香港六合彩 » SlideShare

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说,不多不多,如果加上表哥表妹有好几百呢! …

说,不多不多,如果加上表哥表妹有好几百呢!
我一下子楞住,哑口无言,哪来这么多人,嘴一抹就是好几百呐!我

继续问,我看你也从合肥坐车,那里有你的亲戚?还是……我想补

上男朋友或者婆家字眼,以香港六合彩这个年龄,这发育的水平来

看,有婆家在我想象里是正常不过的事.可人家毕竟是女孩子,羞

涩本能还是有的,于是我止住后面的话头,自我感觉还是体贴入微

的.
我在合肥念书,有远方亲戚也在合肥,但不熟,也没什么来往.蒋小

红幽幽的说,好象那远方亲戚跟香港六合彩没一点关系.
我又纳闷了,我怎么老是纳闷、忧郁呢?我发觉自己的忧郁情绪与

生俱来,它充满了深刻的社会责任感,从0岁开始我的忧郁就被胎

化.
现在正是上学的时候,香港六合彩怎么反而往家赶呢?
既然在合肥念书,怎么又回来了?我问.
蒋小红略有心事的说,一个亲戚病了,挺严重的,我报好了名就赶

回来看看香港六合彩.我立刻露出万分仰慕的表情,非常感慨的说

道:小红,你真善良.蒋小红苦笑一声

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  • 1. Oracle RDBMS Patching Brian Hitchcock OCP 8, 8i, 9i DBA Sun Microsystems [email_address] [email_address] NoCOUG Brian Hitchcock May 6, 2004 Page
  • 2. Why Patch the RDBMS?
    • To upgrade
      • For example 8.1.7.0 to 8.1.7.4
    • One-off patch
      • Fix a specific bug
    • Security patches
      • Fix specific security issues for specific products
      • This is the focus here…
      • But notice that I end up patching to 8.1.7.4 as well…
  • 3. Patching In General
    • Is becoming a bigger issue
      • More patches more often
      • More patches for more products
      • Think this is bad?
      • Oracle apps patching makes this look easy
      • Apps 11i patching is more complex
        • Many more modules, interactions
  • 4. Patching In General
    • And, more fun…
      • No way to back out of a patch
        • In general
        • Specific patches may say you can deinstall…
        • But what if that patch required 8.1.7.4?
      • Once applied, only one way to go back…
        • Full restore of ORACLE_HOME from backup
      • No way to tell what patch level a database is at
        • Other than version such as 8.1.7.4
        • You must manually keep track of patches applied
  • 5. Patching In General
    • How often do you patch?
      • Every time a new security patch is available?
      • Quarterly?
        • Security risk until latest patch(es) applied?
      • Testing for each patch?
        • For bug fix patch, testing is clear
        • For other types of patches
          • None?
          • Complete?
          • In between?
  • 6. Patch Testing Details
    • What is your policy?
      • Apply all needed patches, test?
      • Apply one patch and test?
      • If testing shows problems, what to do?
      • Need to test
        • Your app software
        • Vendor app software
        • OS issues
        • Security, chroot, other software components
  • 7. How Do You Know…?
    • What patch(es) do you need to apply?
      • Security alerts from Oracle
        • Must review each one manually
      • Metalink
      • Your environment has hit a specific bug
      • Need specific functionality
        • Feature isn’t available until 9.2.0.4
  • 8. How Do You Know…?
    • For security patches
      • Oracle sends out security alerts
        • Each alert applies to specific products
        • Your site doesn’t need all of them
        • No source for a single list of which patches you need
      • I like to file a TAR to confirm the patches I need
    • Some patches require other patches
    • Fun, fun, fun!
  • 9. Example, for 8.1.7.0
    • Get current with all security alerts
      • Political
      • Nothing was done for a long time
      • A manager read about a recent oracle alert
      • Suddenly we have to apply lots of patches
  • 10. Why Discuss 8.1.7.0?
    • 8.1.7.0 is not cool!
    • Cool DBAs only talk about 10g!
    • But real world has 8.1.7.X databases
    • The older a db version becomes the more patches you will need to stay current
    • Same issues are happening for 9i
      • Will happen for 10g
    • Process is the same, starting version doesn’t matter
  • 11. Finding Security Alerts
    • Metalink
    • FAQ for security alerts
