4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding
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4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding

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4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding 4-2 Ionic & Covalent Bonding Presentation Transcript

  • Warm-Up
    • What are valence electrons?
      • Electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom.
    • Which group of atoms hardly react at all?
      • Nobel gases.
    • Isotopes of an element have different number of
      • A) neutrons C) protons
      • B) electrons D) nuclei
  • 4-2: Ionic & Covalent Bonding
    • Describe how ionization energy affects ionic bonding.
    • Predict the composition of an ionic compound from its formula.
    • Describe how covalent bonds are formed.
    • Relate the properties of ionic and covalent compounds.
  • Ionization Energy
    • It requires energy to remove an electron from an atom.
    • Energy has to be added to the electron to overcome its attraction to the nucleus.
    • This energy is called ionization energy
    • High ionization energy = difficult to remove.
    • Low ionization energy = easy to remove.
  •  
  •  
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  • Covalent Bonds
    • Ionic bonds are formed when electrons are transferred between metals and nonmetals.
    • Compounds exist with nonmetals only.
    • Nonmetals cannot transfer electrons to form a stable electron configuration.
    • Nonmetals share electrons.
  • Sharing Electrons
    • Atoms that share electrons are called molecules.
    • The atom can share multiple electrons to obtain a full outer shell of electrons.
  • Sharing Electrons
    • Molecules are neutral groups of atoms that are joined by one or more covalent bond.
    • Covalent bonds are formed with non-metals only.
    • Nonmetals that bond with themselves are called diatomic molecules.
      • H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 ,
  •  
  • Multiple Covalent Bonding
    • Atoms can share multiple pairs of electrons
    • Types of covalent bonds
      • Single – one shared set of electrons
      • Double – two shared sets of electrons
      • Triple – three shared sets of electrons
      • Quadruple can not form because of electron repulsion.
  • Ionic compound Structure
    • All ionic compound form crystals.
    • The formula does not tell how the ions are arranged in the compound.
    • Looking at samples help to identify the pattern.
    • Ionic compound form a crystal lattice
      • A repeating pattern of ions.
  • Properties of Compounds
    • Ionic Compounds
      • High melting point
      • Poor electrical conductor in solid state.
      • Good electrical conductor in liquid state.
      • Tend to shatter when struck.
      • Generally good dissolving in water.
  • Properties of Compounds
    • Covalent Compounds
      • Low melting points
      • Generally soft and pliable (won’t shatter).
      • Poor conductors of heat and electricity.
      • Most covalent compounds are poorly soluble in water.
  • Summary
    • Which type of elements make covalent bonds?
      • Nonmetals.
    • Which type of bond is stronger? Ionic or covalent
      • Ionic because ionic compounds have very high melting points.
    • Which type of compound does not usually dissolve in water?
      • Covalent