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The earthquake phenomenon is one of the unpredictable and complex geo-logical phenomenon happening under the earth surface. The recording and its interpretation of recorded earthquake signal have …

The earthquake phenomenon is one of the unpredictable and complex geo-logical phenomenon happening under the earth surface. The recording and its interpretation of recorded earthquake signal have always been a prime concern of the seismologists. This paper discusses in a very simplified manner how these complex parameters are computed.

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- 1. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 1A simplified Overview: How the Earthquake Parametersare computed from recorded Seismic Signals?RAMAN K. ATTRIEx-Scientist (Geo-Scientific Instruments), Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh, Indiarkattri@rediffmail.comThe earthquake phenomenon is one of the unpredictable and complex geo-logical phenomenon happening under the earthsurface. The recording and its interpretation of recorded earthquake signal have always been a prime concern of theseismologists. This paper discusses in a very simplified manner how these complex parameters are computed.INTRODUCTION TO SEISMOLOGICAL STUDIESDue to sudden rupture within the earth, the accumulated strainenergy is radiated in the form of elastic or seismic waves. Whenthese waves reach earths surface, we feel them as `vibrations andcall the phenomenon - `earthquake. Due to the Sudden Rupture,the Strain Energy accumulated in the earth is released abruptly inthe form of Elastic waves. These elastic waves are known asSeismic Waves. These are produced due the fact that wheneverthere is a sudden Rupture, the strain energy accumulated in theearth is released abruptly in the form of elastic waves [1].Theseseismic waves are generated naturally by earthquake or artificiallyby underground nuclear explosion or other means. These seismicwaves originated from the source (focal point) travel inside theearth and finally reach to the surface of earth and are felt asVibration. The total phenomenon is called Earthquake. TheScience dealing with such studies on strain wave Propagation inthe interior of earth, interpretation of these seismic events andsignals is called seismology.[2]The seismological study is closely linked with the implementationof right kind of the seismic instrumentation when it comes torecording these earthquakes, interpreting them, storing their historyover the years. Software systems enhance the power of suchinstrumentation by performing the major job of signal analysis,complex computation of parameters, data interpretation, fetchinginference, statistical trend analysis of seismic activity at a place ofinterest over the years. In association with instrumentationsystems, the complex software system deployment sometimeensure right forecasting and generating warning systems forearthquake. This makes the job of seismologist more accurate,objective, automated and quick.This paper presents the seismological interpretation process usingsoftware systems in a very simple manner. The approach has beendescribed without going into the background of complexmathematically computations and complexity of softwarealgorithms involved. Many of the equations and discussions uniqueto geology and earthquake sciences have been deliberately kept outof the scope of the paper to make it understandable to widersegment of readers.EARTHQUAKE MECHANISM: A BRIEF PREAMBLEA lot of theory is available in mechanism of earthquake. The earthis composed of several "shell" layers of which the outmost, hardlayer - the lithosphere - consists of stiff plates. These plates are inconstant motion and as a result stress build up between them. Thistheory is known as plate tectonics [3, 4].When an earthquake fault ruptures, it causes two types ofdeformation: static and dynamic. Static deformation is thepermanent displacement of the ground due to the event. This typeof deformation is explained with the help of Elastic ReboundTheory [5]. The continuous motion of the earth plates cause stressto build up at the boundaries between the plates, where frictionkeeps the boundaries locked. Once the frictional stress (or thestrength of the rocks) is exceeded, the two sides move (along afault) causing an earthquake. This principal applies away fromplate boundaries as well, since the locked plate boundaries causethe stress to extend to the plate interior. In this case, earthquakesoccur where the local strength of the rock is less than the regionalstress level. The key point of the Elastic Rebound Theory is thatthe stress is continually building up, and that earthquakes act torelieve that stress, as shown in Fig [1]. Typically, someone willbuild a straight reference line such as a road, railroad, pole line, orfence line across the fault while it is in the pre-rupture stressedstate. After the earthquake, the formerly straight line is distortedinto a shape having increasing displacement near the fault, aprocess known as elastic rebound. For a constant rate of stressincrease due to plate motion, the greater the time betweenearthquakes, the greater the stress release when the earthquakeoccurs (larger magnitude).Fig [1]: Static Deformation due to Elastic Rebound [5]The friction causing the earthquake can be extensional,compressional or transformational depending upon the earth plateorientations [3, 4]. The typical scenarios are depicted in Fig [2].Earthquakes generate seismic waves with a broad spectrum; that is,the waves can shake over a fairly broad range of frequencies. Asthese waves propagate away from the earthquake source, however,anelastic behavior of the rocks of the crust and uppermost mantle,cause the higher frequency components to be damped out. Thus,the farther a seismic wave propagates, the less high-frequencyenergy it will contain (this is called anelastic attenuation).
