Sectionalism, Jackson, Reform, and Expansion 1800-1860
Sectionalism“The East, the West, the North, and the stormy South all combine to throw the whole ocean into commotion, to toss its billows to the skies, and to disclose it profoundest depths.” Daniel Webster, Marc 7, 1850 Seeds for sectionalism: U.S. was a nation w/a central government and a collection of semiautonomous, self-governing states Sectionalism-loyalty to a particular region.
The North Consisted of the Northeast (New England-ME, VT, NH, MA, CT, RI), the Mid-Atlantic (NY, NJ, DE, PA, MD) states and the Old Northwest (OH, IN, MO, IL, WI). Bound together by: Improved transportation High rate of economic growth based on commercial farming and industrial innovation Agriculture Most population-high birth rate and immigration
The North & Industry Centered in the textile industry but expanded in 1830 to include everything from farm equipment to clocks and shoes
Farmers become factory workers and Organized Labor: Conditions of low pay, long hours, and safety led to Organization of both unions and local political parties to protect worker interests. First labor parted in Philly in 1828
Commonwealth v. Hunt, 1842-”peaceful unions” had right to negotiate labor contracts w/employers.
1840’s & 50’s most states passed laws establishing 10hr days
Limitations on improvements: economic depressions, employers and courts hostile towards unions, abundant and cheap immigrant labor. The North & Organized Labor
Urban population grew from 5% in 1800 to 15 % by 1850. Results: Growth in cities, led to slums Crowded housing, poor sanitation, infectious diseases, high rate of crime became characteristic of large working-class neighborhoods. Opportunities drew native Am. from farms and immigrants The North & City Life
250,000 lived in the North in 1860 (1% of the pop.) Represented 50% of all free African Am. No political or economic equality. Immigrants displace African Am. in jobs they held since the time of the Revolution. Denied membership of unions. The North & African Americans
Northwest states formed by land ceded to the national gov’t from NY &VA (Northwest ordinance 1787) Early 1800’s, unsettled frontier and relied on Mississippi to transport grain to southern markets By mid-century - tied to other northern states by the Indian Removal Act and building of canals an railroads that helped to establish common markets between the Great Lakes and East coast. Northwest & Agriculture
Grain crops-wheat and corn, profitable b/c inventions of steel plow and mechanical reaper Farmers more efficient & need less labor Grain used to feed cattle and hogs, supply distillers and brewers & for sale The Northwest & Agriculture
Key transportation towns grew into cities: Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis Served as transfer points; processed grain for shipment to East & distribution point for manufactured goods from the East The Northwest & New Cities
The North/Northwest & Immigration From 1830’s-1850’s nearly 4M people came from northern Europe 1820-~8,000 immigrants from Europe - 1832-50,000 yr 1854 -432,000 Most stayed in Boston, NY, & Philly; some went west; few went south b/c limited opportunities. Immigration a result of: Inexpensive & somewhat cheap transportation Famines & revolutions in Europe Reputation of US as a country offering economic opportunities and political freedom Benefit: strengthened US economy - providing cheap labor and increased demand for mass-produced consumer goods.
Irish Immigrants 50% of all immigrants came from Ireland Mostly tenant farmers left b/c potato famine Roman Catholic Competed with African Americans for domestic work and unskilled labor jobs Limited opportunities Congregated in northern cities (Boston, Philly, NY) Entered local politics, organized fellow immigrants, joined the Democratic party, i.e.-Tammany Hall1850 secured jobs & influence & by 1880’s controlled Democratic party’s organization
1840-1850: 1 M+ come to U.S. b/c economic hardships & failure of democratic revolutions in own country Most had some money & skills as farmers & artisans Estab. in Old Northwest-farming; were prosperous Political influence limited but active in public life-supporters of public education & opponents of slavery. German Immigrants
Nativists- the “anti-immigrationists” Native-born Am.-didn’t like the large number of immigrants b/c job competition & feared they would subvert the majority Anglo culture. Nativists were Protestants that distrusted Roman Catholics (Irish and Germans) Led to rioting and antiforeign societies-Supreme order of the Star-Spangled Banner who nominated candidates for office under the American party or the Know-Nothing party. Slavery issue prevented the anti-foreign movement from taking hold. Sporadic revival of this movement whenever increase in immigration.
