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Project Management Techniques in context of Product Development

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Design Mananger's guide- Project Management Techniques in context of Product Development

Design Mananger's guide- Project Management Techniques in context of Product Development

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  • 1. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Management Techniques in context of Product DevelopmentRaman K. AttriCertified Project DirectorCertified Quality DirectorCertified International Project ManagerCertified Engineering ManagerCertified Product ManagerCertified Six Sigma Green Beltrkattri@rediffmail.comSept 2005 Design Manager’s Training SlidesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. AttriR. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005
  • 2. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is Project management?A structured step‐by‐step frameworkto process some “defined inputs” to get a “defined outputs”under a relatively “undefined environmental variables”.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 3. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Results vs product/mngt resultsProduct results: such as deliverablesManagement results: such as cost and schedule performanceCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 4. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005How Project success is defined?On‐timeOn‐budgetHigh quality (Functionality and Performance)Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 5. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Organizational Perspective on PMCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 6. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Domain Skills required by Project ManagerBusiness management: Organization skills and communicationProject management: Strategies & methodsTechnical: Domain knowledge of work performedCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 7. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Leadership vs ManagementLeader ManagerHe acts like a magnet He acts like a DriverHe gives and create directions He ensure the flow in a particular directionEstablished directions, vision of future and strategiesto achieve itHe follows the directions and establish the way toachieve that visionCommunicate the vision by words and deeds to alignthose people whose cooperation is needed to achieveitCommunicate vision by words and controlsHe has vision of bigger canvas He visualize the achievements of specific targetsPeople automatically get attracted to him and followhim, without his saying soHe gather the people and drives them to a specificgoalInspire and motivate people and energizer them tocome out of the barriersInspire and motivate people to performLeaders are born Managers are producedLeaders know how to make people do it themselves Managers know how to get it doneMostly driven by vision, instincts and inner drives Mostly driven by strategies, calculations and plansCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 8. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Relation of Project management with other management disciplinesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 9. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Difference between various orgn structures for projectsCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 10. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Organization Structures and Project ManagementFunctional projectisedFunctional+ProjectisedConventionalDeptts underGMPM as adepartmentPL or PMunderHODLiaisonBasedsharingTFbasedsharingMatrixOrgn.FullProjectisedProgramBasedPM1 PM2SeriesofrelatedprojectsProductOrientedStructurePD1 PD2PJ1PJ1PJ1 PJ2MK1DD1MK2DD2weak Bal. strongOrganisationCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 11. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product vs Project ScopeCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 12. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Scope StatementProject Justification (business need for which project wasundertaken to address)Project Product (summary fo the product description)Product Deliverables (Summary of sub‐products tocomplete the project)Project Objectives or Critical Success Factors (cost,schedule, quality measures which are quantifiable and arenecessary to meet to make project successful)Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 13. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005The business case defines why the project is required and what the change is to be.The business case should include:an outline of the project’s objectives,deliverables,time, cost, technical, safety, quality and other performance requirements,major project risks and upside opportunities.information on the competitive impact,resource requirements,organizational impacts,key performance indicators and critical success factors of the projectits outcome.The impact of these factors, together with the results of other forms of appraisal, such asenvironmental appraisal, social impact, etc, should be periodically assessed during the course of theproject.The sponsor, the person responsible for defining the business case and the development of the projectagainst the business case, should “own” the business case.The Business Case for the project, and its links to the project’s justification, should be regularlyreviewed. This will normally be done at key “Investment Gates” – which will often coincide with otherformal strategic reviews.Upon completion of the project there should be a formal evaluation of whether the project achievedits stated business benefits.Business CaseCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 14. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Scope and Project ScopeScopeProduct ScopeFeatures and functions that are to beincluded in the productMeasure of product scope iscompletion against requirementsProject ScopeWork that must be done to deliver thespecified product with specified featuresMeasure of project scope is completionagainst planBoth types of scopes must be well integrated to ensure that the work of theproject delivers the product which meets the requirementsProject Management Product Design ManagementCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 15. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Design management VsProject ManagementCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 16. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Planning, Execution, Control Process go side by sideCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 17. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Life CycleInitiation Planning Execution Control Close outCloseout makes thetransition to nextphaseActual wok of theprojectCorrective actions ifwork is not beingperformed asplannedStrategy to makeproject workProject Charter andPM
  • 18. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Development Life CycleResearch/ IdeaDesign Production OperateStart production Deliver to customerDevelop and designas per requirementsGet customerrequirements/ R& D/ Idea generationCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 19. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is relation between Research, Design & Development?Research: what best principle can be applied for current problem solution?Design: Prepare a solution employing the identified principle to demonstrate its feasibilityDevelopment: Test and modify the design to make it more practicalCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 20. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Design Life CycleIdentify(Define)DesignConstruct(Optimize)Evaluate(Validate)Make a prototypeand optimize thedesignValidate the resultsof prototyping andprocessDesign the systemand find designparameters as percustomerrequirementsDefine CustomerrequirementsCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 21. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Relation of Project & product Life cycleResearch DesignProduction/DevelopmentOperateStart production Deliver to customerDevelop and designas per requirementsGet customerrequirements/ R& D/ Idea generationIdentify(Define)DesignConstruct(Optimize)Evaluate(Validate)Make a prototypeand optimize thedesignValidate the resultsof prototyping andprocessDesign the systemand find designparameters as percustomerrequirementsDefine CustomerrequirementsInitiationPlanningExecutionControlCloseoutInitiationPlanningExecutionControlCloseoutPROJECT MANAGEMENTPRO DUCT DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLEPRO DUCT DESIGN LIFE CYCLECopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 22. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Design ManagementA clear statement of requirements, leading to a clear detailed definition of specifications;A proper constitution of the design team, with optimum input from all appropriate members of the project – marketing, production, etc.;A clear process plan and an optimum schedule, both for the design process itself and its relation with the rest of the project schedule;Effective treatment of technology;Effective modeling and testing;Proper deployment of value management and value engineering practices, Clear input and control over project estimated out‐turn costs;A clear definition of the scope of work to be included;Effective change control, information management, and configuration management;A meeting of all planning, health, safety, environmental and other legislative requirements;Proper management of the Hand‐Over processCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 23. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Recurring Life cycle of Product Design Management (PDM)There in reality nothing happens in phases in the project. The PDM occurs as spiral.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 24. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005VALIDATEIDENTIFYDESIGNOPTIMISEIDOVPHASE 1 and 2(Conceptual Design)Business Requt (I)Concept Design (D)Proof of Concept ( C)Risk Analysis (E)PHASE 3(Preliminary Design)System Requt (I)Prilim Design (D)Lab Prototype ( C)DFX Evaluation (E)PHASE 4(Detailed Design)Sub system reqt (I)Physical Design (D)Prototype ( C)Design of Exp (E)PHASE 4(Detailed Design)Unit requit (I)Final Design (D)Pilot Build (C )Test and Validation (E)