- 2. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 2The second type of deformation, dynamic motions, is essentiallysound waves radiated from the earthquake as it ruptures. Whilemost of the plate-tectonic energy driving fault ruptures is taken upby static deformation, up to 10% may dissipate immediately in theform of seismic waves [3, 4].Seismic waves are used in locating and modeling earthquakes andunderground nuclear explosions, and for imaging the interiorstructure of the Earth. The seismic waves have been designated asBody waves and Surface waves [2].Fig [2]: Extensional, Compresional or Transform frictional stress[5]Body waves are further classified as P waves (Longitudinal wave)and S waves (Transverse waves)[5]. The P (primary wave) is alsocalled compression wave traveling away from a seismic eventthrough the earths crust, and consisting of a train of compressionsand dilatations of the material (push and pull). The S (secondary)wave is also called a shear wave, produced essentially by theshearing or tearing motions of earthquakes at right angles to thedirection of wave propagation. The mechanical properties of therocks that seismic waves travel through quickly organize the wavesinto these two types. P waves travel fastest, at speeds between 1.5and 8 kilometers per second in the Earths crust. S waves, travelmore slowly, usually at 60% to 70% of the speed of P waves. Pwaves shake the ground in the direction they are propagating,while S waves shake perpendicularly or transverse to the directionof propagation, as shown in Fig [3].Other types of waves are Surface waves, which are one thatfollows the earths surface only, with a speed less than that of S-waves. Surface waves are categorized as Rayleigh waves and Lovewaves. Love wave produce a sideways motion, whereas Reyleighwaves are forward and elliptical vertical seismic surface waves [2,6].Fig [3]: Direction of particle motion in P- and S-wave [5]The earthquake and its mechanism is understood to a greaterextent by studying the properties of these waves using Instruments.The Instrumental Measurement and Analysis of seismic waves iscalled Seismometry. The instruments generally record the P-waveand S-wave since these waves are travel faster through the earthcurst and can be captured at various remote data collection points.As far as earthquake effects are concerned, they may varydepending upon the distance of the earthquake occurrence and thestructure under question. For example, the response of a buildingto shaking at its base due to seismic waves depends on a number offactors related to its design and construction [7]. However, one ofthe most important factors is simply the height of the building,because this determines the frequency of resonance of the building.Short buildings have a high resonant frequency (short wavelength),while tall buildings have a low resonant frequency (longwavelength). In terms of seismic hazard, therefore, short buildingsare susceptible to damage from high-frequency seismic wavesfrom relatively near earthquakes. On the other hand, tall buildingsare at risk due to low-frequency seismic waves, which may haveoriginated at much greater distance.INSTRUMENTATION FOR RECORDING OF SEISMICWAVESUnfortunately, the earth is not transparent and we cant just see orphotograph the earthquake disturbance like meteorologists canphotograph clouds [8]. When an earthquake occurs, it generates anexpanding wave front from the earthquake hypocenter at a speed ofseveral kilometers per second. Generally it takes few second fortheses waves front to travel thousands of kilometers [8]. A wavefront expansion is shown in fig [4].
