Spills, Sins & Starbucks

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Spills, Sins & Starbucks: how we designed our cities around oil …

Spills, Sins & Starbucks: how we designed our cities around oil

The Gulf Coast Oil Spill is the worst environmental disaster in history. This talk explores the tragedy of the spill, and how our own dependence on fossil fuels is really to blame and a plan for how to transform our cities and suburbs to eliminate this addiction for good.

The design of our cities and suburbs is dictated by the automobile. From the width of the street, location of driveways, distance between buildings and the spacing of the structure, the automobile has irrevocably changed our cities from human scale to vehicle scale. This talk explores those connections.

Through the lens of the 7 Deadly Sins, this lecture examines the root causes leading up to the oil spill, the forces driving these events and the maps out several poignant and humorous alternatives we need to develop. If the Car Culture represents the 20th Century, then we need to redefine our culture for the 21st.

This brand new "bullet-point free" talk is presented by the acclaimed author of "Green Building for Dummies." It was hailed by Apartment Therapy as "phenomenal" and "engaging, funny and super interesting."

More in: Design , Technology , Business
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  • 1. Spills, Sins &
  • 2. Deepwater HorizonGulf of Mexico: 20 April 2010
  • 3. (DRILLING CONTRACTOR)(OWNER) (OPERATOR)
  • 4. Deepwater Horizon20 April 2010
  • 5. Deepwater Horizon21 April 2010
  • 6. I N M E M O R I U M Jason Anderson Aaron Dale Burkeen Donald Clark Stephen Curtis Roy Wyatt Kemp Karl Kleppinger Gordon Jones SOURCE: Boston.com Big Picture, Eric Gay Photographer Blair Manuel Dewey Revette Shane Roshto Adam WeiseD E E P W A T E R H O R I Z O N - 2 0 A P R I L 2 0 1 0
  • 7. SOURCE: NASA Visualization Studio
  • 8. spill
  • 9. oil transfusion
  • 10. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 1989 271,000 barrelsGulf Coast Oil Spill 2010 4,900,000 barrels SOURCE: US Geological Service
  • 11. This is a warning... Deepwater Horizon 21 April 2010
  • 12. UP RRC O T
  • 13. BP Safety Violation Timeline1999-2010A history of willful violations as their cost of doing business. SOURCE: Fast Company
  • 14. BP 760 2007-2010 violations97 % willful violationsSOURCE: OSHA, Washington Post, Exxon Presentation, 2010
  • 15. 87 days 0 gallons 205,800,00SOURCE: U.S. Geological Survey, Washington PostPHOTO: Montgomery Advertiser-David Bundy
  • 16. 6 of oil hours worth US Oil Consumption 19,498,000SOURCE: Energy Information Administration (EIA)PHOTO: Edward Burtynsky, Oil Spill #2, Discoverer Enterprise, May 12, 2010 bpd
  • 17. PHOTO: MARK OSWALD-CNN
  • 18. $ 22,700,000,00 potential loss of tourism 0 PHOTO: Montgomery Advertiser-David Bundy
  • 19. Gulf is home to8332 speciesPHOTO: Gerald Herbert / AP
  • 20. wildlife recovery 20-30 yearsPHOTO: AP Photo-Patrick Semansky
  • 21. PHOTO: Edward Burtynsky, Oil Spill #10, June 24, 2010
  • 22. 1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill January 1969
  • 23. “The Santa Barbaraincident has franklytouched the conscienceof the American people.”President Richard M. Nixon Nixon Visits Beach Santa Barbara Oil Spill January 1969
  • 24. 1970
  • 25. 40th Anniversary: April 22nd
  • 26. PHOTO: Reuters / Carlos Barria
  • 27. PHOTO: Margaret Bourke-White
  • 28. SHARE theSTREET
  • 29. 1906 San Francisco
  • 30. 1941 San Francisco
  • 31. Public UtilityHolding Company Actof 1935
  • 32. (a.k.a. Chevron)National City Lines
  • 33. trolley systems
  • 34. Great American Streetcar Scandal 1936-1950
  • 35. 19362003
  • 36. 1 8 in in1920s ten ten 1955
  • 37. 1905 first station
  • 38. Charles E. WilsonPresident, General Motors (1941-53)US Secretary of Defense (1953-57)
  • 39. 41,000 miles 1956 interstate highway act
  • 40. $ 25,000,000,00 1956 interstate highway act 0 PHOTO: Josef Schultz
  • 41. NATIONAL DEFENSE
  • 42. highways increase congestion
  • 43. WIDERSTREETS
  • 44. LONDON
  • 45. PARIS
  • 46. NEW YORK
  • 47. ILLUST: Ross Racine
  • 48. stuck in traffic 84 hours/yearSOURCE: State of California, 1990
  • 49. 94 % idle car PARKED
  • 50. STILL: Logoramawww.logorama-themovie.com
  • 51. PHOTO: Josef Schultz
  • 52. Got Hemorrhoids?
