Hidden Lessons in Designing High Performance Schools

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An advanced discussion of modern day school design and how to uncover ways to save energy, water and resources.  This talk also suggests means to make the entire building a vehicle for learning.

By Eric Corey Freed, organicARCHITECT

Published in: Design, Business, Technology
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Hidden Lessons in Designing High Performance Schools

  1. 1. E R I C C O R E Y F R E E DPrincipal, organicarchitect Architect LEED Accredited Professional
  2. 2. THE MYTH OFSISYPHUS “does the realization of the futilityrequirelife of suicide? No. It requires REVOLT.” -Albert Camus The Myth of Sisyphus
  3. 3. T I M E T OREVOLT
  4. 4. IT’S HARD TO BE AN ENVIRONMENTALIST 5 the elisabethkublerross.com stages of grief
  5. 5. 1FIVE STAGES OF (ENVIRONMENTAL) GRIEF Denial. “This cant be happening...”
  6. 6. 2FIVE STAGES OF (ENVIRONMENTAL) GRIEF Anger. “It’s not fair!”
  7. 7. 3FIVE STAGES OF (ENVIRONMENTAL) GRIEF Bargaining. “Can’t this wait a little more?”
  8. 8. 4FIVE STAGES OF (ENVIRONMENTAL) GRIEF Depression. “What’s the point?!”
  9. 9. 5FIVE STAGES OF (ENVIRONMENTAL) GRIEF Acceptance. “Everything will be OK!”
  10. 10. greenwashnoundisinformation disseminated by an organization so as topresent an environmentally responsible public image.“That oil company is, like, totally greenwashing.”
  11. 11. “Sustainable School Architecture” MARCH 2010 with Lisa Gelfand Wiley & Sons
  12. 12. TIME TO DOSOMETHING “SENTIMENT without action is the ruin of the SOUL...” -Edward Abbey
  13. 13. LEED Certified Hippies Welcome.
  14. 14. 55,394,000 students SOURCE: Capital E
  15. 15. 1in5people
  16. 16. 60,443,000student growth by 2017
  17. 17. schools spend35,000,000,000$ in annual tax dollars
  18. 18. 125,766number of schools K-12
  19. 19. Schools typicallydesigned just tomeet codes
  20. 20. Studies showmany schools areunhealthy
  21. 21. poor indoor air quality 8,000,000 children 15,000 schoolsSOURCE: US General Accounting Office
  22. 22. 8.7national dropout rates 2007 %
  23. 23. 5050 largest cities % graduate
  24. 24. 50in Detroit % illiteracy rate marchandmeffre.com
  25. 25. greenneed for schools
  26. 26. 68% think green costs more SOURCE: Capital Eperception of the green schools among executives
  27. 27. Benefits of Green Schools 3% Increased Learning, Productivity & Performance 1.4% Increased Future Earnings of Students 25% Reduced Asthma 15% Reduced Colds and Flu 3% Reduced Teacher Turnover
  28. 28. “A school should be a thought-built good-time place for happy children– the school should regard children as a garden in the sun.” Frank Lloyd Wright
  29. 29. $ increase per square foot 4 $ savings 71SOURCE: Capital E; US Green Building Council
  30. 30. paybacktimes20 over cost of greening
  31. 31. 1.65up-front cost of green %
  32. 32. 35% SOURCE: Turner Construction Company, 2005 Survey of Green Schools somewhat 52%much betterperception of community image green school benefits
  33. 33. 20% much better SOURCE: Turner Construction Company, 2005 Survey of Green Schools54%somewhatability to retain/attract teachers green school benefits
  34. 34. 17% much better SOURCE: Turner Construction Company, 2005 Survey of Green Schools55%somewhatreduced student absenteeism green school benefits
  35. 35. 24% SOURCE: Turner Construction Company, 2005 Survey of Green Schools much better47%somewhat student performance green school benefits
  36. 36. FORMALDEHYDE Finishes use deadly binder in many common materials. TRAPPED AIR Windows don’t open to allow fresh air. GLARE better light. More light isn’t Use proper daylighting. VOC PAINT Unhealthy paints used. Could be VOC free. BLANK slow brain Lack of color WALL development. VAMPIRES Power is consumed whether needed or not. ALLERGENS Carpets trap dust, germs and mold. TOXINS harsh Cleaners contain chemicals.MISSED OPPORTUNITIES
  37. 37. 2 annual green building savingsteachers5,000 200 textbooks computers
  38. 38. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  39. 39. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  40. 40. schools spend more ontrash disposalthannew textbooks
  41. 41. MAINTENANCE is the primary decision
  42. 42. DESIGNa 40 year building.
  43. 43. PREVAILING WAGE determines the walls.
  44. 44. there’sno such thing as WASTE
  45. 45. LIFECYCLE: a look at the entire life of a MATERIAL or PRODUCT from extraction, manufacture, transport & installation through USE and including disposal