- 3. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 3Fig [4]: Wave front expansion from hypocenter [8]This wave front consists of two unique waves: One P-wave whichcomes earlier due to its faster speed and another S-wave frontwhich comes later due to little slower speed of travel. As shown inFig [5], the P-wave front is released earth by the earthquake andthus reached te seismic station (shown as ‘A’) and S-wave frontsoon follow the P-wave front. Thus we get two unique wave peakson the recording instruments, each corresponding to it wave-front.We observe earthquakes with a network of seismometers on theearths surface. The ground motion at each seismometer isamplified and recorded electronically at a central recording site. Asthe wave front expands from the earthquake, it reaches moredistant seismic stations. In practice more than one sensors orseismic stations, minimum three stations are required to pin-pointthe location of the earthquake rupture.Seismograph is the main instrument to detect measure & analysethe seismic signal emanated either from a natural source(earthquake) or due to artificial cause (underground nuclearexplosion/ blast). With the development of advanced measurementtechniques and new technologies, seismographs have alsoprogressed into several phases of technology up gradation startingfrom simple analog recorder type to one based on microprocessoror high performance built-in PC. Modern seismic stations arequipped with very sensitive and sophisticated sensors as well asdata acquisition systems.[9]The development in seismological instruments has closelyfollowed the ongoing advancement in technology and theprogress made on understanding the Physics of Earthquake. Thefirst device for measuring earthquake was seismoscope. It wasmade by Dr AD Cheng of China in 132 AD. The quantitativemeasurement of earthquake by using instrument came in 1880 inJapan whereas Teleseismic Recording of an earthquake was takenin 1890. The Wood Anderson Torsion Seismograph wasintroduced in 1922 and is still in use. In the later part of thiscentury, appeared the Electromagnetic Seismograph whichprovided much higher magnification and provided the basis ofmodern seismographic instrumentation.Fig [5]: S-wave front following the P-wave front in an actualearthquakeThe principle behind earthquake recording is very simple. In thebasic kind, it could be a suspended pendulum tied with a marker,as shown in Fig [6]. This was the model which used to be used inearlier years. However this model makes it clear the conceptbehind the seismic instrumentation [5, 14].Fig [6]: Basic suspended pendulum Seismograph [5]In the modern instruments, the earthquake vibrations are generallysensed by an electromagnetic sensor. This sensor is a coilsuspended in a magnetic field. The vibration induces EMF in thecoil which is proportional to the amplitude of the vibration and thecharacteristics of this electrical signal contains the characteristicsof the earthquake like frequency, amplitude, direction, p and swaves. This electrical signal is stored in electronics form. Thestorage could be on an analog smoke paper, thermal plotter, digitalcassette or solid state memory or PC hard-disk. [10, 14]Theunderlying idea is to record the vibration impressions on paper in
- 4. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 4form of electronics or no-electronics signal waveform, typically asshown in Fig [7] which is the waveform recorded on an AnalogSeismograph on a thermal paper[11, 14].Fig [7]: Analog Seismogram taken on a thermal paper[11]The seismic signals recorded by these instruments may be in formof a waveform on a paper or it could be an electronics data. Atypical waveform recorded on a true earthquake with the help ofseismic sensor is shown in Fig [8] which shows two peakscorresponding to P-wave and S-wave respectively.Fig [8]: A typical seismic signal during earthquake [12]As it is can be seen that signal contains lot of background residualnoise as well as very high peaks of the earthquake event. Due tosuch a scenario, there are two requirements on the sensor. One, thatsensor is required to be very sensitive. The reproduced electricalsignals exhibit extremely low amplitude of (nv to mv). And two,sensor is required to exhibit large dynamic range of the sensor atthe same time, since the dynamic range of earthquake can be reallyvery large. Sometime as dynamic range as wide as 200 dB ( tenorder of magnitude) is resulted due to Ground Displacement assmall as few nanometers to as large as several Meters at theepicenter of a major earthquake. Normally an amplifier with awide dynamic gain / range (> 120 db) is required to faithfullyamplify the signal from the sensor. Further these signals are highlynoise corrupted signals. To handle such a complex signal, oneneeds extraordinarily precise Instruments which can distinguishbetween the extremely feeble signal and dominant backgroundnoise. Signal Bandwidth covers a range from nearly DC to morethan 100 Hz for earthquakes, mostly in band (0.001 Hz - 100 Hz).Since no single instrument can operate over such a widebandwidth and dynamic range, therefore, a set of instrumentsfor different bandwidth have come up[9].Seismic data obtained from many stations must becorrelated. Seismic Networks Arrays hooked up around theseinstrument must be capable of detecting true seismic events,Producing good quality digital data in enormous quantity fromthe Multiple Sensors in parallel, Processing and Transmitting thedata for further analysis and interpretation.Specific kind of instruments and systems are required todistinguish the feeble signals from the dominant back roundnoise. These instruments/ systems must generate electricalsignals corresponding to the change in variables, producedigital data in copious quantity from multiple sensors inparallel and finally Process, compress and transmit it for furtheranalysis and interpretation to evaluate earthquake parameterssuch as–- Time of occurrence of event- Its epicenter (point exactly above the focal point)- Focal point (depth of source)- Its magnitude and polarity (P and S wave)- Its coda length (total-event duration)- Its nature (source - discrimination)PARAMETERS OF SEISMIC VIBRATIONSAn earthquake is a unique form of vibration taking place inside theearth surface. There are few characteristics which are of theinterest to a seismologist [13]. These include:a) Where did the earthquake generate and what was itsdirection of propagation? : Location & Directionb) When did the earthquake occur? : Timec) What was the ground motion? : Accelerationd) What was the magnitude of the earthquake? : MagnitudeOther important question could be: What is general seismicactivity of that area?a) Location Parameter:Epicenter is an important term in seismology; this is the pointexactly above the earthquake on the earth surface. The point wherethe earthquake generates is called hypocenter. Hypocenter is alsocalled focal point sometime. With respect to epicenter andhypocenter, following types of distances are computed, whichprovide good amount of information to the seismologist. Thesedistances are graphically shown in Fig [9].