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Acids and Bases
 

Acids and Bases

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    Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Presentation Transcript

    • Warm-up
      • Name the following:
      • LiBr
        • lithium bromide
      • Be(NO 3 ) 2
        • beryllium nitrate
      • NO
        • nitrogen monoxide
    • Warm-up
      • List the four factors that affect reaction rates?
      • Temperature
        • High temperature – fast reaction
        • Low temperature – slow reaction
      • Surface area
        • Large surface area – fast reaction
        • Small surface area – slow reaction
      • Stirring
        • Fast stirring – fast reaction
        • Slow stirring – slow reaction
      • Concentration
        • High concentration – fast reaction
        • Low concentration – slow reaction
    • 5-9: Acids & Bases
      • Identify characteristics of acids & bases.
      • Compare acids & bases.
    •  
    • Acids and Bases
      • Produce H+ ions in water
      • Have a sour taste
      • Break down metals
      • Poisonous and corrosive to skin
      • Formula starts with H
      • pH less than 7
      • Produce OH- ions in water
      • Have a bitter taste and a slippery feel
      • Break down fats and oils
      • Poisonous and corrosive to skin
      • Formula ends with OH
      • pH greater than 7
    • Acids and Bases
      • ACIDS
      • Examples: vinegar, lemon juice, aspirin, stomach acid, battery acid, cola,
      • BASES
      • Examples: soap, shampoo, ammonia, drain cleaner, antacids
      • milk
    • Acids
      • An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions (H + )
      • Strength
        • Strong acids completely ionize in water.
        • Weak acids ionize only slightly.
    • Base
      • A base is a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH - )
      • Strength
        • Strong bases ionize completely.
        • Weak bases do not.
    • Basic Acidic Neutral H+ H+ H+ OH- OH- OH- Solution Solution Solution Which solution is Acidic? Basic? Neutral???
    • pH Scale
      • Numeric scale that tells the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of substances.
      • 0 7 14
      • Strong Acid Weak Acid Neutral Weak Base Strong Base
    • Neutralization Reactions
      • When an acid is added to a base, they neutralize each other. (ie, the end products are neutral)
      • Acid + Base  Salt + Water
      • HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O
      • H 2 SO 4 + Al(OH) 3  Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2 O
      • Salt – the neutral product of an acid/base rxn
    • pH Indicators
      • Chemical substance that changes color in an acid or a base.
      • pH paper;
        • paper strips dipped in universal indicator;
          • red in acid,
          • green in neutral substance,
          • purple in base
          • match the color to a number on the vial to determine pH
    • Litmus Test
      • Litmus paper; paper strips dipped in red and blue litmus;
      • Tells definitively whether the substance is an acid or base. “Litmus Test”
      • Dip one red and one blue strip & check results:
          • Red -> Red = Acid
          • Blue -> Red = Acid
          • Red -> Blue = Base
          • Blue -> Blue= Base
          • Red -> Red = Neutral
          • Blue -> Blue= Neutral
    • Other pH indicators
      • Phenolthalein
        • Pink – pH is greater than 9
        • Clear – pH is lower than 9
        • Only indicates strong bases
          • Strong Base – Pink
          • Weak Base – Clear
          • Neutral – Clear
          • Weak Acid – Clear
          • Strong Acid – Clear
      • Bromothymol Blue
        • Base – Blue
        • Neutral – Green
        • Acid – Yellow