Prepare and Serve Espresso Coffee


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Cert II in Hospitality (Multi-skilling)

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Prepare and Serve Espresso Coffee

  1. 1. <ul><li>HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>THHBFB12B </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare & Serve espresso coffee </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>On completion of this chapter you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Organise and prepare work areas </li></ul><ul><li>Provide customer service and advise customers on espresso coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Select and grind coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Extract coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Texture milk </li></ul><ul><li>Serve and present espresso coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and maintain espresso machine </li></ul>
  3. 3. Knowledge Summary <ul><li>To be competent, you must also have knowledge of and skills in: </li></ul><ul><li>basic information on origins and characteristics of a range of different types of coffees and teas; </li></ul><ul><li>the processes involved in the production and preparation of teas and coffees; </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of, and ingredients used, in non alcoholic beverages commonly available in the current market; </li></ul><ul><li>safe storage and handling conditions and requirements for coffee, tea, and commodities; </li></ul><ul><li>customer service skills for determining customer requirements and preferences; </li></ul><ul><li>safe work practices, in relation to use of coffee machines and other equipment, posture at work station. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Personal Hygiene <ul><li>Good hygiene starts with you. Commercial catering is an industry that requires strict rules of personal hygiene because you are dealing with food and beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that you present yourself properly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personal Hygiene <ul><li>Hygiene at your workplace </li></ul><ul><li>State and Territory food acts set down standards that have to be maintained in food preparation areas. These laws require the premises to: </li></ul><ul><li>be free from rats and other vermin such as cockroaches; </li></ul><ul><li>employ clean and healthy staff; </li></ul><ul><li>have clean facilities, equipment, glasses, utensils, crockery, linen, etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>have high quality food and beverages that will not make customers sick. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Occupational health and safety <ul><li>The Occupational Health and Safety Act outlines how specific jobs are to be physically done in a safe manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the things covered include the safe use of equipment, standards of dress and the appropriate shoes to be worn. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Occupational health and safety <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Safe health and work practices protect you, other staff and your customers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>History of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>There are many legends surrounding the discovery of coffee. </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular story is that a Turkish goat-herder noticed that his goats were jumping around more than usual. He found they had been eating little red berries from a plant. </li></ul><ul><li>He then ate some himself and became as jumpy as the goats. </li></ul><ul><li>A priest who had been watching took some berries back to the church. All the priests ate them and were able to pray all night without falling asleep. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>History of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>The real discovery of coffee was made by tribesmen in Ethiopia. They found that it stimulated them. The berries were eaten whole or crushed to a pulp and added to food. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs started mixing coffee with water. Roasting and grinding beans became popular in the 13th century. The Arabs tried to control the supply of coffee but some green coffee beans were smuggled out of Arabia. Soon coffee was being grown in Egypt, Turkey and North Africa. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>History of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>When coffee arrived in Europe, coffee houses became meeting places for people. The church was worried that it would turn people away from religion and tried to have coffee houses banned. They called coffee the ‘Devil’s Drink’. </li></ul><ul><li>The first coffee house opened in England in 1637. Women were originally banned from drinking in them. In 1674, they complained that men were not spending enough time at home and that coffee made them sexually inactive. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>History of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18th century, coffee was being grown in Java (Indonesia) by the Dutch. The French were also growing it in the Caribbean. The coffee seeds were taken to South America, and Brazil started growing coffee. </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is now drunk all around the world and is made in many different ways </li></ul>
  12. 12. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Growing and producing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee grows in tropical areas with a lot of rainfall. The plant grows up to seven metres high but is usually kept at two metres high. The plant has dark, glossy pointed leaves, with a white flower and a strong smell. </li></ul><ul><li>The coffee bush takes three to five years before it starts to produce fruit (beans). The fruit can ripen at different stages of the year which can make machine harvesting impossible. Only in Brazil, does all the fruit ripen at the same time.. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Growing and producing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>The fruit (or cherries) ripen from green to a deep red in six to eight months. The beans are inside the fruit and are separated from the skin of the cherries by either the ‘wet’ or ‘dry’ method. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘wet method’ is used for high quality hand-picked beans. The cherries are crushed to remove the outside skin and then soaked for one to two days. They are then dried. Lastly the thin outer skin of the bean is removed to show a green coffee bean. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘dry method’ is the older method. The cherries are left in the sun for two to three weeks to dry evenly. Then a machine is used to remove the outside skin. The beans are then sorted by hand. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Species of coffee </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main species of coffee plant: </li></ul>Liberica is the toughest of all the plants and can grow at sea level. It is often used for instant coffee blends. Liberica Robusta is named after its taste. It is easier to grow than Arabica but the flavour is considered by many not to be as pleasant. It is blended with Arabica and is cheaper to buy. Robusta Arabica is the most widely cultivated plant. It is rich and aromatic in taste. It is grown in South America, East Africa and Indonesia making up to 75% of coffee sold. It does, however, get attacked by many different diseases. Arabica
  15. 15. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Note </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the higher the altitude at which the coffee plant grows, the better the quality. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Like wine, coffee has a list of terms which describes its characteristics. These are very helpful to know, especially if your establishment stocks several kinds of coffee. The table below provides you with a guide to the terms used and their meanings. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees the spicy variation Cinnamon texture of the coffee e.g. watery, thin, buttery, oily, rich, smooth Body harsh flavour from beans being roasted too long Bitter beans roasted too long or at too lower temperature Baked the smell of the coffee, e.g. lacking, faint, moderate, strong Aroma sharp, pleasant quality that gives coffee a bite or tang Acidity MEANING TERM
  18. 18. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees flavour of beans which were not ripe when picked Green tainted flavour from beans not being properly dried Grassy tainted taste from over ripe beans Fruity the combining of aroma, acidity and body Flavour unclean smell and taste Dirty the smell of roasted coffee after being left too long in the air Cocoa
  19. 19. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees strength of the flavour Strong having the smell of burnt rubber Rubbery coffee that tastes like straw Past – croppish lacking coffee flavour Nutty well-balanced flavour Mellow stale smell from improper storage Hidy unbalanced flavour Harsh
  20. 20. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees mellow, thick body Winey extreme flavour Wild
  21. 21. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee-growing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is grown in many parts of the world. The table below shows the major coffee producing countries and the characteristics of the coffee produced in each country. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee-growing areas </li></ul>sharp flavour, thin body, used in blends Ecuador strong and full bodied Dominican Republic fine flavour, sharp acidity Costa Rica rich, full flavour, well balanced acidity Columbia mellow Cameroon mild smooth flavour used for instant coffee Brazil
  23. 23. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee-growing areas </li></ul>smooth soft flavour, delicate aroma India mellow, smooth, slight acidity (declining production) Hawaii rich, mild, sweet flavour Haiti mild, good acidity and aroma Guatemala full body, excellent aroma, strong flavour described as winey Ethiopia slight flavour, mild body, inferior quality El Salvador
  24. 24. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee-growing areas </li></ul>great full flavour, mild acidity Kenya full and mellow Java balanced smooth body, flavour and aroma (very expensive considered the perfect coffee) Jamaica delicate, sweet, light bodied and fine flavour Venezuela mellow flavour, slight acidity Tanzania similar to Java Sumatra similar to Kenyan coffee Papua New Guinea light and rich, fine acidity Mexico
  25. 25. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>The different roasts </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee beans are green before they are roasted. Roasting green coffee beans develops their flavour and aroma. How much the beans are roasted affects the mellowness, richness and nuttiness of the final brew. While the beans are being roasted chemical changes take place. Caramel is formed and oil and gases are released. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the temperature at which the beans are roasted, the lower the acidity of the coffee. So, usually for the dark roasts, the cheaper coffee beans are used. The expensive beans would be wasted on dark roasts because much of their flavour would be lost. There are several roasts of coffee. The table below provides you with a listing of the types of roasts and the main characteristics of each. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>The different roasts </li></ul>Also called espresso, roast dark to point of being burnt. Italian Also called double roast or continental roast, beans are shiny, oily and black, has a strong bitter taste, is served black after dinner. High Dark brown beans, little oil on surface of bean strong flavour may be drunk black or a little cream may be added, suitable for drinking after lunch. Full Stronger flavour, suitable for drinking at any time of the day, can be taken with or without milk. Medium Light brown bean, delicate flavour and aroma, suitable for breakfast, milk may be added. Light/pale CHARACTERISTICS TYPE OF ROAST
  27. 27. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Grinding coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee has to be ground before it can be brewed. You must choose the correct grind for the brewing method to be used. A finer grind means that a larger surface area is exposed to the water. Finer grinds are more expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>The following table provides you with a list of the types of grinds used and the suitable methods for brewing each given </li></ul>
  28. 28. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Grinding coffee </li></ul>Strong Turkish, Greek or Arabian coffee. Powdered (pulverised) Espresso only. Fine espresso Drip filter. Fine Jug method cafetiere (plunger), percolators, small espresso machines. Medium Jug method. Coarse SUITABLE BREWING METHOD TYPE OF GRIND