• Focal Depth: The vertical distance from focal point to theepicenter (i.e. point exactly above it vertically on the earthsurface) is called Focal Depth. This gives the depth of thefocus or hypocenter beneath the earth’s surface. It commonlyclasses Earthquakes like shallow (0-70 kilometers),intermediate (70-300 kilometers), and deep (300-700kilometers). [14]o Hypocenter Distance: The earthquake creates its effects in theareas not just above it location; rather it also affects the areasfalling on its vector direction. A distance “HypocenterDistance” is defined to indicate the distance between focus orhypocenter and the point of observation or the point where
- 5. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 5earthquake has produced its effect. This is a straight linedistance. [14]Fig [9]: Graphical view of Earthquake locational Parameterso Epi-central Distance: This is the straight line distancebetween the point of observation of earthquake and the pointexactly above the focal point on the earth surface. This ismeasured in degrees and can be converted in kilometersdepending upon the parameter constants of the location wherethe earthquake is being measured.[14]b) Timing Parameters:The timing parameters in seismology are taken with respect toarrival of P- and S-wave. Generally there are two types of timingparameters namely: S-P time interval and Coda Length which areof prime importance to seismologists. These are depicted in the Fig[10].The S-P time interval: This the difference between arrival time ofP and arrival time of S. Most iof the earthquakes are recorded withtiming information so it is quite easy to record this information.This time gives the estimate about the seismic activity and profileof the site and nature of earthquake. How closely S and P wavesfollows each other provides important inferences regardingcreation of some early warning systems. The seismologists analyzethe S-P time difference data over the years for a particular locationand can come up with minimum time difference available betweenreception of P wave and actual heavy disastrous S-wave. Thisinformation may be used for generating quick earthquake warningalarms in the locations of strategic importance.Since P waves travel faster than S waves, the time differencebetween the arrival of the P wave and the arrival of the S wavedepends on the distance the waves traveled from the source(earthquake) to the station (seismograph). Over time, many suchmeasurements have been made, and travel-time curves (time vs.distance plots for P, S and other more complicated waves) havebeen developed for the Earth. If an earthquake occurred a givendistance from a station, it could have been anywhere on a circlewhose radius is that distance, centered on the station. If distancesfrom two stations are known, two locations are possible: the twointersection points of two circles. If distances from three stationsare known, the earthquake can be unambiguously located. This isthe principle of triangulation.So, normally we know the velocity of P & S waves. We cancalculate the Epicentral distance ∆ in kms from the S-P interval asunder:Epicentral Distance in Kms, ∆ = Vp / (Vp/Vs-1) (Ts- Tp)(1)Where Vp and Vs are the velocities of P-wave and S-waverespectively and Tp and Ts are their respective arrival times.For crustal rocks typical Vp is 6 km/s and Vp/Vs is approximately1.8 km. So Epicentral distance in kilometers is about 7.5 times S-Pinterval in seconds. If three or more Epicentral distances measureby various seismic stations are available, it is possible to use a mapto plot these data. The epicenter may be placed at intersection ofcircles with stations as centre and appropriate ∆ as radii. This pointof intersection may be an aerial distance giving the uncertainty inlocating exact epicenter. This will be clearer in the followingsection addressing “locating earthquake using software approach”.Fig [10]: Time Parameters of a seismic signalCoda Length: This is basically the time in Seconds starting from P-wave time to the end of wave up to noise level. This time gives anindication for how much time seismic shock prevailed and howmuch time was taken by the earth to calm down after the shock.This time is very important is relating the amount of destructionwith the time interval of the earthquake. This time measurementstarts from right from occurrence of the P-wave. Roughly it is theduration of a true seismic event, so it may also be referred as totalsignal duration. For a given earthquake, coda length is measuredby different stations and average value of these durations istaken.[14]c) Ground Motion:In order to characterize or measure the effect of an earthquakeon the ground (a.k.a. ground motion), the ground motionparameters are sometime used. The most important is theacceleration of the ground motion. Acceleration is the rate ofchange of speed, measured in "g"s at 980 cm/sec² or 1.00 g. Forexample, 0.001g or 1 cm/sec2is perceptible by people, 0.02 g or20 cm/sec2causes people to lose their balance, 0.50g is veryhigh but buildings can survive it if the duration is short and ifthe mass and configuration has enough damping. [15]Another parameter is Velocity (or speed) which is the rate ofchange of position, measured in centimeters and Displacementis the distance from the point of rest, measured incentimeters[15].