  46. 46. ? andsave our clients MONEY
  47. 47. TRADITIONAL MATERIALS WOOD
  48. 48. TRADITIONAL MATERIALS BAMBOO
  49. 49. TRADITIONAL MATERIALS CONCRETE
  50. 50. TRADITIONAL MATERIALS GLASS
  51. 51. TRADITIONAL MATERIALS VINYL
  52. 52. CHANGE YOUR THINKING FINISHES SYSTEMS STRUCTURE SITING YOUR (NEW) PRIORITIES TOWARDS FINISHES: * natural / non-toxic * low embodied energy (includes salvaged) * sustainably harvested * recyclable/biodegradable * recycled content * locally harvested * durability we should not KILL our clients
  53. 53. CHANGE YOUR THINKING FINISHES SYSTEMS STRUCTURE SITING YOUR (NEW) GOALS (shown in priority): * indoor environmental quality * water efficiency * site selection & planning * energy reduction * material & resource efficiency * community building these are in ADDITION to budget & schedule
  54. 54. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  55. 55. 3 percentIN 1980 9 percent IN 2003
  56. 56. 22 percent higher onS.A.T.’s
  57. 57. natural light3.2-.8more days SOURCE: Energy Performance of Daylit Schools in North Carolina (Mike Nicklas and Gary Bailey, 1996)
  58. 58. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  59. 59. 32% savings SOURCE: Capital Egreen schools water savings using ultra low flow fixtures
  60. 60. WATER CATCHMENT 1000sf = 632 gal/in 10,000 = 6320 gal/in 30,000sf building / 3 floors = 10,000sf roof area = ____ inches per year 21 x ___ gallons = 132,720 gallons/year 6,320 _______
  61. 61. DRIP IRRIGATION 60% WATER SAVINGS
  62. 62. POROUS PAVING20˚LOWER TEMPERATURE
  63. 63. retrofit with dual flush valves sloanvalve.com
  64. 64. collect condensate from A/C
  65. 65. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  66. 66. 110school energy costs $ per student/yr
  67. 67. !"#$%&
  68. 68. !"#$%&
  69. 69. if every school went green20,000,000,000$ over next 10 years
  70. 70. GREEN ROOF SAVINGS40%energy savings
  71. 71. $ 12-24 sq ft green roof 8 $ sq ft green grid hydrotechusa.com
  72. 72. central vs. package units
  73. 73. no heat = no school
  74. 74. redundant, but reliable
  75. 75. NOISY AIR CONDITIONER gets shut off and the door opens.
  76. 76. solarsheat.com
  77. 77. 8 %school energy savings off ENERGY BILL 1˚ lower THERMOSTAT SOURCE: Capital E
  78. 78. agilewaves.com
  79. 79. SHADE SOUTH & WEST WINDOWS (here)
  80. 80. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  81. 81. DAYLIGHTING is the most important thing you can do in a school.more than more thanstudent/teacher ratio classroom size
  82. 82. daylit schools math progression 20 %Energy Performance of Daylit Schools in North Carolina (Mike Nicklas and Gary Bailey, 1996)
  83. 83. daylit schools in reading 26 %Energy Performance of Daylit Schools in North Carolina (Mike Nicklas and Gary Bailey, 1996)
  84. 84. Window views increasestudent performance 5-10 %
  85. 85. aenhances classr lighting se g g sensors:respond to dayl occ high perfo low e o emitting pa g paintlow energy cons high col r room darkening shade g shades clock and intercom open book shelving g g per p rformance g glazing: g sliding marker board allow light but not heat ws c conceals book shelving transmittance allow user controlled ventilation creates warm air barrier at window rapidly renewable resource rapidly renewable resource views to outside individual controls for each classroom low emitting installation g low emitting material window wall teaching wall display wall casework wall casework wall display wall window wall teaching wall Gelfand Partners COX NEW CONSTRUCTION: TYPICAL CLASSROOM A R C H I T E C T S May 14, 2008
  86. 86. MAINTENANCE HEALTH WATER ENERGY LIGHT EDUCATION
  87. 87. “Children are notvessels to be filled,but lamps to be lit.”Swami Chinmayananda
  88. 88. SMART
  89. 89. DUMB
  90. 90. • High school students calculating energy from solar panels on the roof.• Middle school students studying ecosystems in their constructed wetland.• Kindergarteners growing lunch in an organic garden.
  91. 91. make thewater cyclevisible
  92. 92. make theenergy usevisible
  93. 93. esynola.org
  94. 94. SOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS)www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  95. 95. SOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS)www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  96. 96. SOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS)www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  97. 97. Devon, UK Seaton PrimarySOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS)www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  98. 98. Eastchurch Primary, Kent, UK SOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS) www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  99. 99. SOURCE: North East Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Schools (NESPSS)www.sustainableschools-ne.org.uk