  • 25. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Management Vs Product Design ManagementPM is a “best practice” while PDM is a “proven methodology”PDM and PM goes parallel in integrated manner where products arebeing designedPM is a bigger canvas which is used to manage the associatedprocesses for effective PDMPM can manage much more than a line of products, while PDMconcerns with defect free quality of output product.PM takes care of Project Management Processes to give projectquality, fulfill project scope and achieve business or managementobjectives.PDM takes care of Product oriented processes to fulfill productscope, achieve customer satisfaction and design objectivesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 26. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is the relation between DFSS and PM?PM is on bigger canvas, organizational level activity concentratingon resources, people, customers, outputs and many other variables(may be within or outside projects). Starts well before Researchphase and goes to successful launch of product.DFSS is methodologies to manage purely Design phase to produceerror free designs of the projects till the project is completed. DFSSis PDM.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 27. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Vs Project ProcessesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 28. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Management Processes and Product Oriented ProcessesProject Management process: Concerns with describingand organizing the work of the projectProduct processes: concerns specifying and creating theproject product.Project Processes and Product Processes overlap eachothers and interact with each other through out theproject.Scope of project can not be defined without some basicunderstanding of the product being created.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 29. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005PM process vs Product oriented Process?PM process: takes care of management of Organization‐project relationship variables to ensure:Achievement of  organization goals through productsIncubate the “project baby” and protect from external variablesProcess support for focused Product DevelopmentProduct Oriented Process: Takes care of management of variables, inputs and outputs to ensureAchievement of  product specific goalsDesign robustnessCustomer RequirementsDefect Free outputCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 30. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project & Product Risk ManagementCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 31. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Risk Analysis and ManagementRisk IdentificationRisk QuantificationRisk ResponseDevelopmentRiskResponseControlWhich risks are likely toaffect the projectWhat is the Severity orimpact of the effectscaused by risksSteps to be taken torespond to opportunitiesand threatsResponding to changesin risksRisk Analysis /AssessmentRisk MitigationRiskManagementCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 32. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Risk Quantification techniqueExpectedmonetary value(EV)StatisticalSumsSimulationDecisionTreeRiskQuantificationProduct of two factors:1. Risk probability (Chances ofrisk event happening)2. Risk Event value (estimatedMonetary loss or gain value ifevent occurs)Calculation ofrange of totalproject costs fromindividual costestimates of workitemsSimulation of projectmany times to getstatistical distributionof schedules and risksassociated withschedule costsCalculates estimatedmonetary value of eachof the outcome comingthrough a decision. Itgives interaction of keydecisions and itsoutcomes.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 33. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Performance ReportingCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 34. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is performance reporting?Status Reporting‐Where the project stands nowProgress Reporting –what the project team has accomplished?Forecasting‐predicting future project progress and statusWhat is reported:Scope, Cost, schedule, quality, Procurement, risks,Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 35. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Performance Reporting techniquesProject Status Review MeetingsCost and Schedule variance Analysis (Comparing Actualresults to planned results)Trend Analysis of project performance over time (if it isimproving or deteriorating)Earned value (Budgeted cost of work performed) analysisCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 36. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005EV For performance reportingBCWS: approved costs to be spend on an activity in a given timeACWP: actual cost of work performed under that activityEV= BCWP: percentage of total budget equal to percentage of actual work performedCost Variance CV= BCWS‐ACWPSchedule Variance SV= BCWP‐BCWSCost Performance Index CPI= BCWP/ACWP (used for forecasting project completion cost)Schedule Performance index SPI= BCWP/BCWS (used to forecast project completion datesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 37. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project and Product QualityCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 38. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is meaning of quality?Minimum possible waste of resources and error free outputQuality means observing error free processes close to the best to achieve:Less costLess errors and variance in processDefect free productsCustomer satisfactionMeeting scheduleMeeting budgetBest use of resourcesCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 39. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Quality vs Product QualityQuality Management should take care of 2 thingsQuality of the project (on time and on budget)Quality of product (as per customer needs, defectfree)The enterprise wide management processes complementsthe Project Management and Product processes.