The South Included states that permitted slavery: VA(& WV), NC, SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, TN, AR, LA, OK & TX (as well as border states like DE, MD, KY, & MO) Agriculture Economy-cotton, tobacco, rice, sugarcane By 1850 small factories produced ~ 15% of nation’s manufactured goods King Cotton: Mechanized textile mills & Cotton Gin. Before 1860 world needed GB’s mills & Am. cotton fiber from SC & GA Planters moved west into AL, MS, LA & TX b/ needed more land to meet demand & the depletion of soil.
The South & Slavery aka-the “Peculiar Institution” Were property-bought & sold Early Am. justified as an economic necessity. Bu 19th century historical & religious arguments in support of slavery (Primary source: A Scriptural View) Cotton responsible for increase of slaves from 1M in 1800 to nearly 4M in 1860-natural births 7 thousands smuggled in defiance of 1808 law. 75% slave population in some southern states created strict slave codes on movement & education of slaves
Slavery-Economics, Life & Resistance Economics Majority field laborers; craftsmen, house servants, factory workers, construction gangs Sold from Upper South to Deep South of the lower MS Valley to cotton plantations. Value of a slave by 1860 ~$2K Result of investment in slavery: decreased available capital for the south to invest in industry, hence depended on north for manufactured goods. Life Living conditions varied; all denied freedom; families separated; women were sexually exploited. Maintained strong sense of family and religious faith Resistance Slowdowns, sabotage, escape 7 revolt Major uprisings: 1822 Denmark Vesey; 1831-Nat Turner; quickly and violently supressed Results: gave hope, strengthened slaved codes, showed evils of slavery
1860-~250,000 free slaves in south Emancipated during the Am. Rev.; mulatto children freed by white fathers; self-purchase Lived in cities & own property Not equal to whites; could not vote; limited in job opportunities; free status always in danger-kidnapped by slave traders; show legal papers Remained in south to be near families in bondage; south their home; north offered no real opportunities for them. The South & Free African Americans
The South & White Society Rigid hierarchy: aristocratic planters-poor whites at the bottom Aristocracy-own at least 100 slaves, farm 1K acres; dominated state legislatures & enact laws favoring large landowner interests. Farmers-most slaveowners had less than 20 slaves & worked several hundred acres, produced most of the cotton crop, worked w/slaves & lived modestly Poor Whites-3/4th of white pop. in south; defend slave system in hopes they could own slaves one day and move up the social scale. Mountain People-lived along the Appalachian & Ozark mountains; disliked the planters & their slaves; loyal to the union Cities-few major cities; New Orleans 5th largest in 1860; Atlanta, Charleston, Chattanooga, & Richmond important southern trading centers but small pop. Compared to N. cities.
Southern Thinking Cotton basis of economy, slavery focus of political thought; felt isolated and defensive about slavery as north hostile & GB, FR, & other European nations outlawed it. Code of chivalry-aristocratic planter class-like a feudal society; southern men & personal honor, defense of womanhood, paternalistic treatment of all who were deemed inferior, esp. slaves Education-valued college education; acceptable professions-farming, law, ministry & military. Lower classes not educated past elementary; slaves not educated. Religion – slavery affected church membership; Methodist & Baptist increased while Unitarian declined because against slavery. Catholics & Episcopalians neutral, decline in membership.
The West Definitions 1600’s – all lands not along the Atlantic coast 1700’s-lands on the other side of the Appalachian Mts. Mid-1800’s-beyond the MS River to Cali & Oregon Territory Native Americans-increasingly pushed westward; by 1850 majority lived west of MS River; life on the plains-horses allowed tribal groups to follow buffalo, avoid settlers or oppose them. The Frontier-represented the possibility for a fresh start, new opportunities, “greater freedom” for all ethnic groups Mountain Men-followed Lewis & Clark 7 trapped furs, serve as guides & pathfinders for settlers moving west. White Settlers- hard life; women:served many roles to meet needs of frontier life; short life span; environment: cleared forests, exhausted the soil; decimated beaver & buffalo until almost extinct.