  • 53. PHOTO: Alex MacLean
  • 54. la county70 PARKING %PHOTO: LA County, 1951
  • 55. HOUSTON square milesPHOTO: NASA Earth Observatory
  • 56. landscrapersinstead of skyscrapers
  • 57. FLICKR: kapaktvstructural spacingby width of 3 cars
  • 58. donald appleyard study
  • 59. public transit is cheap
  • 60. PHOTO: Maxx Scholtenalternatives to the car
  • 61. % of public transit userslowest usehighest never use SOURCE: National Geographic Consumer Greendex
  • 62. of all tra n1 sit rid ers3 New York Cit y
  • 63. transit brings people into city
  • 64. ST UC K
  • 65. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH
  • 66. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The BP Oil Executives
  • 67. STILL: Wall Street
  • 68. BP Management
  • 69. largest OIL PRODUCER in US
  • 70. why the rush?$350,000,00035,000 feet21 days (expected) 6 centralizers (10 hours saved) Mud set (12 hours saved)6 weeks (actual) No acoustic test ($118k saved) No acoustic switch ($500k saved) No backup BOP ($500k saved) No lockdown sleeve ($0 saved)
  • 71. 1989
  • 72. CREDIT DEFAULT SWAPS
  • 73. Prince William Sound 1989
  • 74. SOURCE: GreenpeacePrince William Sound Today
  • 75. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The American Public
  • 76. PHOTO: The Graduate
  • 77. PHOTO: Alex MacLean
  • 78. x
  • 79. $100 per fill up
  • 80. 25 SOURCE: Detroit News, Motortrend miles per gallon 21.3 current national average
  • 81. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The Lobbyists
  • 82. registered un-registered 90,000 11,000SOURCE: Center for Responsive Politics STILL: Thank You For Smoking
  • 83. of Congress for every member climate lobbyists4SOURCE: Center for Responsive Politics
  • 84. LOBBYISTS h)(the 4th branc
  • 85. “legalized bribery” Jack Abramoff Disgraced Lobbyist
  • 86. 3 out of every four lobbyistspreviously worked in Government SOURCE: Washington Post
  • 87. SOURCE: Center for Responsive Politics 3,500,000,000$ $1,300,000/hour 2009 Federal Lobbying
  • 88. for bo th par ties 238,700,000 $ 75% Republicans / 25% Democrats SOURCE: Center for Responsive Politics oil & gas company campaign contributions since 1990
  • 89. More than just an Oil Spill Bob Herbert - May 22, 2010 “...the bitter reality of the American present, a period in which big business has cemented an unholy alliance with big governmentagainst the interests of ordinary Americans...”
  • 90. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The Media
  • 91. The Media
  • 92. Dr. A. Einstein Mr. P. HeadNobel Prize Winner Hash Brown Coalition GLOBAL WARMING?! NOTHING TO WORRY ABOUT... Copyright © 2010 organicARCHITECT Inc.