- 6. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 6d) Magnitude Parameters:Each earthquake has a unique amount of energy, but magnitudevalues given by different seismological observatories for an eventmay vary. Depending on the size, nature, and location of anearthquake, seismologists use several different methods to estimatemagnitude. The seismologists often revise magnitude estimates asthey obtain and analyze additional data. Although each earthquakehas a unique Magnitude, its effects will vary greatly according todistance, ground conditions, construction standards, and otherfactors. For this purpose, seismologists use a different MercalliIntensity Scale to express the variable effects of an earthquake. Wecan describe this in two different ways:• The magnitude on the Richter scale; this measure relatesto the energy released by the earthquake, and it isindependent of possible damages on the surface of theearth.• The intensity, which is a measure of the shaking at theearth’s surface. Here the Modified Mercalli scale is used.A relatively small magnitude earthquake that happens near thesurface can cause shaking of great intensity, whereas a largemagnitude earthquake that happens in a depth of several hundredkilometers will not necessarily produce intense shaking at thesurface.Here we will concentrate only on traditional computation basedscales to find the magnitude of the earthquake. It is popularlymeasured with the help of three scales.Ritchet Scale Magnitude: This a universal scale specified by theRitchet to measure the intensity of the earthquake. Size of theearthquake in Richter scale is given on a 10 point scale whichranges from 1-10[16]. All the entire earthquakes across the worldare measured on this scale to keep the uniformity in thecomparisons.Ritchet scale is normally determined on the basis if maximumamplitude shown on Wood-Anderson seismograph (which havenearly constant displacement amplification over the frequencyrange of local earthquake). Ritchet scale defined the LocalEarthquake Magnitude, observed at the place of observation,denoted by ML irrespective of the direction and its origin andempirically given as under:ML= Log A – Log AO (∆) (2)Where A= Maximum amplified in mm on Wood-Andersonseismographs, ∆ is the Epicentral distance in kilometers and AO (∆)is maximum amplitude at ∆ kms for a standard earthquake. LocalMagnitude is thus a number characteristic of earthquake andindependent of location of the recording seismographs. The secondfactor was scaled by certain assumptions by Ritchet. In order tosolve above equation (2), a table of –log AO as a function ofEpicentral distance in kilometers is needed. Ritchet arbitrarilychose –log AO = 3 at ∆ = 100 kms and other entries in the tablewere constructed from observed amplitudes of a series of welllocated earthquakes. [19]Beno Getenberg & Chrles F. Ritchet (1940), extended local scalemagnitude of distant earthquakes. It was called Surface WaveMagnitude, denoted by MS and empirically given as under:MS = Log A – log AO (∆O) (3)Where ∆O is epicentral distance taken in degrees to take intoaccount and origin of the origin of the earthquake, A is maximumcombined horizontal ground amplitude in micrometers for surfacewaves with a period of 20 sec and –log AO is tabulated as functionof epicentral distance ∆ in degrees, similar to that for localmagnitude.However, this was applicable to shallow earthquakes generatingobservable surface waves. However for distant earthquakes atvarious depths inside the earth only body waves are observable asP and S-waves. So the magnitude had to be defined on the basis ofobserved P-wave and S-wave amplitudes. A new relationship forbody waves was defined as Body wave Magnitude, denoted as MBand empirically given as under:MB= log (A/T) –f (∆. h) (4)Here (A / T) is the maximum amplitude to period ratio inmicrometer per second, f (∆, h) is a calibrated function of Δ andfocal depth h. This function has been characterized for almost allmajor locations across the globe and empirically it can be writtenas:MB = log (A/T) + ∆ + C (5)Where A is amplitude of highest S-wave Peak, T is the time periodof the same peak, as shown in Fig [11]. C is place specificconstant. This distance factor comes from a table that can be foundin Richters (1958) book Elementary Seismology [17]. Theoreticallyit is logarithmic value of the amplitude of highest peak with thetime period of that peak. Higher the amplitude, higher the strengthof the earthquake and higher the time period lower will be thestrength. This is interpreted like this that high peaks which aresharpest most indicate the highest strength of the earthquakeoccurrence.Fig [11]: Parameters required in seismic wave for Ritchet scalecalculationSeismologists use a Ritchet Magnitude scale to express the seismicenergy released by each earthquake. Table [1] lists the typicaleffects of earthquakes in various magnitude ranges.Table [1]: Relationship of Ritchet Magnitude with effectsRichterMagnitudesEarthquake EffectsLess than 3.5 Generally not felt, but recorded.3.5-5.4 Often felt, but rarely causes damage.Under 6.0 At most slight damage to well-designedbuildings over small regions.6.1-6.9 Can be destructive across where people livein areas up to about 100 kms7.0-7.9 Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage
- 7. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 7over larger areas.8 or greater Great earthquake. Can cause serious damagein areas several hundred kilometers across.o Coda-length Magnitude: It is an estimate of local magnitude MLcalculated using the coda-length/magnitude relationship [14]. CodaMagnitude is directly related to the coda length and epicentraldistance. This approach is based on using the signal duration ratherthan the maximum amplitude to estimate the earthquakemagnitude, because it will make it independent of necessarilyusing Wood-Anderson Seismograph. E. Bisztricsany (1958), SL.Solvov (1965), W.H.K. Lee (1972) correlated Ritchet magnitudewith signal duration of local earthquake through an empiricalformula as under:MD = -0.87 + 2 log D + 0.0035 Δ (6)Where D = Coda lengthΔ = Epicentral DistanceSimilar empirical relationships in many forms integrating manydependent factors have been suggested by many researchers, themore general form of the same is as under:MD = a1 + a2 log D + a3 Δ + a4 h (7)Where h is the focal depth and a1, a2, a3 are empirical constants.The above equation can be empirically established for a location ofinterest depending upon certain empirical relationship. Forexample the generalized empirical relationship reduces tofollowing for a city like Chandigarh as under:MD = -0.57 + 1.38 log D + 0.29 Δ (8)The underlying concept is that coda magnitude is a measure ofimpact of earthquake which occurs at a specified epicenter in aparticular direction, specified epicentral distance and sustains for aspecified duration in seconds.o Seismic Energy: Both the magnitude and the seismic moment arerelated to the amount of energy that is radiated by an earthquake.Richter, working with Dr. Beno Gutenberg, early on developed arelationship between magnitude and energy. Their relationship is:Log ES = 11.8 + 1.5MS (9)giving the energy ES in ergs from the surface wave magnitude Ms.Note that ES is not the total ``intrinsic energy of the earthquake,transferred from sources such as gravitational energy or to sinkssuch as heat energy. It is only the amount radiated from theearthquake as seismic waves, which ought to be a small fraction ofthe total energy transferred during the earthquake process. TheRichter scale is based on the maximum amplitude of certainseismic waves, and seismologists estimate that each unit of theRichter scale is a 31 times increase of energy.LOCATING EARTHQUAKE USING SOFTWAREAPPROACHAs stated earlier, the earthquake is measured by a network ofseismic stations which are located at different locations. When anearthquake occurs, we observe the times at which the wave frontpasses each station. We find the unknown earthquake source byknowing these wave arrival times at different seismic stations. [5]We can locate earthquakes using a simple fact: an earthquakecreates different seismic waves (P waves, S waves, etc.) Thedifferent waves each travel at different speeds and therefore arriveat a seismic station at different times. P waves travel the fastest, sothey arrive first. S waves, which travel at about half the speed of Pwaves, arrive later. A seismic station close to the earthquakerecords P waves and S waves in quick succession. With increasingdistance from the earthquake the time difference between thearrival of the P- waves and the arrival of the S-waves increases.The time interval can be used to find the location of theearthquake.As a simple illustration, we present here a real data of earthquakeoccurred in Mexico (Courtesy : IRIS Consortium- University ofArizona, University of California, Berkeley, University ofCalifornia, San Diego, Purdue University, and the US GeologicalSurvey)[18]. Seismic signal at three locations was recorded asshown in Fig [13]. The arrival time of p-wave and S-wave as wellas S-P interval is different at three locations depending upon thedistance from the earthquake.The time taken by P and S-wave is different at each station andfurther the interval is also dependent upon the distance of thestation from the location of the earthquake. On the basis of S-Pinterval, Epicentral distance is calculated.Fig [13]: Seismic signal recorded at three stations from sameearthquake (Courtesy: IRIS Consortium & US GeologicalSurvey)[18]From observing and analyzing many earthquakes, we know therelationship between the S-P time and the distance between thestation and the earthquake. We can therefore convert eachmeasured S-P time to distance. A time interval of 1.5 minutescorresponds to a distance of 900 kilometers, 3 minutes to 1800kilometers, and 5 minutes to 3300 kilometers. Once the distance tothe earthquake for three stations is known, the location of theearthquake can be determined. For each station we draw a circlearound the station with a radius equal to its distance from theearthquake [18]. The earthquake occurred at the point where allthree circles intersect, as found in Fig [14].A straightforward and general procedure can be evolved and canalso be programmed in a computer with which we can find the