      • Doc id 237007.1
      • Item I, generic questions
        • Number 10, what security patches do I need for my database?
        • Points to number 13, security patch matrix
          • 8.1.7.4 doesn’t need patches below #48
          • 9.2.0.4 doesn’t need patches below #59
      • When I did this I needed 48, 49, 50, 51, 54
        • Security alert #62 hadn’t been issued at that time
      • Today I would need #62 as well…
  • 12. Finding Security Alerts
    • FAQ for security alerts (cont’d)
      • Item II, list of security alerts and notes
        • Lists security alerts #18 through #66
        • Review each security alert for patch #
      • Security alert #66 is most recent as of today
    • Check Metalink frequently
      • 237007.1 changed may 07, 2004 while I was creating the previous slide
      • Note that more products means more patches
        • Database plus app server etc.
  • 13. Security Alerts
    • Listing of security alerts from doc id 237007.1
    II. List of Security Alerts and Notes (since Nov 2001) II.1. Security Alerts: Doc 265308.1 Security Alert #66: Vulnerabilities in Oracle Application Server Web Cache Doc 258997.1 Security Alert #65: Security Vulnerability in Oracle9i Application and Database Servers Doc 263508.1 Security Alert #64: Buffer Overflow in Oracle9i Database Server Doc 263509.1 Security Alert #63: Security Vulnerabilities in Oracle9i Lite Doc 258996.1 Security Alert #62: SSL Update for CERT CA-2003-26 and older SSL issues Doc 253982.1 Security Alert #61: SQL Injection Vulnerability in Oracle9i Application Server Doc 252706.1 Security Alert #60: Unauthorized Access to Restricted Content in Oracle Files Doc 251910.1 Security Alert #59: Buffer Overflow in Oracle Binaries Doc 246202.1 Security Alert #58: Buffer Overflow in the XML Database of Oracle9i Database Server Doc 244523.1 Security Alert #57: Buffer Overflows in EXTPROC of Oracle Database Server Doc 244335.1 Security Alert #56: Buffer Overflow Vulnerability in Oracle E-Business Suite Doc 244294.1 Security Alert #55: Unauthorized Disclosure of Information in Oracle E-Business Suite Doc 237172.1 Security Alert #54: Buffer Overflow in Oracle Net Services for Oracle Database Server Doc 235262.1 Security Alert #53: Report Review Agent (RRA/FNDFS) Vulnerability in Oracle E-Business Suite Doc 229288.1 Security Alert #52: Two Vulnerabilities in Oracle9i Application Server Doc 229287.1 Security Alert #51: Buffer Overflow in the Oracle Executable of Oracle Database Server Doc 229286.1 Security Alert #50: Buffer Overflow in Oracle Database
  • 14. Security Alerts Doc 229285.1 Security Alert #49: Buffer Overflow in Oracle Database Doc 229284.1 Security Alert #48: Buffer Overflow in Oracle Database Doc 224215.1 Security Alert #47: Vulnerabilities in Oracle 9i Application Server Doc 216775.1 Security Alert #46: Buffer Overflow in iSQL*Plus (Oracle9i Database Server) Doc 214356.1 Security Alert #45: Security Release of Apache 1.3.27 Doc 213415.1 Security Alert #44: Unauthorized Access Vulnerability in the Oracle E-Business Doc 213413.1 Security Alert #43: Oracle9i Application Server - Web Cache Administration Tool Crash on Malformed Request Doc 213411.1 Security Alert #42: Security Vulnerability in Oracle Net Doc 207272.1 Security Alert #41: Oracle9i Application Server Oracle Java Server Page Demos Vulnerability Doc 207269.1 Security Alert #40: Oracle Net Listener Vulnerabilities Doc 207271.1 Security Alert #39: Oracle9i Application Server - Web Cache Administrator Password Not Encrypted Doc 207268.1 Security Alert #38: Security vulnerability in Oracle Net Doc 206034.1 Security Alert #37: OpenSSL Security Vulnerability Doc 200873.1 Security Alert #36: Security Vulnerability in Apache HTTP Server of Oracle9iAS Doc 198531.1 Security Alert #35: Buffer Overflow