  • 93. “Where’s the oil?You don’t see it on thebeach...”May 16, 2010 - Fox News
  • 94. Mobile Press-Register12 June 2010
  • 95. Mobile Press-Register13 June 2010
  • 96. “I have lived and worked through that Exxon Valdez oil spill.” 25Palin was years old when the spill occurred
  • 97. Oklahoma CitybombingApril 19, 1995
  • 98. “Environmentalist whackosmay have blown up theoil rig to head offmore oil drilling...”April 29, 2010 - The Rush Limbaugh Show
  • 99. tomscott.com/warnings
  • 100. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The Regulators
  • 101. Greener
  • 102. MMS OilCompanies
  • 103. MMSOfficial
  • 104. SOURCE: Dan Wasserman, Boston Globe
  • 105. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH STILL: Se7en The Politicians
  • 106. “More offshore drilling...” June 3, 2010 SOURCE: Letter to President Obama from Gov. Jindal, June 3, 2010 Governor Bobby Jindal Louisiana
  • 107. “This deepwater moratorium could potentially be devastating for Louisiana...” June 3, 2010 Received over $451,200 from oil companies since 2005 SOURCE: Open SecretsSenator David Vitter Louisiana
  • 108. SOURCE: Open Secretsapologized to BP(& used to work for them) Received over $1,477,530 from oil companies since 1989 Rep. Joe Barton Texas House Energy & Commerce Committee
  • 109. “Spill will haveminimal impact” June, 2010 SOURCE: National Institute on Money in State Politics Received over $1,800,000 from oil & gas companies since 2003 Boss Hogg Governor Haley Barbour Hazard County, Georgia Mississippi
  • 110. ALLSOLUTIONS MUST BEPAINLESS
  • 111. Too Many Hamburgers? Thomas Friedman - September 21, 2010“...more interested in what keeps them in power than what would again make America powerful,more interested in defeating each other than saving the country.”
  • 112. GREED LUST GLUTTONY SLOTH ENVY PRIDE WRATH The Rest of Us
  • 113. Massive flow of bullsh*t continues to flow from Gulf The Onion - June 7, 2010
  • 114. “...I’d like my life back.” May 30, 2010
  • 115. Cuyahoga River Fire Love Canal Dump 1970 1978 Bhopal Gas Leak Chernobyl Nuclear 1984 1986
  • 116. a “crude” reality
  • 117. Residential Commericial3½% 1½% Electricity 1%Industrial23% Transportation 71% PHOTO: ChrisEnergy Information Administration SOURCE: US Jordan Oil End Uses
  • 118. US Oil Production 1900-2010 Showing offshore oil as part of total production. 24 21 18Barrels Per Day (Millions) 15 SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA) 12 9 TOTAL US PRODUCTION US PEAK OIL 6 3 OFFSHORE PRODUCTION 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  • 119. US Oil Production & Consumption 1900-2010 Showing offshore oil as small fraction of total oil use. 24 21 18 TOTAL US CONSUMPTIONBarrels Per Day (Millions) 15 SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA) 12 9 TOTAL US PRODUCTION US PEAK OIL 6 3 OFFSHORE PRODUCTION 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 CONSUMPTION: 19,498,000 BARRELS PER DAY
  • 120. US Oil Production vs. Consumption 1965-2009 Showing offshore oil as part of total production. 24 21 18 TOTAL US CONSUMPTIONBarrels Per Day (Millions) 15 SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA) 12 9 TOTAL US PRODUCTION US PEAK OIL 6 3 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  • 121. US Oil Imports 1965-2010 Showing trend since US Peak. 80 70 TOTAL US OIL IMPORTS 60 50 SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA)Percentage 40 30 US PEAK OIL 20 10 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 >71% OIL IMPORTS:
