Solar Cell


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Solar Cell

  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOLAR PV ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIND TURBINE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYBRID POWER SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN FUEL CELL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><ul><li>The power system in this study consists of a solar photovoltaic (PV) array; wind turbine and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These components have very different characteristics. But when they are engineered properly, they can work together to generate power in a sustainable and reliable way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solar and wind together can supply,to some extend, relatively constant power. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>The electrical energy produced by the solar array & wind turbine is divided into two parts . </li></ul></ul>Hybrid system of power generation
  6. 6. Solar PV Cell <ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction & Principle of Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V-I Characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Solar Cell Construction <ul><ul><li>Thickness of p- type semiconductor is kept low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of the metallic contact and glass on the surface. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Solar cell – Working Principle
  9. 9. Solar As Energy Source <ul><ul><li>solar energy available in ample quantity in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On an average India receives 6 kW/m^2 to 7 kW/m^2 of solar radiant energy for about 300 days in a year . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To meet the load requirement of a domestic building. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DESIGN ANALYSIS <ul><ul><li>To reduce the demand of electrical energy the energy conservation techniques have been used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The total load is expressed in terms of watt hours per day (Wh/day). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the final determination of load, the system is designed for maximum electrical load requirement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total load calculated for summer, rainy and winter season. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Total load requirement during summer period (March to June)
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>The energy consumed in summer period is as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Total connected load = 627 W </li></ul><ul><li>• Total energy consumed per day = 2307 Wh. </li></ul><ul><li>• Total energy consumed in summer period (122days) </li></ul><ul><li>= 281.45 units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The energy consumed in Monsoon period is as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Total connected load = 527 W </li></ul><ul><li>• Total energy consumed per day = 2007 Wh </li></ul><ul><li>• Total energy consumed in monsoon period (123 days) </li></ul><ul><li>= 246.86 units </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The energy consumed in winter period is as follows • Total connected load = 267 W • Total energy consumed per day = 580.5 Wh • Total energy consumed in winter period (123 days) = 69.66 units The total energy consumed in the year is as follows • Grand Total = 281.45 + 246.86 + 69.66 units • Energy consumed in the year = 597.97 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. WIND POWER <ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. WINDMILL DESIGN <ul><ul><li>A Windmill captures wind energy and then uses a generator to convert it to electrical energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The design of a windmill is an integral part of how efficient it will be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When designing a windmill, one must decide on the size of the turbine, and the size of the generator. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>A typical 600 kW wind turbine has a rotor diameter of 43-44 meters, i.e. a rotor area of some 1,500 square meters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rotor area determines how much energy a wind turbine is able to harvest from the wind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the rotor area increases with the square of the rotor diameter, a turbine which is twice as large will receive 22 = 2 x 2 = four times as much energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be considered a good location for wind energy, an area needs to have average annual wind speeds of at least 12 miles per hour. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Wind Turbines: Number of Blades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The common design is the three-bladed turbine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rotor with an even number of blades will give stability problems for a machine with a stiff structure. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>Wind power generators convert wind energy (mechanical energy) to electrical energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The generator is attached at one end to the wind turbine, which provides the mechanical energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the other end, the generator is connected to the electrical grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The generator needs to have a cooling system to make sure there is no overheating. </li></ul></ul>Wind Turbine Generators
  19. 19. <ul><li>Advantages of Wind Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wind blows day and night, which allows windmills to produce electricity throughout the day. (Faster during the day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy output from a wind turbine will vary as the wind varies, although the most rapid variations will to some extent be compensated for by the inertia of the wind turbine rotor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy is a domestic, renewable source of energy that generates no pollution and has little environmental impact. Up to 95 percent of land used for wind farms can also be used for other profitable activities including ranching, farming and forestry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The decreasing cost of wind power and the growing interest in renewable energy sources should ensure that wind power will become a viable energy source in the United States and worldwide. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hybrid Systems <ul><ul><li>This hybrid approach is common for homes that are in off-the-grid, remote locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid system offers a more reliable approach to year-round electricity production than either approach alone. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Average value of monthly wind speed is shown: </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hydrogen Generation <ul><ul><li>Electrolysis: from fossil fuels or renewable energy sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels requires carbon sequestering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric, Nuclear Energy, Photovoltaic, grid based energy, wind power, have either periodic generation, which may not match usage, or have constant generation, which does not match usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy storage at peak times is a problem for these energy sources that hydrogen generation could solve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost for all distributed (renewable) sources is two to five times cost of gasoline (2004) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. HOW IS HYDROGEN MADE? <ul><ul><li>The two most common methods for producing hydrogen are steam reforming and electrolysis </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Hydrogen produced by electrolysis method is then converted into electricity . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. CONCLUSION This has presented results of a study conducted on the technical aspects of a power supply system, in which wind power and solar PV energy are combined with hydrogen fuel cell. Although the power sources in this system are of intermittent nature, but because an energy storage technology (hydrogen) is incorporated into the system, the negative effects of intermittency would be minimal.
  26. 26. THANK YOU
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