  29. 29. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Grinding coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee grinders may be manual or electric. It does not matter which one you use as long as the ‘fineness’ of the grind can be adjusted. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions on how to operate the grinders correctly. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Storing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Green coffee beans (ones which have not been roasted) will keep indefinitely. Once coffee is roasted it begins to lose its aroma. After two weeks it will have lost all aroma if it has not been stored correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Roasted coffee beans can be packaged into bags with valves which allow gases to escape from the beans without air getting in. Coffee packed this way will stay fresh for up to six months. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Storing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Ground coffee loses its flavour even more quickly. It should be ground in small quantities and used as soon as possible. All coffee should be kept in a refrigerator and stored in containers that are airtight. Coffee in vacuum packs will stay fresh until opened. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Coffee-making equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Different equipment is used in coffee making. It is important that you know which equipment is needed for different styles of coffee. More importantly, you must be able to operate the equipment correctly and carefully. Before you use any equipment you should read the manufacturer’s instructions. These will give you handy hints on how to operate ‘their’ brand of machine. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>When making coffee it is important to have coffee and water in the correct balance: </li></ul><ul><li>under-brewing makes weak, sour coffee; </li></ul><ul><li>over-brewing causes bitter, unpleasant coffee. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing coffee </li></ul><ul><li>There are several ways of making coffee and a wide range of equipment available. It does not matter what method is chosen if you always follow these basic rules: </li></ul><ul><li>always keep the coffee-making equipment clean; </li></ul><ul><li>always use fresh water; </li></ul><ul><li>always use fresh coffee grounds; </li></ul><ul><li>always use quality coffee; </li></ul><ul><li>do not boil the coffee (Turkish coffee excepted). Boiling coffee will ‘stew’ the flavour and the coffee will taste like tar.. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>The methods used to brew coffee will vary from establishment to establishment. How a particular establishment makes coffee depends on its equipment (type and size), the recipes it uses and the quality of ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>The table below details the main brewing methods and styles. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Jug method </li></ul><ul><li>Heat a jug or a pot. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in the correct amount of coarse ground coffee (this depends on size of the jug). </li></ul><ul><li>Pour on very hot water and leave for two minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Strain into cups. </li></ul>METHOD AND STEPS
  37. 37. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Plunger method (also known as ‘cafetiere’) </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of coffee in jug (this depends on size of the jug). </li></ul><ul><li>Pour on very hot water. </li></ul><ul><li>Put plunger into top of jug without pushing it down. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave stand two minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Push plunger down so the grounds are trapped at the bottom of the jug. </li></ul><ul><li>Pour into cups. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Filter method </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Place paper filter into the filter holder. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure finely ground coffee into the paper filter (depending on size of the jug). </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure machine contains cold water. </li></ul><ul><li>Let very hot water trickle into and through the filter into a pot below. </li></ul><ul><li>Pour into cups. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Espresso </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on machine and allow it to build up steam pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Select correct filter for the number of espressos you are making. </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of coffee in filter (depending on number of coffees being made. </li></ul><ul><li>Position handle correctly onto machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct cup under filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Select correct button for size of coffee needed. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Cappuccino </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of coffee in coffee cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Place cold milk in stainless steel jug. </li></ul><ul><li>Place steam nozzle into milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Let steam push air into milk to make froth. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not let milk boil. </li></ul><ul><li>Scoop froth from jug onto coffee in coffee cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Top up with heated milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkle with drinking chocolate r cinnamon. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Percolator </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of coffee in the filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of water in the jug. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat water until it is all pushed up through the stem into the coffee. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish coffee is made in a long-handled pot called an ‘ibrick’ (brick). </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of fine ground coffee sugar and water into the ‘ibrick’. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring to the boil. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove from heat and stir. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 3 and 4 and serve. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Instant </li></ul><ul><li>Place correct amount of coffee in cup. </li></ul><ul><li>Top up with boiling water. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Brewing methods and styles </li></ul>
