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4-1 Ions & Ionic Bonding
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4-1 Ions & Ionic Bonding


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  • 1. Warm-Up
    • Which metals are the most reactive?
      • Alkali metals
    • Which non metals are the most reactive?
      • Halogens
    • Why don’t metals in group 1A have identical properties?
      • Elements in group 1A don’t have identical properties because their valence electrons are in different energy levels.
  • 2. 4-1 Ions & Ionic Bonding
    • Recognize stable electron configurations.
    • Predict an element’s chemical properties using number of valence electrons and electron dot diagrams.
  • 3. Stable Electron Configuration
    • The highest occupied energy level of an atom is filled with electrons.
    • Nobel gases have 8 valance electrons (He-2).
    • The highest energy level is completely full.
    • Noble gases are colorless, odorless, and un-reactive .
      • Very few compounds form with Nobel gases.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Electron-Dot Diagram
    • A model of the atom to represent the valence or outer shell electrons.
    • The number of dots = number of valence electrons.
    • The symbol in the center represents the nucleus and all other electrons.
    • Electron dot diagram helps to determine stability.
  • 6.  
  • 7. Formation of Ions
    • Atoms that lose or gain electrons are called ions .
    • Ions are charged atoms.
    • Ions have unequal numbers of protons and electrons.
    • Charge can be positive or negative.
    • Ions are formed because atoms want to have a stable electron configuration.
  • 8. Types of Ions
    • Positive ions
      • Lose electrons or lose negative charge.
      • Subtracting negatives = positives.
      • Atoms that have lost electrons are called cations (“cat-ions”)
      • Metals
    • Negative Ions
      • Gain electrons or gain negative charge.
      • Atoms that have gained electrons are called anion (“ant-ion”).
      • Nonmetals
  • 9. Na + Al 3+ K + Mg 2+ Ca 2+
  • 10. N 3- F - P 3- O 2- S 2- Cl -
  • 11. Ionic Bonds
    • Chemical bonds is a force that holds atoms together as a unit.
      • Ionic bonds are the cations being attracted to the anions
      • Particles with opposite charges are attracted.
    • Ionic bonds are formed when atoms transfer electrons from one atom to another.
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Ionic Compounds
    • Compounds are substances that contain more that one atom in chemical ratios.
    • The ratio is known as the chemical formula.
    • Ions don’t bond in random ways.
    • Ion will bond with the number of atoms to give a full shell of electrons.
    • Ions also bond to balance charges.
  • 15. Summary
    • What happens to atoms when they form ionic bonds?
      • One atom in the compound had to loose an electron and one atom in the compound had to gain an electron.
    • What type of elements form ionic bonds?
      • Metal and nonmetal