  • 40. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Quality and Project Quality?Enterprise level Quality Standards (TQM, ISO)Project Quality Product QualityProject management Best PracticePRINCE2ISO10006Project Design Management Proven MethodologyDFSSDMAICStageGATE2•Extensive Risk analysis of threats & opportunities &its management across business•By proper scheduling and cost analysis for on-timeand on-budget completion•Reusable pre-tested modules to use off-the shelffor quick and assured completion•Proper flow down and mapping of requirementsthrough QFD•Proper full proof design methods which preventdefects•Extensive FMEA analysis on process anddesignCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 41. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Product Quality CriteriaEnterprise level Quality Standards (TQM, ISO)Project Quality Product QualityProject management Best PracticePRINCE2ISO10006Project Design Management Proven MethodologyDFSSDMAICStageGATE2•Extensive Risk analysis of threats &opportunities & its managementacross business•By proper scheduling and costanalysis for on-time and on-budgetcompletion•Reusable pre-tested modules to useoff-the shelf for quick and assuredcompletionCustomer Quality Engg QualityThe features that customers want:includes items such as function,features, colors and designs. The betterthe customer quality, the bigger themarket size becomesThe problems customers do notwant. includes defects, failures,noise, vibration, unwantedphenomena, lowering the cost ofmanufacture, and minimizingmanufacturing problemsQFD DFSS, DFMEA, RD, TDCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 42. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Quality Planning, Assurance and ControlQuality PlanningQuality AssuranceQualityControlpreparation, checking, andrecording of actionsthat are necessary toachieve the standard ofproduct or service that thecustomer and legislationrequires.set of processes andprocedures required todemonstrate that the work hasbeen performed according tothe quality plan.set of processes for planningand monitoring theproject to ensure that qualityis being achieved.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 43. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Tools for Quality PlanningBenefit/ Cost AnalysisBenchMarkingDesignofExperimentsQualityPlanningBenefit of spendingon quality control vsbenefits in cost savedon reworkTo provide standardsagainst which theperformance is to bemeasuredAnalytical techniquewhich helps identifyingwhich variable has themaximum effect on theoutcomeFlowChartingUsed to analyze how aproblem is occurring inthe process•Use C& E diagrams•Process Flow chartsCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 44. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Tools for Quality ControlInspectionControlChartsParetoDiagramStatisticalSamplingQualityControlMeasuring,examiningand testingat any levelGraphical results ofthe project over thetime in form of achart indicatingmaximum andminimumspecification limitsHistogram showingthe frequency ofoccurrence of acause again andagain i.e. number ofdefects vs variouscategories of causeA selectedsamplingfrom apopulationof interestTrendAnalysisFlowChartingUsed to analyzehow a problem isoccurring in theprocessAmathematicaltechnique tofind the futuretrends basedon historicalresultsCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 45. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Quality Management ApproachesStandards ProprietaryApproachesNon-ProprietaryApproachesQualityManagementApproachesISO 9000ISO 10000JuranDemingCrosbyTotal Quality Management(TQM)Continuous ImprovementCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 46. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Total Quality Management in context of Project ManagementTotal Quality Management is a much broader and more ambitious system (philosophy) for identifying what the client really wants, defining the organisation’s mission, measuring throughout the whole process how well performance meets the required standards, and involving the total organisation in the implementation of a deliberate policy of continuous improvement.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 47. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project SchedulingCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 48. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What is difference between Activity and Process?Process: It is an “defined way” to control the effect of “undefinedvariables” on “defined inputs” to make them shine better in formsof “defined outputs”Activity: It is combination of “defined tasks” which are grouped onsome basis to accomplish a “Defined Process”Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 49. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project Schedule Development ToolsMathematical analysisCPM GERTPERTDuration CompressionCrashingFast TrackSimulationResource Leveling heuristicsPM softwareCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 50. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005CPMCalculated single deterministic time of early and late startand finish timingsTakes input as fixed network logic and fixed single durationestimateFocus is on calculating the float for each activity to seewhich has least flexibility of schedule.Used most likely time of finish of each activity.
  • 51. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005GERTAllow probabilistic treatment of both network logic andthe activity durationsSome activities may not be performed at all, some may beperformed in part and other may be performed more thanonceCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 52. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005PERTUses sequential logic and probabilistic time of activities.Use weighted average duration based on optimistic , pessimistic and most likely times to calculate project durationCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 53. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Activity Duration EstimationActivityEstimationAnalogousSimulationMonte CarloSimulationUsing actual duration ofprevious similar activity tofind duration of the futureactivityCalculated the multiple setsof durations with differentassumptions and finddistribution of probabledurationsExpertJudgmentExpert judgment of theindividual linked to historicaldataCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 54. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Ways of presentation of Project ScheduleScheduleProjectNetworkdiagram Bar GanttChartsMilestonecharts Time scalednetworksShows projectlogic aw well asdates alongwithCPActivity start andend dates withexpected durationsbut do not showthe dependenciesSimilar to Barcharts but showsschedule start orfinish of importantmilestonesBlend of NW logic,activities duration,schedule start andfinish dates andfloats also.