  45. 45. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Serving coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is served in many different ways in many parts of the world. Below are some ways of making coffee which are readily accepted world wide. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Serving coffee </li></ul>This is made from instant coffee and water served in a ‘standard cup’. Milk and sugar may be added. Instant A black coffee topped with whipped cream served in a liqueur coffee glass and sprinkled with drinking chocolate. Vienna A short black topped up with warm milk usually served in a liqueur coffee glass. Coffee latte (cafe au lait) A cappuccino is 1/3 black coffee (made from the espresso machine), 1/3 warm milk (heated via steam nozzle), 1/3 milk froth sprinkled with drinking chocolate or cinnamon served in a standard cup. Cappuccino A black coffee (made from the espresso machine) served in a ‘standard cup’. Espresso A black coffee with milk added served in a ‘standard’ cup. Flat white A black coffee served in a ‘standard’ cup. Long black
  47. 47. Preparing & Serving a Range of Coffees <ul><li>Serving coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Note </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Half-size cups’ are called demitasse cups. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Standard’ refers to the full size cup used in your establishment. </li></ul><ul><li>The latte may also be served in a glass tumbler or a ‘standard cup’ if it is take away. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Brasilia Portofino Digit Restyling Two Group Espresso Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Start-up Procedure </li></ul>
  49. 49. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Before turning the machine on: </li></ul><ul><li>Check the blue gauge on the Manometer (under the left side group head) </li></ul><ul><li>It should show between 3 and 6 bar of pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the water level in the Sight Glass </li></ul><ul><li>It should be at the ¾ mark. </li></ul><ul><li>THEN </li></ul>
  50. 50. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Turn the machine switch dial (in the lower right side corner) to ON: </li></ul><ul><li>If the boiler water level is below the ¾ mark the machine will automatically fill to this ¾ level (this takes approx. 20 seconds). </li></ul><ul><li>THEN </li></ul>
  51. 51. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Turn the machine switch dial down again to the lowest position (a small graphic of a heating element): </li></ul><ul><li>Check that the orange light (next to the dial) comes on. This tells you that the heating element is now ON. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait now until the RED needle indicator reaches the RED AREA on the Manometer and the ORANGE heating element light turns OFF. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Flush water through the Group Heads, for approx. five (5) seconds by pressing the top left single cup button on each digital panel. Use the STOP button to finish. Flush steam through the Steam Wands (be CAREFUL) and open up the Water Tap for approx. five (5) seconds also. Close all promptly. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the RED needle – pressure may had dropped. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Start up Procedure <ul><li>Wait until the RED needle on the Manometer’s red gauge has reached the red area and the ORANGE heating element light is OFF. </li></ul><ul><li>Our machine is now ready for operation – ENJOY MAKING YOUR ESPRESSO. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Grinding, Tampering & Extracting <ul><li>Operations Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Grinding, Tamping & Extracting Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Check there are beans in the Bean Hopper and that the metal SLIDE sheet (silver gate) is OPEN. </li></ul><ul><li>If you need to add whole beans, CLOSE the gate, ensure the machine is OFF and carefully lift the hopper off the grinder dial. Place the hopper on a bench surface, remove the hopper lid and add coffee beans as required (half to two thirds fill is good for class purposes). Carefully lift the hopper back up onto the grinder, locate it correctly in the grinder dial and OPEN the gate to allow beans into the grinder unit. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Grinding, Tampering & Extracting <ul><li>Turn the grinder ON and wait while the Dosing Chamber at the front fills with ground coffee (this may take 30-60 seconds depending on the amount of coffee already in the chamber). </li></ul><ul><li>Our grinder will stop automatically when the dosing chamber is filled (and will restart as the level of coffee gets low). </li></ul><ul><li>Place the porta-filter (or double group handle) into the grinder correctly under the doser outlet. Check the filter is in place or coffee will be wasted. Hold it carefully in the left hand . </li></ul>
  56. 56. Grinding, Tampering & Extracting <ul><li>Using the right hand , pull the silver dosing lever on the right side of the grinder quickly and smoothly for three (3) pulls for a double coffee serving. Note: if coffee level in the chamber is too low, incorrect coffee dosing will occur and quality is affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the dosing is correct and tamp the coffee lightly into the filter using the small tamper on the front of the chamber. Select the manual tamper and tap it on the right side of the filter to ensure loose coffee falls onto the puck. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Grinding, Tampering & Extracting <ul><li>Use the manual tamper to apply a heavy, smooth tamp to the coffee at approx. 18kgs of pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Wipe or brush away any excess coffee grinds that may be on the filter outside ring or locking “lugs”. Note: this is very important to ensure correct sealing of the filter in the extraction stage. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Grinding, Tampering & Extracting <ul><li>Proceed to extract your perfect espresso coffees by locking the porta-filter carefully and firmly into the Group Head, placing the correct cups underneath and pushing the two-cup extraction button (lower middle position on the digital panel). </li></ul>