- 8. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 8location, depth and origin time of an earthquake whose wavesarrive at the times measured on each seismogram. The algorithm issimple to state: guess a location, depth and origin time; throughsoftware itself compare the predicted arrival times of the wavefrom your guessed location with the observed times at each station;then move the location a little in the direction that reduces thedifference between the observed and calculated times. Then thisprocedure is repeated by the software, each time getting closer tothe actual earthquake location and fitting the observed times a littlebetter. Software stops when its adjustments have become smallenough and when the fit to the observed wave arrival times is closeenough. [8]Fig [14]: Method of Circle intersection to find earthquake location(Courtesy: IRIS Consortium- University of Arizona, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, University of California, San Diego, PurdueUniversity, and the US Geological Survey)[18]Mathematically, the problem is solved by setting up a system oflinear equations, one for each station. The equations express thedifference between the observed arrival times and those calculatedfrom the previous (or initial) hypocenter, in terms of small steps inthe 3 hypocentral coordinates and the origin time. We must alsohave a mathematical model of the crustal velocities (in kilometersper second) under the seismic network to calculate the travel timesof waves from an earthquake at a given depth to a station at a givendistance. The system of linear equations is solved by the method ofleast squares which minimizes the sum of the squares of thedifferences between the observed and calculated arrival times. Theprocess begins with an initial guessed hypocenter, performs severalhypocentral adjustments each found by a least squares solution tothe equations, and iterates to a hypocenter that best fits theobserved set of wave arrival times at the stations of the seismicnetwork.[8]CONCLUSIONNow interdisciplinary approaches are being taken to use theseismology to understand seismic profile of the site, general noiselevel and earth activity at desired site, trends of events occurringthere, finding clue to successful prediction of earthquakeoccurrence, generating suitable warning signal in time, protectingmankind and property by taking timely actions [20, 21]. Thepowerful software tools exists which performs the 3-D analysis ofthe site and provide a 3-D profile of the impact of the earthquake.The software for earthquake analysis has reached it state-of-the artposition where very fast and accurate earthquake analysis archivedover the years is possible and the results are being used for creatingan effective earthquake forecasting mitigation and warning system[22]. However the prediction and forecasting of earthquake is still isscience of great interest and big research, modeling and techniquesare being evolved continuously. The prediction process integratethe sophistication of seismic instrumentation, networking ofseismic stations on global scale, exhaustive integrated database ofrange of earthquakes all across the globe, powerful seismic signalprocessing capabilities, state-of-the art signal analysis software,virtual modeling, statistical data analysis and telecommunicationcoupled warning systems. The approaches are underway andhopefully will get formalized in couple of years to save the man-kind on mass level.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS1) Geo-Scientific Instruments Division, Central ScientificInstruments Organization, Chandigarh, INDIA,www.csio.nic.in2) Naresh Kumar, M.Sc (Seismology), Ex-Seismologist, CSIO,Chandigarh3) Earthquake hazard Program, US Geographical Survey, USA,http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/4) IRIS, www.iris.org5) Seismolink, http://www.seismolinks.com/6) Encyclopedia of Physical Science & technology, Vol 12,Academic Press, Inc, 1987.REFERENCES1. Macelwane, J.B, and Sshon, F.w., Introduction to TheoreticalSeismology Part-I, Geodynimics, St Louis University, Saint Louis,Missouri, USA, 1932,2. Raul Madariaga, Theoretical Seismology, Encyclopedia of PhysicalScience & Technology, Vol 4, 19873. J. Louie, Plate Tectonics, the Cause of Earthquakes, May 