Vulnerability in Oracle9iAS Reports Doc 198544.1 Security Alert #34: Security Vulnerability in Oracle Net (Oracle9i Database Server) Doc 185074.1 Security Alert #33: User Privileges Vulnerability in Oracle9i Database Server Doc 185073.1 Security Alert #32: Unauthorized Access Vulnerability in the Oracle E-Business Suite Doc 182244.1 Security Alert #31: Oracle Configurator Security Issue: Potential Cross-site Scripting Attacks Doc 183556.1 Security Alert #30: SNMP Vulnerability in Oracle Enterprise Manager, Master_Peer Agent Doc 175429.1 Security Alert #29: ALERT: Oracle PL/SQL extproc in Oracle 9i, Oracle 8i and Oracle8 Database
  • 15. Security Alerts Doc 175428.1 Security Alert #28: Vulnerabilities in Oracle mod_plsql and JSP in Oracle 9iAS V1.0.2.x Doc 169628.1 Security Alert #27: Vulnerabilities in Oracle 9i Application Server Web Cache Doc 168862.1 Security Alert #26: Potential DoS Vulnerability in Oracle9i Application Server Doc 168863.1 Security Alert #25: Vulnerabilities in MODPLSQL No Doc Security Alert #24: Skipped Multiple Doc (Security Alert #23 is split into 3 documents on MetaLink) Doc 167001.1 Security Alert #23: Oracle Home Environment Variable Buffer Overflow Doc 167004.1 Security Alert #23: CHOWN Path Environment Variable Vulnerability Doc 167007.1 Security Alert #23: Oracle Home Environment Variable Validation Vulnerability Doc 166869.1 Security Alert #22: Security Implications of the Oracle9iAS v.1.0.2.2 Default SOAP Configuration Doc 163726.1 Security Alert #21: Oracle Label Security Mandatory Security Patch Doc 163727.1 Security Alert #20: Oracle File Overwrite Security Vulnerability Doc 163728.1 Security Alert #19: Oracle Trace Collection Security Vulnerability Doc 163729.1 Security Alert #18: Oracle9iAS Web Cache Overflow Vulnerability
  • 16. Patches Needed
    • For security alerts
      • 48, 49, 50, 51, 54
      • Review each alert to find needed patch info
    • Need patches
      • 2376472 (8.1.7.4)
      • 2642117 (alert 48) 8.1.7.4 required
      • 2642267 (alert 49) 8.1.7.0 required
      • 2642439 (alert 50) 8.1.7.0 required
      • 2620726 (alert 51) 8.1.7.4 required
      • 2784635 (alert 54) 8.1.7.4 required
  • 17. Patches Needed
    • Create stage directory for each patch
    • Ftp from oracle
    • Patches require patches
      • To apply some of these security patches
        • You must be at 8.1.7.4
        • Patch to 8.1.7.4 before applying these patches
    • Note that I had no plan to patch to 8.1.7.4
      • One patch leads to other patches…
  • 18. Getting Patches
    • Metalink
      • Patches
      • Simple Search
        • Enter specific patch number
        • Specify platform
      • Download
        • Patch zip file
        • Readme file
  • 19. Getting Patches
    • What is patch number for 8.1.7.4 patch?
      • Should be simple to find…
      • Metalink
        • Patches
        • Simple search
          • Product: Oracle Database Family
          • Release: 8.1.7
          • Patch type: Patchset/Minipack
          • Platform: Solaris Sparc 32-bit
          • 24 results
      • Correct patch?
      • 2376472 8.1.7.4 Patch set for oracle data server
  • 20. Patching Process
    • What does it take to apply a patch?
      • Dot release
        • 8.1.7.4
        • Oracle installer (OUI)
      • One-off, security patches
        • README shows steps to install patch
        • Example, security patch
          • Shutdown database, listener
          • Execute patch.sh supplied as part of patch
  • 21. Patching Process
    • Production
      • Must backup ORACLE_HOME
      • Full backup of database
      • Document the db
        • This will come up later
        • I use dbdoc script, see Managing Multiple Databases… on NoCOUG website
      • If patch fails
        • Restore ORACLE_HOME from backup
