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3-1 Studying Atoms

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  • What qualities did Aristotle use to describe air? What element was a combination of dry and cold? Is “wet and cold” an accurate description of water?
  • Magnesium in bell Jar Demo
  • One could think of this experiment as shooting marbles across the floor.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Warm-Up
      • What is the symbol for the following elements.
        • Gold
          • Au
        • Aluminum
          • Al
        • Sodium
          • Na
        • Lithium
          • Li
    • 2. 3-1 – Atomic Theories
      • Objectives
        • Describe the four main models of the atom and explain how each was discovered.
    • 3.  
    • 4. Greek Model of Atoms
      • 400 B.C. Greek philosopher Democritus
      • “ atomos” which means, indivisible.
      • Atoms are hard, solid particles
      • same material
      • different shapes and sizes.
    • 5. Greek Model (cont.)
      • Aristotle disagreed with Democritus.
      • Aristotle said there was no limit to division of matter.
      • Aristotle thought matter consisted of four types.
        • Fire, Earth, Water, Air
    • 6. Dalton’s Atomic Theory
      • 1803 – John Dalton, English Chemist
      • All elements are composed of atoms.
      • All atoms of the same element = mass
      • Compounds contains atoms of more than one element.
      • In a compound, atoms of different elements always combine in the same way
        • H 2 O
        • Na 2 CO 3
    • 7.  
    • 8. Thomson’s Model
      • 1897 – J.J. Thomson, English Chemist.
      • Atoms are made of even smaller particles.
      • Plum pudding model
      • Positively charged “pudding” through which negative particles are scattered.
      • Atoms are neutral, therefore, there must be + particles too, but Thomson never found them .
    • 9. Thompson’s Experiment
    • 10. Rutherford’s Atomic Model
      • 1911 – Ernest Rutherford, British physicist
      • Gold Foil experiment.
      • Atom has a small, dense positively charged center called the Nucleus.
      • Negative electrons are scattered outside the nucleus.
      • If an atom was the size of a baseball stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble.
    • 11.  
    • 12. Rutherford’s Experiment
      • A beam of + particles (alpha particles) shot through a thin sheet of gold foil.
      • Most particles passed straight through. (Most of atom is empty space.)
      • A few were deflected. (Positive core-similar charges repel each other.)
      • Very few bounced off. (Solid core is very small.)
    • 13. Actual Results. Results of foil experiment if Plum Pudding model had been correct.
    • 14.  
    • 15. Three Way to Remember the Models
      • D ogs S ort S ocks = D alton’s S olid S phere
      • T urtles P lay P ing-pong = T homson’s P lum P udding
      • R ats P lay N intendo = R utherford’s P ositive N ucleus
    • 16. 3-1 Summary
      • Who founded atomic theory?
        • Ancient Greeks founded atomic theory.
        • Thought matter was made up of four elements
        • Democritus believed all matter was made up of atoms.
      • Who founded modern atomic theory?
        • John Dalton, father of modern atomic theory.
        • Developed atom theory; Solid sphere
        • Element have same make up
        • Compounds always combine the same way.
    • 17. 3-1 Summary (Cont.)
      • Thomson Atomic Theory
        • Experiment with Cathode ray tubes.
        • Atoms are made up of smaller particles.
        • Plum Pudding model
      • Rutherford Atomic Theory
        • Gold foil experiment
        • Discovered the nucleus
        • Positive nucleus
    • 18. Warm Up
      • Oops!! Those “harmless” Germanium capsules you just swallowed may have an extra proton in each nucleus.
      • Is this good news or bad news? Why?
      This is bad news, for germanium nucleus with an additional proton is not Germanium, but arsenic!!!!