  100. 100. School is aliving classroom
  101. 101. saferoutesinfo.org
  102. 102. chps.net
  103. 103. No Apology: The Case For American GreatnessGov. Mitt Romney
  104. 104. #U.S.A.1
  105. 105. LIFE EXPECTANCY 38 37. Cuba # 39. Portugal SOURCE: Wikipedia
  106. 106. INFANT MORTALITY 46 # 45. Guam 47. Faroe Islands SOURCE: Wikipedia
  107. 107. HEALTH CARE31. Finland32. Australia33. Chile34. Denmark35. Dominica36. Costa Rica 37 # SOURCE: World Health Organization38. Slovenia
  108. 108. NUMBER OF DOCTORS 52 # per capita 51. Cyprus 53. Slovenia SOURCE: NationMaster.com
  109. 109. SOLAR POWER per capita 1. 2. Lux 3. Lao em 4. Jap s bou 5. Co an rg 6 Ne sta 7. the Ri Ko rla ca re nd a, s So uth # SOURCE: NationMaster.com
  110. 110. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 8 # 7. Ireland 9. Iceland SOURCE: InfoPlease.com
  111. 111. EMPLOYMENT10# 9. Canada SOURCE: Wikipedia 11. Australia
  112. 112. MINIMUM WAGE 13 # 12. Switzerland SOURCE: Wikipedia 14. Austria
  113. 113. EDUCATION SPENDING % of GDP 37 # 37. Estonia SOURCE: NationMaster.com 38. Austria
  114. 114. MATHEMATICAL LITERACY 18 # 17. Czech Republic SOURCE: NationMaster.com 19. Germany
  115. 115. BEER CONSUMPTION13# 12. Spain SOURCE: Wikipedia 14. Croatia
  116. 116. # handgun deathsSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  117. 117. # total crimeSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  118. 118. # prisonersSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  119. 119. # executionsSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  120. 120. # rapeSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  121. 121. # teen pregnancySOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  122. 122. # healthcare expenseSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  123. 123. # personal spendingSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  124. 124. # population below 50%SOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  125. 125. #plastic surgery1
  126. 126. # motor vehicle deathSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  127. 127. # external debtSOURCE: Wikipedia1
  128. 128. # military spendingSOURCE: NationMaster.com1
  129. 129. # garbage productionSOURCE: InfoPlease.com1
  130. 130. # total energy useSOURCE: CIA World Factbook; DOE1
  131. 131. # energy consumptionSOURCE: CIA World Factbook; DOE1
  132. 132. # oil consumptionSOURCE: CIA World Factbook; DOE1
  133. 133. # oil importsSOURCE: CIA World Factbook; DOE1
  134. 134. #carbon emissions1
  135. 135. # obesitySOURCE: New York Times, National Geographic1
  136. 136. 34% 32.7% obese overweight SOURCE: New York Times, MSNBC (skinny nerds)
  137. 137. 72,000,000 obese americansSOURCE: New York Times
  138. 138. 300,000 obesity is associated with over deaths/yr SOURCE: US Department of Health & Human Services117,000,000$ healthcare costs
  139. 139. SOURCE: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by86of americans obese % 2030
  140. 140. 6 %every hourin a careach day increase in likelihood of obesity SOURCE: Georgia Tech Study, 2009
  141. 141. 35 %walkable decrease inneighborhoods risk of obesity walkscore.com
  142. 142. “lipodiesel”
  143. 143. average cost of liposuction 5,000 total cost for surgerynumber of obese americans 360,000,000,000 72,000,000 potential gallons of fat fuel BTUs per gallonaverage pounds per person 514,000,000 x 125,000 50 total BTUs produced 64,250,000,000,000 0.005 cost per BTU
  144. 144. 3,210,350metric tons of co2 saved 791,256 homes/year
  145. 145. 1.21 gigawatts per person
  146. 146. YOUR HOMEWORK 5 what’s next: action steps
  147. 147. 1YOUR HOMEWORK take action. do something. think big.
  148. 148. 2YOUR HOMEWORK tell others. share your enthusiasm.
  149. 149. 3YOUR HOMEWORK fill the materials library with green materials.
  150. 150. 4YOUR HOMEWORK make a list of things you will not compromise.
  151. 151. 5YOUR HOMEWORK become champion of one issue. innovate.
  152. 152. “you must be theCHANGEyou wish to see in the WORLD...” -Mahatma Gandhi
  153. 153. organicarchitectCONNECT:DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION: ? QUESTIONS DROP OFF YOUR BUSINESS CARDorganicarchitect.com/downloads/schools.pdf

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