INDIAN ORAL CARE MARKET
Many people in India still clean their teeth with traditional products like
Neem twigs, salt, ash, tobacco or other herbal ingredients.
Average all India per capita consumption of toothpaste is a dismal
The dentist to population ratio is a critically low 1:35000 in the
country. This results in low oral hygiene consciousness and widespread
Less than 15% of the Indian toothpaste users brush twice a day.
The toothpaste market grew at a CAGR of 7-8% between 1995-2000.
But in 2001 the market grew by only 4%.
Colgate and Hindustan Lever together account for over 85% of the
organized toothpaste market.
Red and Black toothpowder still accounts for 35% of the toothpowder
In toothpowders, Colgate and Dabur are the leading players sharing
between the 75% of the market.
Penetration of toothpowder in the urban areas has been declining, as
more and more consumers switch from powders to paste.
Brand loyalty is quite high for toothpastes, but is extremely low for
The Rs. 2,200-crore toothpaste market (the largest oral care segment),
grew a robust 10 per cent in value in 2000. But this wound down to 2.4 per
cent in 2001. In the first six months of 2002, the market for toothpastes in
fact shrank by around 5.7 per cent in value; in volumes terms it was much
higher at 11 per cent. The going was tough for the oral care industry .Little
wonder that teeth were bared between the market leader, Colgate
Palmolive, and the challenger, Hindustan Lever, as the marketing war
between the two FMCG giants for protecting market share got tough. As if
that was not enough, these players found new aggressive competition
coming their way from regional low priced competitors such as Anchor
Healthcare &Ajanta India, who priced their offerings at over 40% discount,
giving market leaders a run for their money. These low priced competitors
accounted for more than 80 per cent of the growing‗discount segment‘. It
looked as if the multinational companies were helpless against challenger
brands. But then the big boys struck back, Colgate revitalized one of its
existing brands, Cibaca as Colgate-Cibaca. It was to act as the price flanker
brand in the portfolio. Ditto by HLL with Aim. At prices similar to the low
priced challenger brands it took the battle right into their turf. The market
dynamics changed. Within a year, Colgate Cibaca managed to garner
whopping 50% of the market share in the discount segment and established
Colgate‘s supremacy once again. HLL‘s Aim however could not match the
success and was subsequently withdrawn from the market .Today not only
has Colgate's flagship brand grown, but Colgate Cibaca has risen to become
the 4th largest paste brand in the country in volume terms after Colgate
Dental Cream, Pepsodent and Close-up .It is interesting to note that Colgate
Cibaca became big without any intensive communication support. It relied
more on trade level activities and below the line strategies for its success.
However the journey for brand Colgate Cibaca has just begun. Having come
up this far, Colgate now aims to move Colgate Cibaca to the next level of
growth. Hence the challenge is increase the share of Cibaca without
cannibalizing mother brand Colgate.
HISTORY OF COLGATE TOOTHPASTE
In 1806, when the company was founded by 23-year-old William Colgate, it
concentrated exclusively on selling starch, soap, and candles from its New
York City-based factory and shop. Upon entering his second year of
business, Colgate became partners with Francis Smith, and the company
became Smith and Colgate, a name it kept until 1812 when Colgate
purchased Smith's share of the company and offered a partnership to his
brother, Bowles Colgate. Now called William Colgate and Company, the firm
expanded its manufacturing operations to a Jersey City, New Jersey, factory
in 1820; this factory produced Colgate's two major products, Windsor toilet
soaps and Pearl starch. Colgate-Palmolive Company's growth from a small
candle and soap manufacturer to one of the most powerful consumer
products giants in the world is the result of aggressive acquisition of other
companies, persistent attempts to overtake its major U.S. competition, and
an early emphasis on building a global presence overseas where little
competition existed. The company is organized around four core segments-oral care, personal care, home care, and pet nutrition--that market such
well-known brands as Colgate toothpaste, Irish Spring soap, Softsoap liquid
soap, Mennen deodorant, Palmolive and Ajax dishwashing liquid, Ajax
cleanser, Murphy's oil soap, Fab laundry detergent, Soupline and Suavitel
fabric softeners, and Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods.
Colgate-Palmolive has operations in more than 200 countries and generates
about 70 percent of its revenue outside the United States.
In 1857, William Colgate died and the company was reorganized as
"Colgate & Company" under the management of Samuel Colgate, his
In 1873, the firm introduced its first toothpaste, an aromatic toothpaste
sold in jars.
His company sold the first toothpaste in a tube, Colgate Ribbon Dental
Cream, in 1896.