  • 122. US Oil Imports 1965-2010 Showing trend since US Peak over Presidential Administrations. JOHNSON NIXON FORD CARTER REAGAN BUSH CLINTON BUSH OBAMA 80 70 TOTAL US OIL IMPORTS 60 50 SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA)Percentage 40 30 US PEAK OIL 20 10 0 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 >71% OIL IMPORTS:
  • 123. 1 < % consumptionUS production % Offshore DRILLING
  • 124. 5106 offshore rigs in gulf blowout disaster was “inconceivable” Steve Rinehart BP Spokesperson 05/02/2010
  • 125. Gulf Offshore Rig Locations 2010 Showing the rigs close to the coastline SOURCE: US Energy Information Administration (EIA) / NASA Visualization Studio Mississippi AlabamaTexas Florida Louisiana New Orleans Houston 41 mi les Deepwater Horizon April 28, 2010
  • 126. PRESIDENT OBAMA June 15, 2010PRESIDENT BUSHJanuary 31, 2006
  • 127. PRESIDENT CLINTON PRESIDENT BUSH June 28, 2000 August 18, 1988PRESIDENT CARTER PRESIDENT REAGAN July 15, 1979 February 18, 1981
  • 128. PRESIDENT FORD May 27, 1975PRESIDENT NIXON April 18, 1973
  • 129. 1974
  • 130. 1974
  • 131. 1974
  • 132. 1974
  • 133. 1974
  • 134. STILL: The Jerk
  • 135. Do you favor more offshore drilling? February - June 2010 Public support declining after the spill in a nationwide poll 70 FAVO RO FFSH ORE 60 DRIL LING 50Percentage of Respondents SOURCE: June 16-20, 2010 - Pew Research Center 40 SE OPPO 30 RIG EXPLOSION 20 10 DON’T KNOW 0 April 2010 May 2010 June 2010
  • 136. PHOTO: Mario Tama / Getty Images
  • 137. solutions
  • 138. theWindyplan
  • 139. oil rigs intoWIND FARMS
  • 140. Saturday, October 1, 2017 San Francisco Chronicle LARGE AIR SPILL AT WIND brought to you by Carl’s Jr. SOME CLAIM THEY ENJOY BREEZE FARM - OTHERS FEEL CHILLED One local has to put on a sweater by Eric Corey Freed, Staff Write r PACIFICA, CA - A wind farm is a A large wind farm may consist of group of wind turbines in the a few used to select locations for same dozen to several hundred individua wind location used for production of electric l energy development. The WPD wind turbines, and cover an extended is a p owe r. I n d i v i d u a l t u r b i n e s calculation relating to the effective a re area of hundreds of square miles, interconnected with a medium voltage but force of the wind at a particula the land between the turbines may r (usually 34.5 kV) power collectio be location, frequently expressed in n used for agricult ural or other term system and communications network of the elevation above ground . purposes. A wind farm may be located level At a substation, this medium-voltage over a period of time. It takes off-shore to take advantage of strong into electrica l current is increase account velocity and mass. Color- d in winds blowing over the surface voltage with a transfor mer of an coded maps are prepare d for for ocean or lake. a connect ion to the high voltage particular area describing, for example, The worlds first wind farm transmission system. – "Mean Annual Power Density, at consisting of 20 wind turbines rated 50 A large wind farm may consist of at Meters." The results of the above a few 30 kilowatts each – was installed dozen to several hundred individua on calculati on are used in an l the shoulder of Crotched Mountain index wind turbines, and cover an extended in developed by the National Renewab southern New Hampshir le area of hundreds of square miles, e in Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL but December, 1980.