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3-7 Representitive Groups

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Transcript

  • 1. Warm-up
    • Which of the following is not found in the nucleus of an atom?
      • Protons
      • Neutron
      • Electron
    • What is the mass of each of the subatomic particles?
      • Proton – 1 amu
      • Neutron – 1 amu
      • Electron – 0 amu
  • 2. 3-7 Representative Groups
    • Relate the number of valence electrons to the groups in the periodic table and to properties of elements in those groups.
    • Predict the reactivity of some elements based on their locations in the periodic table.
    • Identify some properties of common representative (A group) elements
  • 3. Groups
    • Alkali Metals
      • Group 1
      • 1 valence electron
      • Extremely reactive
      • Found in nature only in compounds.
      • Reactivity increase from top to bottom.
    • Alkaline Earth Metals
      • Group 2
      • Two valence electrons.
      • Higher melting points than group 1.
      • Lower reactivity than group 1.
  • 4.
    • Boron Family - Group 13
      • 3 valance electrons
    • Carbon Family – Group 14
      • 4 valance electrons
    • Nitrogen Family – Group 15
      • 5 valence electrons
    • Oxygen Family – Group 16
      • 6 valance electrons
  • 5.
    • Halogens
      • Group 17
      • 7 Valance electrons
      • Salt formers
      • Very reactive
      • Reactivity decreases top to bottom.
    • Nobel Gases
      • Group 18
      • 8 valance electrons
      • Very stable
      • Almost no compound form with Nobel gases
      • Colorless, odorless gases
  • 6. Element you might know
    • Sodium
      • Alkali metal
      • Found in table salt – sodium chloride
    • Magnesium
      • Alkali earth metal
      • Key to chlorophyll, which is need for plant to make food.
      • Used to make steel stronger, but lighter.
    • Calcium
      • Needed to keep strong bones and teeth
      • Main ingredient in chalk, toothpaste, and pearls.
  • 7.
    • Aluminum
      • Most abundant metal found in Earth’s crust.
      • Low re activity
      • Strong, lightweight, malleable and conductive.
    • Carbon
      • All living organisms are built on carbon-based compounds.
    • Nitrogen
      • About 78% of earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen.
      • Used in fertilizers
  • 8.
    • Oxygen
      • Most abundant element in earth’s crust.
      • Oxygen is highly flammable.
      • Ozone is another form of oxygen that is found in the upper atmosphere, which absorbs harmful radiation.
    • Fluorine
      • Used in toothpaste to help prevent tooth decay.
      • Used in nonstick coatings
  • 9.
    • Chlorine
      • Used chorine bleach
      • Added to city water supplies and pools to kill bacteria.
    • Argon
      • Highly unreactive element
      • Used in light bulbs to increase lifetime.
      • Used in “neon” lights – lavender color.
  • 10. Valence Electrons
    • Valence electrons are electrons that occupy the outer most energy level while still being in the ground state.
      • Outermost energy level corresponds to the highest energy level.
    • Electrons play a key role in chemistry.
      • Electrons are on the outside of the atom.
      • Electrons “touch” other electrons.
    • Electrons give elements their chemical and physical properties.
  • 11. Electron Dot Structure
    • The electrons on the inner shell play a minor role in chemical properties.
    • Electron in the outside shell (energy level) play the major role.
    • Model of the atom that show only the valence electrons.
  • 12. 3-7 Summary
    • What do elements in the same group have in common?
      • Similar properties
      • Same number of valence electrons.
    • How many valence electrons to group 1 have? What are properties? Name?
      • Alkali metals
      • Extremely reactive
      • 1 valence electron
      • Reactivity increases top to bottom.
  • 13. 3-8 Summary (Cont.)
    • How can one tell the difference between group 1 and 2?
      • Reactivity with water, Alkali earth metals are less reactive.
    • What do halogens have in common?
      • 7 valence electron.
      • Very reactive nonmetals
    • Describe the characteristics of Nobel gases.
      • Colorless, odorless, completely unreactive gases.

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