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3-5 Organizing The Elements
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3-5 Organizing The Elements

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Transcript

  • 1. Warm – Up
    • Is flammability a physical or chemical property? Why?
      • Chemical property because burning a substance is combining with oxygen and creating a new substance
    • What happens to the composition of matter during a physical change?
      • The substance does not change only shape or some other physical change takes place.
  • 2. 3-5 Organizing Elements
    • Objectives
      • Describe how Medeleev arranged the elements in his table.
      • Explain how the predictions helped verify the usefulness of his periodic table.
  • 3. Why do we classify/organize?
    • How are most library books classified?
    • Why is this classification useful?
    • How do Biologist classify living organisms?
      • Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Species.
    • Why do we classify/organize?
      • Easier to find and identify.
  • 4. Searching For Order
    • Until 1750, only 17 elements were known.
    • Most identified were metals.
    • In 1789, Lavoisier grouped atoms into 4 types.
      • Metals, nonmetals, gases and earths.
  • 5. John Newlands
    • 1 st & 8 th elements, 2 nd & 9 th had similar properties, and so on.
    • Law of octaves
    • Organized the first 14 “known” elements.
      • Pattern stopped
  • 6. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
    • In 1860, he used solitaire to help him organize the known 63 elements
      • Wrote element on a card
      • Looked at the elements properties.
      • Lined the cards up in increasing mass.
      • He saw a pattern that repeated.
      • Rearranged to create columns of similar properties.
    • Properties repeat from row to row.
  • 7. Questions
    • What does periodic mean?
      • Occurring at regular intervals.
  • 8. Mendeleev’s Predictions
    • He couldn’t complete his table because of gaps in the elements.
    • Those elements had not been discovered.
  • 9. Other Systems
    • In 1829, Dobereiner proposed a law of triads.
      • It is a group of 3 similar elements.
      • The middle element has properties between the other two.
      • Example
        • Li – 6.941
        • Na – 22.990
        • K – 39.098
        • Average (6.941+39.098)/2 = 23.02
  • 10. Evidence for Mendeleev’s Table
    • He named missing elements after the same group.
    • I.E. Element below Al, he named eka-aluminum.
    • He predicted it would be a soft metal with low melting point and a density of 5.9 g/cm 3 .
    • French chemists actually discovered it in 1875.
    • Gallium (Ga) is a soft metal with 29.7 o C M.P. and a density of 5.91 g/cm 3 .
  • 11.  
  • 12. Questions
    • How was Mendeleev’s table organized?
      • Elements are arranged in order of increasing mass.
    • How do the properties repeat?
      • Row to row.
      • New columns are created for each set of similar properties
  • 13.
    • http://education.jlab.org/elementflashcards
    • http://www.webelements.com/
    • http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/

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