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Chemistry Notes
 

Chemistry Notes

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    Chemistry Notes Chemistry Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Chemistry Fundamentals Life is Chemical
    • Atoms vs Molecules
      • Smallest unit of matter is the Atom or the Molecule
        • Atoms have only 1 element
        • Molecules have more than 1 kind of element joined together chemically
    • Periodic Table of the Elements
      • Single type of atom
      • 92 naturally occurring, humans have made a few more
    • Atomic Symbols
      • 1 or 2 letters representing the atom
        • C – Carbon
        • H – Hydrogen
        • O – Oxygen
        • N – Nitrogen
      • Most commonly occurring elements in Biology!
    • Molecule
      • Various types of atoms joined together to make a substance that does not resemble the two elements
      • Hydrogen – gas
      • Oxygen – gas
      • Water - liquid
    • Representing Molecules
      • Chemical Formula use chemical symbols and numbers to represent a compound
      • H 2 O
      • Structural Formula uses chemical symbols and lines to represent
        • a compound
    • Ex: Glucose
      • Chemical Formula C 6 H 12 O 6
      • Structural Formula
    • Chemical Bonds
      • Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing or trading electrons and forming links between them.
    • Bonding
      • Chemical bonds are very stable
        • Forming a bond stores energy
        • Breaking a bond releases energy
      • KEY IDEA!!!
    • Octet Rule
      • The number of bonds depends on the number of electrons in the valence (outermost) shell
      • Valence Electrons = Those electrons in the outermost shell/ring of the atom
      • All atoms like to form an octet (exception of Hydrogen,which likes 2)
    • Octet Rule Practice 5 Nitrogen 6 Oxygen 1 Hydrogen 4 Carbon # bonds? # needed? # Valence Electrons Element
    • Biochemistry Chemistry of Biology
    • Organic Vs Inorganic Molecules
      • Organic Molecules – occur in living things
      • Generally larger and more complicated in shape than inorganic molecules
      • Always have Carbon & Hydrogen
      • Usually have Oxygen
      • Sometimes have Nitrogen
      • CHON
    • Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
    • Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
    • Protein
    • Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
    • Carbohydrates
    • Four types of Organic Molecules Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
    • Lipid
    • Unsaturated vs Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Unsaturated vs Saturated Fats
    • Four types of Organic Molecules DNA Phosphate, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogen base 3 parts Information Storage “blueprints” Nucleic Acid Fats/ waxes Glycerol and Fatty Acids “ E” shape Cell Membrane, Organ protection Energy Storage Lipid Sugar/ starch Glucose 5/6 carbon ring Energy Carbohydrate Meats Amino acid Nitrogen Building block Protein Found Parts Look For  Use Type
    • Nucleic Acid
    • DNA
    • Making Chains DNA Nucleic Acid Starch Carbohydrate Protein Amino Acid Chain Single Unit
    • Monomer vs Polymer
    • Monomer vs Polymer Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Polysaccharide or Starch Carbohydrate Polypeptide or Protein Amino Acid Polymer (Long Chain) Monomer (Single Unit)
    • Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
      • Dehydration Synthesis
        • Remove water to form long chains
          • Simple sugars into starches
      • Hydrolysis
        • Add water to break chains
          • Polysaccharides into monosaccharides
    • Lipids: A Special Case
      • Not a polymer, but still use dehydration synthesis.
    •