  • 22. Patching Process
    • Development
      • Full export
      • Document the db
      • If patch fails
        • Reinstall Oracle software
        • Import export
      • However,
        • If practicing prod patching on dev db
        • Should practice the prod db process
  • 23. Fresh Install?
    • Before creating any databases
      • Install Oracle software
      • Apply all needed patches
      • Much quicker
      • Many post patch steps only apply if database already exists
  • 24. Patch Install Steps
    • Can be simple
    • Can be complex
      • Example, 8.1.7.4 patch
      • May require use of Oracle Installer
        • May require use of OUI that is part of the patch
      • Patch may require certain patch level
        • Example, patch can only be applied to 8.1.7.4
    • You must review the README file for each patch
      • Script the steps for each patch
  • 25. Cases
    • 1) OraInventory not in place
    • 2) Installer not in place
    • 3) 64-bit oracle
    • 4) chroot
    • 5) not following instructions
  • 26. Case1 -- OraInventory
    • Existing 8.1.7.0 database
    • Patch to latest security alert
      • At the time, this was security alert 54
      • Downloaded all needed patches
        • 8.1.7.4
      • 2642117 (alert 48)
      • 2642267 (alert 49)
      • 2642439 (alert 50)
      • 2620726 (alert 51)
      • 2784635 (alert 54)
  • 27. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • Review 8.1.7.4 readme
      • Existing database
      • Many post patch tasks
      • Before applying 8.1.7.4
        • Backup db
        • Shutdown db
        • Shutdown listener
  • 28. Case 1 -- OraInventory
      • Script the steps
        • Patch readme file README_8174.html
        • How to install this patch set
        • Steps 6 through 18
          • Oracle Label Security
          • Disabling system triggers
          • Check JIS
          • Catalog.sql, catproc.sql
          • Set 10520 trace
          • Java objects
          • Enable system triggers
          • Recompile invalid objects
  • 29. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • Start installer
      • Installer not installed
      • Find original cpio files from 8.1.7.0 install
      • Run installer (OUI) from there
      • Script inputs for installer
        • File locations
          • Source
          • Destination
          • UNIX group name
  • 30. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • And now?
      • Dependencies
      • There are no patches that need to be applied from the patch set Oracle 8i 8.1.7.4.0
    • Huh?
    • Off to Metalink
      • Doc ID 115236.1
      • OraInventory is missing
  • 31. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • What is OraInventory?
      • Documents exactly what was installed
      • Created as part of software installation
      • Created by the installer
    • What does it do?
      • When installing a patch
      • Installer checks OraInventory
      • Verifies that patch should be applied
        • Example, 8.1.7.4 patch on 8.1.7.0 Oracle_home
  • 32. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • Where does it live?
      • Installer creates in Oracle_base
        • (my experience)
    • What happened here?
      • oraInventory didn’t exist
      • Installer couldn’t tell what had been installed
      • Installer decided it couldn’t install anything
        • No inventory, can’t apply any patches
  • 33. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • Ok, but what caused this?
      • To save time, copy existing oracle installation
        • Tar up oracle_home
        • Move to new machine
        • Untar
      • Lovingly referred to as “Tar&Toss”
        • my manager came up with that
      • This isn’t supported by Oracle
      • This saves time initially