[1][2] The Roscoe the land between the turbines may CLASS." The larger the W be Wind Farm (780 MW) in the state PD used for agricult ural or other of calculation the higher it is rated Texas, United States, is the worlds by purposes. A wind farm may be located class.[5] largest wind farm.[3] Spain, Denmark off-shore to take advantage of strong , Wind farm siting can be highly and Germany are Europes main winds blowing over the surface wind controversial, particularly when of an energy producers; although, the largest sites ocean or lake. are picturesque or environmentally wind farm in Europe is the Vlorë The worlds first wind farm Wind sensitive. Related factors may include – Farm (500 MW) located in Albania. consisting of 20 wind turbines rated having substantial bird life, or requiring at A quantity called the Wind Power 30 kilowatts each – was installed roads to be built through pristine on Density (WPD) is used to select the shoulder of Crotched Mountain areas. The areas where wind farms in locations for wind ene are southern New Hampshir rgy built are generally non-residential, e in development. The WPD is a calculatio due December, 1980.[1][2] The Roscoe n to noise concern s and se
  • 141. theFree Parkingplan
  • 142. Get the price rightSOURCE: Cruising for Parking, Donald Shoup, UC Transportation Center, 2007
  • 143. Return parking meter revenue to the neighborhoods
  • 144. LOCAL FOODREDUCESTRAFFIC
  • 145. theReburbiaplan
  • 146. Dover Kohl & PartnersJohnnie Dodds Boulevard, Mt Pleasant, SC
  • 147. DON’T WAIT FOR THEDEVELOPER
  • 148. create your ownDEVELOPMENT BOUNDARY
  • 149. site selectiondevelopment densitybrownfield redevelopmentpublic transit access
  • 150. theplanBring Sexy Back SOURCE: spread your love hamed kohan
  • 151. make bikes sexySOURCE copenhagencyclechic.com
  • 152. make bikes sexySOURCE copenhagencyclechic.com
  • 153. make bikes sexySOURCE copenhagencyclechic.com
  • 154. theBill-boredplan
  • 155. 1,000,000 Billboards 2.4 Billion square feet20’ x 60’ x 2 sides = 2400 square feet 36,000,000 kW3,000,000 homes
  • 156. theMooPooplan
  • 157. Cowshwitz
  • 158. theMcConaugheyplan
  • 159. $35,000,000 budget $80,000,000 budget $160,000,000 budget $35,000,000 budget$50,000,000 budget $50,000,000 budget $70,000,000 budget $60,000,000 budget
  • 160. 540,000,000$ $35,000,000 budget $80,000,000 budget $160,000,000 budget $35,000,000 budget $50,000,000 budget $50,000,000 budget $70,000,000 budget $60,000,000 budget
  • 161. HARDWARE DRY GROCERY STORE CLEANER STORE POST THE OFFICE MALL
  • 162. THIRDPLACE
  • 163. interesting personmuffin top
  • 164. <12 13-17 >50 18-34 35-49 39% 32%SOURCE: QuantCast, 04/09/10 Age Group
  • 165. SOURCE: QuantCast, 04/09/10 Men 41% Gender Women 59%
  • 166. African Amer. Hispanic Asian White 75%SOURCE: QuantCast, 04/09/10 Race
  • 167. High School Bachelors 47% Masters 17%SOURCE: QuantCast, 04/09/10 College Education
  • 168. SOURCE: Bernie Hou
  • 169. SOURCE: Starbucks, as of September 2009 16locations ,635
  • 170. >16,000 LOCATIONS 50 COUNTRIES
  • 171. 18,000 16,680 16,63516,000 15,01114,000 12,44012,000 10,24110,000 8,569 8,000 7,225 5,886 6,000 4,709 3,501 SOURCE: Starbucks 4,000 2,498 1,886 1,412 2,000 1,015 425 677 17 33 55 84 116 165 272 0 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 >16,000 LOCATIONS 50 COUNTRIES
  • 172. US STARBUCKS LOCATIONS
  • 173. STARBUCKS PER CAPITA
  • 174. WALMARTS PER CAPITA
  • 175. STARBUCKS PER CAPITA
  • 176. LEED CERTIFIED BUILDINGS
  • 177. happiness
  • 178. COFFEECULTUR E
  • 179. 11 timeWINNER FORTUNE MAGAZINE 100 Best Companies To Work For
  • 180. ADDITIONAL AWARDS10 Most Admired Companies Best Ethical Score Top 50 CSR