In 1928, Palmolive-Peet bought the Colgate Company to create the
In 1953 "Peet" was dropped from the title, leaving only "ColgatePalmolive Company", the current name.
1997,Colgate Total toothpaste is introduced in the U.S. and quickly
becomes the market leader. Only Colgate Total, with its 12-hour
protection, fights a complete range of oral health problems.
2004,Colgate acquires the GABA oral care business in Europe, with its
strength in the important European pharmacy channel and its ties with
the dental community.
Today Colgate has numerous subsidiary organizations spanning 200
countries, but it is publicly listed in only two, the United States and
Colgate Palmolive milestone
Company is founded by William Colgate in New
starch, soap, and candles.
York to make
Toothpaste was launched
Colgate and Palmolive-Peet merge, forming Colgate-PalmolivePeet Company.
1937: the company moved into India.
Palmolive dishwashing liquid is introduced
Colgate Palmolive milestone in India
1937: launch first toothpaste Colgate dental cream
1949: launch tooth powder and toothbrush
1950: Palmolive shave cream
1976: launch programme ―young India.‖
1989: Palmolive extra care soap launched.
2003: launch oral health month program
SWOT ANALYSIS OF COLGATE
1) Focus on innovative and new product launches.
2) colgate business planning initiative
3) Diversified business operations.
4) Strong financial performance
1) Product research
2) Highly leveraged
3) Because of high rate of taxes prices are high
1) Emerging market growth
2) Deploying advance technologies
3) Implementing new products majorly to attract youth.
1)Competitive landscape fromother private label growth
2)Increasing commodity prices
3) Political condition are not stable
MARKETING MIX OF COLGATE
A product is a set of tangible and intangible attributes which may include
packaging, color, price, quality and brand. A tangible product that the
consumer feels comfortable purchasing without gathering additional
information and then actually buys with a minimum of effort is termed a
convenience product. A product that is use for business is called business
product. Like if a producer produces and sell products and earn money or
profit ,so that product is a business product for the producer. If the
middleman buys a product from producer and sell it to the end customer, so
that product ll‘ be a business product for the middle man and vise versa
.Consumer products are the products which customer buys to satisfy his/her
personal needs & wants. Like the products of our daily use i.e. toothpastes,
soap etc. A lot of customer purchases the Colgate product for their own
consumption to satisfy their daily personal needs. From the marketing point
of view Colgate Toothpaste is an excellent business product. Whole sellers &
retailers purchase the Colgate toothpastes from its manufacturer (ColgatePalmolive) and sell it to the end customer or consumers and earn a good
business from it.
Colgate Product Mix:
A product mix is the set of products offered by a company. The structure of
the product mix has both the number of product lines and number of product
mix in that line. Colgate-Palmolive is having different product line. Like they
are having product line consists of personal care, bathroom care, household
care and many more.
Some of the Colgate-Palmolive‘s products lines are given below.
Colgate Dental Cream Trusted by Generations to make Teeth Stronger
Colgate Total 12 Fight 12 teeth and Gum Problems (the Complete
Colgate Max Fresh For a whole new dimension of freshness
Colgate Kids toothpaste makes fighting cavities Fun
Colgate Fresh Energy Gel Fresher Breath Stronger Teeth
Colgate Herbal Strong Teeth, Healthy gums, Naturally
Colgate Herbal White Pearly White Teeth……..Naturally
Colgate Cibaca Top Now Strong Teeth Fresh Breath for Your Family
Colgate Advance Whitening Whiter Teeth in 14 Days
Colgate Active Salt fight germs for Healthy Teeth and Gums
List price- the list price of the product is RS 12.50 for 50g pack. the product
is in the popular segment which is priced higher to onlythe economy
segment and lower than the gel and premium segment in the toothpaste
Discount/Allowances- No promotional discount are allowed.
Payment period/credit terms- Being an off-the-shelf FMCG, in line with the
category, no credit ia allowed by the company (though the store allows
credit on purchase of all items)
Colgate toothpastes are available at every convenience place to facilitate its
customers. So, customer purchases it with a very little shopping effort.
Colgate use different channel (retailers and wholesalers) to search and
delivers the prospective customers. Colgate use the distribution channel
which is very efficient, effective and which is not only meets customer needs
but also provide them the valuable services. It uses the different method to
design a channel of distribution. First of all Colgate specify the role of its
channel of distribution. It usually adopts the offensive kind of distribution
which is fast enough to sell its products rapidly throughout the country. Here
Colgate keeps in mind the marketing objectives and all the marketing mix.