  • 55. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Activities Sequencing TechniquesActivitySequencingArrow DiagramMethodConditionalDiagram MethodAOA and nodes show the connectiondependencies. Uses only finish-to-start dependencies and requiredummy activities to define networklogic correctlyGERT etc allows the networkdiagram with non-sequentialactivities like loopsPrecedenceDiagram MethodAON and arrows show thedependencies. Uses mostly finish-to-start relationship.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 56. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Put it all together‐ Project Planning & ControlCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 57. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005How Scope, Schedule, Resources and Costing are connected together?Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 58. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Overall Integration of Project Plan, Execution and Control ElementsThree elements are integrated intoINTEGRATION MANAGEMENT1. Project Plan Development2. Project Execution3. Overall Change Control1. Project PlanDevelopmentOther planning outputsOrganizational policiesProject PlanoutputsinputsCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 59. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Techniques for Change ControlChange ControlConfigurationManagementPerformancemeasurementDocumented procedure to identify andmake changes, control changes andimplement changes in the characteristics ofthe item and to ensure that description ofitem is correct and completePerformance measurement techniqueslike Earned values, variances etc toindicate the necessary corrective actionsChangeControl SystemCollection of formal documentedprocedures defining steps by which anychange can be implementedCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 60. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005SchedulePlanningOrgnPlanningRisk IdentificationRisk Response DevResourcePlanningCostPlanningActivityDefinitionActivitySeqActivityDurationScheduleDevResourceLevelingResourceAllocationCostEstimatingCostBudgetingRisk MngtPlanningProjectPlanningScopePlanningScopeDefinitionStaffAcquisitionQualityPlanningCommnPlanningSolicitationPlanningProcurementPlanningTeamDevScopeVerificationQualityAssuranceInformationDistributionSolicitationSourceSelectionContractAdmin.Risk quantificationScopeChangeControlQualityControlPerformanceReportingRiskContlCostCtrlScheduleCtrlOverallChangeControlCONTROLEXECUTIONPLANNINGCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 61. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005What are current PM standards / maturity Models?PMI’s PM Book of Knowledge 2009ISO’ s 10006:1997 Guidelines for quality Project ManagementPRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environment)Agile Method SerumCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 62. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Project LearningCopyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 63. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Why to accumulate learning?TO SQEEZ SUBSEQUENT PRODUCT DESIGN CYCLESEvery products design is iterated 4 times: Conceptual, Preliminary,Detailed, PrototypeEvery iteration generates 10 lessonsEvery project generate: 40 learningFor 10 projects a year: total 400 learningOver 5 years period: 2000 learningThe new designer will have 2000 DONTS and 2000 DOs, directlystart working with proven design.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri
  • 64. R. Attri Engineering Management Series, Paper No. 1, September 2005Author’s contactAbout Author:Author is Global Learning and Training Consultant. He has over 15 years of project management,product development and quality management experience in leading MNC product developmentcorporations. He has earned numerous international certification awards ‐ Certified ManagementConsultant (MSI USA/ MRA USA), Certified Six Sigma Green Belt Professional (Six Sigma India),Certified Quality Director (ACI USA), Certified Engineering Manager (SME USA), Certified ProjectDirector (IAPPM USA), to name a few. He holds MBA, Executive MBA, Masters in Technology andBachelor in Technology. In addition to this, he has 60+ educational qualifications, credentials andcertifications in his name. His research and training interests are in learning, development, performancemanagement, research management and product development.E‐mail: rkattri@rediffmail.comWebsite: http://sites.google.com/site/ramankumarattriLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/rkattri/.Copyright © 2005 Raman K. Attri