        • Wastes time later
  • 34. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • OK, that’s weird, but what now?
    • How to re-create the inventory?
      • There is only one way
      • Reinstall the Oracle software
      • In this case, a full reinstall of 8.1.7.0
    • Reinstall will over-write oracle_home
      • Anything you can’t lose?
        • Tnsnames.ora, password file
      • Don’t place anything of your own in oracle_home
      • Document your database before patching
  • 35. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • How to be sure
      • Nothing unique in oracle_home?
      • Can’t be sure
      • Make backup
    • I had enough disk space
      • Copy oracle_home to another filesystem
    • Now need to reinstall 8.1.7.0
      • Disk space to stage the software?
  • 36. Case 1 -- OraInventory
    • After software reinstalled
      • Install 8.1.7.4 patch
        • Works this time!
      • Apply the 5 patches in order
      • Startup the database
      • Test application
      • Everyone is happy!
    • But this took much longer than we planned
  • 37. Case 2 -- Installer Not In Place
    • Applying same patches to another machine
      • Installer not installed
      • Base software (8.1.7.0) not on disk
      • Not enough disk space for software CD image
      • Have to free up disk space just to
        • Copy the CD image to get the installer on disk
      • Proceed with the patching process
    • Saves disk space in the short term
      • Wastes time later
  • 38. Case 3 - 64-bit Oracle
    • Different scenario
      • No security patches
      • Simple patch from 8.1.7.0 to 8.1.7.4
    • No problem
      • Stage the 8.1.7.4 patch to the db machine
      • Downtime for patching is almost here
      • Reviewing dbdoc output
        • Select * from v$version shows
        • Oracle 8i … - 64bit Production
  • 39. Case 3 - 64-bit Oracle
    • 64-bit Oracle?
      • This is a development db
      • Production is 32-bit
      • I assumed dev would be 32-bit
      • I staged the 32-bit 8.1.7.4 patch
    • 20 minutes to
      • Download 64-bit patch from Oracle web site
      • Check README for 64-bit, same as 32-bit
      • Calm down
    • No one can explain why…
  • 40. Case 4 -- chroot
    • Yet another environment
      • All set to apply patches
      • Shutdown database, listener
      • Start installer
        • Can’t display OUI GUI back to my workstation
    • Chroot
      • Removes many OS libraries
      • Have to manually identify which are needed
      • Copy from another system
  • 41. Case 5 – Complete the Patch
    • User calls
      • Dev db doesn’t work
      • Error is ‘blah blah blah’
    • Metalink
      • Error seen when patch partially applied
    • Call user
      • “Did you apply a patch?”
      • “Yes”
      • “Did you complete all the post patch steps?”
      • “Oh, umh, ok, thanks!”
      • Didn’t hear from the user again
  • 42. Lessons Learned
    • Verify
      • OraInventory exists
        • If not, enough disk space to backup oracle_home?
      • Installer is installed
        • If not, disk space for source CDs?
      • Correct patch(es)
        • 32-bit versus 64-bit
      • Installer GUI can display to your workstation
      • Finish all patch install steps
        • Document this
  • 43. Lessons Learned
    • For a new install
      • Oracle_home not a top level directory
      • Oracle_base /u01/app/oracle
      • Oracle_home $ORACLE_BASE/product/<version>
      • Oracle_home /u01/app/oracle/product/8.1.7.0
      • Install the installer
    • A 10 minute patch can become a 5 hour mess
    • Verify things before the scheduled patch time
    • Document all the steps
      • Takes time the first time
      • Saves time on all the other servers
      • Saves time when you have to redo things