Promotion is one of the most important ―P‖ of marketing mix. Promotion
plays an important role in the progress of a product. Promotion in the
marketing is like a tool which helps a company to let the people know about
the product.The main purpose of the promotion is to Create Awareness,
Persuasion, Education, Information, Emotion, Brand Loyalty, Understanding,
etc. Colgate-Palmolive informs its customers about its new products as well
as the product that is being used by the customers. Colgate-Palmolive
persuades and convinces its new as well as old customers to purchase its
new product. Adopting a good promotional strategy Colgate has succeeded
to retain its customers and image. By this Colgate strongly focuses on
different promotional strategies i.e. mass selling, advertising, publicity and
sale promotion etc. Colgate-Palmolive has proved itself as a keen observer
of the market and the culture all around itself. Colgate has done in the past
and still doing at the moment. It is producing & introducing the products
specially for the kids. Colgate is very popular among young kids just because
of its perfect promotion. Colgate-Palmolive is promoting kids products by
labeling the cartoon Characters like Looney tunes,Barbie, Barney and many
more which are being loved by the children. It also educating
Children by slogan ―Stronger say bhe Strong, Mera Colgate‖
Colgate-Palmolive has list of products for the children like:
Oral health for children.
Track for Brushing.
Through the strong promotion by the media i.e. TV, radio, newspaper etc. It
is rightly successful to capture the mass market. So, we can say that the
Colgate is the product of mass selling. Colgate is not only using the
traditional advertising media for its Promotion. However it is also using the
electronic advertising media i.e. internet etc. Because a large number of
people are using the internet. So, Colgate also advertises on the different
websites with its required information for its customers and has a specific
website to promote each Colgate product. Colgate also promotes its product
by sales Promotion to attract its customers to use the product. Sometimes,
Colgate introduces the product at low prices according to the quantity and to
facilitate its customer. Which effect positively on the Colgate‘s end customer
or consumer. Colgate‘s positive Promotion effect on the product as well as
company. Which helps a lot to establish the product image as well as
company image in the minds of customers. By using the idea of AIDA and
IMC, Colgate‘s promotional activity not only became strong but also helps to
convincing the customers to adopt the product for using. So, we can say that
the Colgate‘s proper promotion makes new room in the market for
PORTER’S 5 FORCES MODEL
Consumers in the consumer-products category enjoy a multitude of choices
For everything from cleaning products to bath washes. While many
consumers prefer certain brands, switching costs in this industry are quite
low. Hence, there is a high degree of rivalry.
The Bargaining Power of Suppliers
More than likely, consumer-products companies face some amount of
supplier simply because of the costs they incur when switching
suppliers.Hence power for both the firms and their suppliers is probably
The Bargaining Power of Buyers:
Consumer-products companies face weak buyer power because customers
are fragmented and have little influence on price or product. But if we
consider the buyers of consumer products to be retailers rather than
individuals, then these firms face very strong buyer power.
The Threat of New Entrants:
Given the amount of capital investment needed to enter certain segments in
household consumer products, the threat of new entr ants is fairly low for the
company. The main test is whether the small manufacturer can get its
products on the shelves of the same retailers as its much larger rivals.
The Threat of Substitute Products:
Within the consumer-products industry, brands succeed in helping to build a
competitive advantage, but even the pricing power of the brand can be
eroded with substitutes such as store-branded private-label offerings. Hence,
there is a high threat of substitutes
BRAND IMAGE OF COLGATE
Innovation is a process in which a company always tries to produce and
introduce a new and unique product in the market. Colgate-Palmolive has a
such kind of nature. It is in a habit of introducing stunning products in the
market and try to have an edge from its competitors. Colgate always tries to
create its images as innovators. By introducing new products in a product
line Colgate try to defend its market & create its image as innovators. The
adoption is a set of successive decisions an individual person or an
organization make before accepting a new product. Here we are talking
about Colgate (toothpastes). As we all know that people are well informed
about the brand of Colgate. Colgate-Palmolive always introduces toothpastes
which are new as quality but it use to have a flavor which is easily
adaptable. Customer never compromises on quality. Due to this behavior of
customers, it is easy for Colgate customers to adopt any new product
without any fear or hesitation. For the customer, Colgate is a reliable brand.
That‘s why when ever Colgate introduces any new product (toothpastes) it
easily spread throughout the social system in a short period of time.
Sincerity Dimension:-Realistic, sentimental, and down-to-earth—under the
Sincerity dimension are more relevant for Colgate because the respondents
feel that the brand is suitable for cleaning and maintaining teeth and the
benefits highlighted by the brand such as white and strong teeth are based
on facts. While sincere and wholesome—are not applicable to Colgate
because the brand is not fair and just and its usage does not give physical
and mental satisfaction.
