit
  27. 27. Monomer vs Polymer
  28. 28. Monomer vs Polymer Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Polysaccharide or Starch Carbohydrate Polypeptide or Protein Amino Acid Polymer (Long Chain) Monomer (Single Unit)
  29. 29. Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
  30. 30. <ul><li>Dehydration Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove water to form long chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars into starches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add water to break chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides into monosaccharides </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Lipids: A Special Case <ul><li>Not a polymer, but still use dehydration synthesis. </li></ul>
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