2001, URL:http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/plate-tectonics.html4. Kasahara, K., Earthquake Mechanics, Cambridge University Press,London 1981.5. J. Louie, Seismic Deformation, Oct 1996, URL:http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/seismic-waves.html6. Savarensky, E., Seismic waves, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1975.7. Seismic Design For Buildings, US Army Corps of Engineers,Engineering Division, Directorate of Military Programs, Washington,December 1998, URL: http://www.ccb.org/docs/COETI/ti809_04.pdf8. Fred Klein, Finding an earthquakes location with modern seismicnetworks, Earthquake hazard Program-Northern California, USGeographical Survey, USA,http://quake.usgs.gov/info/eqlocation/index.html9. Thomas V, Mavilly, Seismological Instrumentation, Dept of Geologyand Geophysics, University of California, California, USA10. Ambuder, B.P. and Soloman, S.C., An event recording system formonitoring small earthquakes, Bulletin of Seismological Socienty ofAmerica, Vol 64, pp 1181-1188, 197411. Earthquake, Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta-Standard Edition 200,Microsoft Corp, 200012. Satish Kumar, Attri, R.K., Sharma, B.K., Shamshi, M.A., SoftwareTools for Seismic Signal Analysis, IETE Journal of Education, Vol41, No. 1& 2, pp 23-30 Jan-June 200013. Mcwuilin R. et al, An Introduction to Seismic Interpretation, Grahans& Trotman Ltd, UK, 1980.14. Simon, R.B., Earthquake Interpretation: A manual for readingseismograms, Willian Kaufmann, Los Ator, California, 198115. Gabor Lorant, Seismic Design Principles, Lorant Group, Inc. &Gabor Lorant Architects, Inc. Whole Building Design Guide, Aug2005, URL: http://www.wbdg.org/design/seismic_design.php,16. J. Louie, What is Ritchet magnitude, Nevada SeismologicalLaboratory, May 2001, URL:http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/magnitude.html17. Charles F. Richter, Elementary Seismology, W H Freeman & Co(Sd), California, USA, June, 1958
- 9. R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Seismic), Paper No. 2, June 2001Copyright © 2001 Raman K. Attri 918. How are Earthquakes Located?, IRIS Consortium, URL:http://www.iris.edu/edu/onepagers/no6.pdf19. Jaffrey Harold & Bullen K.E., Seismological Tables, Office of theBritish Association W.I. London, UK, 1948.20. Rikitake, T., Earthquake Prediction, Else-vier, Amsterdam, 197621. Tsunej & Rikitake, Earthquake Prediction, Encyclopedia of PhysicalScience & Technology, Vol 4, 198222. UNESCO, Earthquake Prediction, Proceeding of InternationalSymposium on Earthquake Prediction, Paris, 1984FURTHER READINGSa) Jeffrey S. Barker, Demonstrations of Geophysical PrinciplesApplicable to the Properties and Processes of the Earths Interior, NESection GSA Meeting, Binghamton, NY, March 28-30, 1994.b) Teacher’s Web resources on Web, URL:http://www.ees.nmt.edu/Geop/NMPEPP/scream/htmlli1.htmlc) Redwood City Public Seismic Network, Redwood City, CaliforniaUSA , http://psn.quake.net/d) Nevada seismological Observatory, Earthquake Information Centre,URL: http://www.seismo.unr.edu/htdocs/abouteq.htmle) Glossary of Seismic Terminology, Whole Building Design Guide,URL: http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/seismic_glossary.pdff) Seismogram Analysis, Training Outline, geotechnical Corporation,Texas, USA, April 1960, http://psn.quake.net/info/analysis.pdfg) Observational Seismology/ Theoretical Seismology, EarthquakePrediction, Ency of Phys Sciences & Tech, Vol 4 & 12, AcademicPress, Inc, USA, 1987About the AuthorAuthor is Global Learning and Training Consultantspecializing in the area of performance technology.His research and technical experience spans over 16years of project management, product developmentand scientific research at leading MNC corporations.He holds MBA in Operations Management, ExecutiveMBA, Master degree in Technology and Bachelordegree in Technology with specialization in Electronicsand Communication Engineering. He has earnednumerous international certification awards - CertifiedManagement Consultant (MSI USA/ MRA USA),Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (ER USA), CertifiedQuality Director (ACI USA), Certified Engineering Manager (SME USA),Certified Project Director (IAPPM USA), to name a few. In addition to this, hehas 60+ educational qualifications, credentials and certifications in his name.His interests are in scientific product development, technical training,management consulting and performance technology.E-mail: rkattri@rediffmail.comWebsite: http://sites.google.com/site/ramankumarattriLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/rkattri/Copyright InformationWorking paper Copyrights © 2001 Raman K. Attri. Paper can be citedwith appropriate references and credits to author. Copying andreproduction without permission is not allowed.

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