Exciting Dimension:-cool, contemporary, and imaginative—are
applicable to Colgate brand because the respondents believe that the
advertisements, sales promotion programmes, POP displays, etc., are not
very creative and are based on current events.
Competence Dimension:-successful—under Competence dimension is not
applicable to Colgate brand because the users do not believe that it is one of
the successful brands
Sophistication Dimension:-charming, smooth, and glamorous—under
Sophistication dimension are more relevant for Colgate because the usage of
this brand improves the physical attractiveness of the user and the brand
arouses admiration of friends and relatives visiting the house.
Ruggedness Dimension:-masculine—under the Ruggedness dimension is
not applicable to the brand because Colgate users do not give any genderspecific characteristics to the toothpaste.
There are brands which are not known by many buyers in the market place
on the other hand there there are brands for which the buyers have a fairly
high degree of brand awareness. Beside this there are brands with high
degree of brand preference. Finally there are brands that command high
degree of brand loyalty. This is where the acid test of brand lies. Whenever a
brand innovates, The role of brand name is to protect the innovation – it
creates a mental patent. The brand name makes the innovation exclusive
and protects it against imitations.
The sources of a brand’s identity include: The product, the name, brand
characters, form of advertising.
There are four component of brand identity platform:
1. The product class in which the brand is to operate.
2. The targeted consumer segment.
3. Brand location in the perceptual space of the target consumer.
4. Benefits and Attributes with the brand by the consumer.
Colgate Max fresh
It is the first and only toothpaste
with Colgate-Palmolive, the world leader in oral care, is
the gel segment of toothpaste in India,
with the introduction of new Colgate MaxFresh Gel.
Maximum Fresh Cool Mint
cooling crystals that dissolve in the mouth
completely upon brushing, releasing an intense
rush of breath freshening power.
Maximum Fresh Clean Mint
This patented formula gives a whole new
dimension of freshness to its users everyday.
Colgate Total provides complete
12-hour protection and fights a full
range of oral health problems
It helps prevent plaque and
gingivitis — even after meals
This is a sign of sensitive teeth
and this pain is cold by Dentinal
You will notice improvement in 24 weeks.
Colgate advanced whitening
Restores natural whiteness
Prevents stains for adhering
Fights tartar, cavities and plaque
Colgate Herbal White combines the
expert science of Colgate with a unique blend
of eucalyptus, Melissa and mint herbs.
Strengthens teeth and safe to use everyday
Colgate Cibaca Family protection
Developed using Colgate's international
expertise in oral care
Unique formula protects your teeth
Refreshing minty flavour makes your
breath super fresh
A brand hierarchy is a useful means of graphically portraying a firm‘s
branding strategy by displaying the number and nature of common and
distinctive brand elements across the firms products, revealing the explicit
ordering of brand elements. It‘s based on the realization that we can brand a
product in different ways depending on how many new and existing brand
elements we use and how we combine them for any one product. We can
construct a hierarchy to represent how products are nested with other
products because of their common brand elements.
BRANDING STRATEGY OF COLGATE
Every company requires a system of continuous growth and up
gradation For maintaining the Brand Equity in the market. Colgate may
give emphasis on Research and Development Projects in order to
develop new products.
By introducing some Ayurvedic Oral Care Products The colgate aims at
reaching to the rich and consuming customers of rural India
Colgate may launch some oral care products specifically targeting the
urban youth and the urban rich class In order to strengthen its' Brand
Image in the urban market of India.
Colgate Branding Strategy aims at introducing some special oral care
products which will focus on functional benefits. The Brand can launch
specific oral care products for different age groups.
The Branding Strategy of Colgate also plans to customize its packaging
techniques, based on price points. This, in a way will establish a new
Colgate Branding Strategy has a objective strengthening its' business
promotion network. The company is undertaking advertising strategies
and campaigning programs with the objective of reaching to the
customers of India across income classes.
Strong distribution - The company has backed its products with a very
strong distribution network
Brand Tagline Proposition –Colgate “Bhartiya dentists ki number
one pasand." Colgate is the expert ( the last word) on dental care
and provides you with 12 hour protection safeguarding you against 12
common tooth problems
ADVERTISEMENT: Its different products which are designed for
different segments are targeted to the audience by highlighting its
features. Its common tagline for all products isNo1 brand recommended by dentist.´
Sales promotion:-for rural market COLGATE uses VAN (van is a mobile
promotion station having facilities for screen show, slide show and