  • 181. spends more on HEALTH CARE than COFFEE BEANS
  • 182. largest buyer of
  • 183. a model company
  • 184. ecodilemma
  • 185. produces2,300,000,000 cups/yr
  • 186. globally throw away58,000,000,000 cups/yr
  • 187. 13 countriessourced from
  • 188. SOURCE: Good Magazine
  • 189. PUTSLOCALLY OWNEDCAFESOUT OF BUSINESS
  • 190. mak es m e un hap py
  • 191. SUGGESTIONS
  • 192. a better cup 100% recycled paper Corn-based plastic coating Biodegradable Lids ? Soy inks
  • 193. create the market toRECYCLE
  • 194. c al lo10 %
  • 195. growHERBS greenscreen.com
  • 196. nagecal cafes ma loex pthodieerences l e r ff
  • 197. LOCAL STORE WITHIN A STORE SMALLER TO REDUCE BLIGHTGROW THEIR OWN FOOD
  • 198. ✓ disinfectant smell✓ brightly lit✓ no bathroom mirrors✓ bolted furniture
  • 199. PEOPLE FIRST
  • 200. Masdar CityAbu Dhabimasdar.ae
  • 201. climate= change
  • 202. Global Carbon Emissions 1751-2007 Fossil fuels from Colonial days through the Industrial Revolution 9,000 8,000 SOURCE: US Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, cdiac.ornl.gov 7,000 TOTAL EMISSIONS 6,000Million Metric Tons 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1751 1767 1783 1799 1815 1831 1847 1863 1879 1895 1911 1927 1943 1959 1975 1991 2007
  • 203. Belief in Global Warming 2006-2009 Despite the facts, belief in Man Made Climate Change is waning 100 91 DEMOCR 90 ATS 86 83 INDEPENDENTS 80 75 79 78 70 75Percentage who believe S REPUBLICAN 60 62 59 50 53 INCONVENIENT TRUTH 49 40 SOURCE: Pew Research Center 30 35 FILM RELEASE 20 10 0 2006 2007 2008 2009
  • 204. Moe Curly LEGISLATIVE JUDICIAL LarryEXECUTIVE75 40stooges % % SOURCE: Zogby Poll branches
  • 205. what AMERICANS believe...
  • 206. EVOLUTION 39Dryopithecus Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Neanderthal Homo Sapien Slacker % believe SOURCE: Gallup Poll
  • 207. ENVIRONMENTALISTS DID IT believe10PHOTO: Dave Martin/AP SABOTAGE %SOURCE: The Week Poll, January 7, 2005
  • 208. believe20SOURCE: The Week Poll, January 7, 2005 %
  • 209. NEVER THERE believeSOURCE: Gallup Poll, 1999 %11
  • 210. believeSOURCE: Gallup Poll %21
  • 211. believe33SOURCE: Gallup Poll %
  • 212. EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION 41 % believe SOURCE: Gallup Poll
  • 213. REINCARNATION believe20SOURCE: Gallup Poll %
  • 214. DEATH PANELS believeSOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation %41
  • 215. ALIENS believe80SOURCE: Harris Poll %
  • 216. UFO believe32SOURCE: Harris Poll %
  • 217. ELVIS LIVES! believe6SOURCE: Harris Poll %
  • 218. can’t believe94SOURCE: Gallup Poll %
  • 219. WHO CARES?SOURCE: Ricky Gervais
  • 220. as American as... Blissful Ignorance the new national pastime
  • 221. MORONS
  • 222. RIGHT WRONG EITHER (& the scientists are wrong) (& the scientists are right) take control of ourENERGY SUPPLY and we must ACT NOW out of the hands ofOIL & A N I E S CATASTROPHE COAL to preventC O M P
  • 223. “climidia”
  • 224. BLOWOUTPREVENTER FAILURE
  • 225. 30,000 g/day
  • 226. CONTAINMENTDOME
  • 227. JUNKSHOT
  • 228. TOPKILL
  • 229. CHEMICALDISPERSANTS
  • 230. MILES OFBOOM
  • 231. SURFACEBURNING
  • 232. Ixtoc1974
  • 233. “those who don’t knowHISTORY are destined to REPEAT IT...” -Edmund Burke
  • 234. restorethegulf.com
  • 235. GULFAID 10text 27138 to gulfaid.org
  • 236. GULFAID 10 text 27138 toericcoreyfreedCONNECT: eric@organicarchitect.comDOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION OF 360 SLIDES:organicarchitect.com/downloads/spills.pdf ? QUESTIONS DROP OFF YOUR BUSINESS CARD